saamyavaad

saamyavaad, kaarl maarks aur fredarik engels dvaara pratipaadit tatha saamyavaadi ghoshanaapatr mein varnit samaajavaad ki charam parinti hai. saamyavaad, saamaajik-raajaneetik darshan ke antargat ek aisi vichaaradhaara ke roop mein varnit hai, jismein sanrachanaatmak star par ek samataamoolak vargaviheen samaaj ki sthaapana ki jaaegi. aitihaasik aur aarthik varchasv ke pratimaan dhvast kar utpaadan ke saadhanon par samooche samaaj ka svaamitv hoga. adhikaar aur kartavya mein aatmaarpit saamudaayik saamanyajasya sthaapit hoga. svatantrata aur samaanata ke saamaajik raajaneetik aadarsh ek doosare ke poorak siddh honge. nyaaya se koi vanchit naheen hoga aur maanavata ek maatr jaati hogi. shram ki sanskruti sarvashreshth aur takaneek ka star sarvochch hoga. saamyavaad siddhaantat: araajakata ka poshak hain jahaaain raajya ki aavashyakta samaapt ho jaati hai. moolat: yeh vichaar samaajavaad ki unnat avastha ko abhivyakt karta hai. jahaaain samaajavaad mein kartavya aur adhikaar ke vitran ko 'harek se apni kshamataanusaar, harek ko kaaryaanusaar' (From each according to her/his ability, to each according to her/his work) ke sootr se niyamit kiya jaata hai, vaheen saamyavaad mein 'harek se kshamataanusaar, harek ko aavashyakataanusaar' (From each according to her/his ability, to each according to her/his need) siddhaant ka laagoo kiya jaata hai. saamyavaad niji sampatti ka poorn pratishedh karta hai.[1]

anukram

itihaas

pratham vishvayuddh, samaajavaadi aandolan ke liye ek mahatvapoorn ghatna thi. jahaaain ek or to iske aarambh hote hi samaajavaadi aandolan aur unka antararaashtreeya sangathan praaya: chhinn-bhinn ho gaya vaheen doosari or iske beech roos mein bolshevik kraanti (October-nanvabar 1917) hui aur sansaar mein pratham safal samaajavaadi raajya ki neenv padi jiska sansaar ke samaajavaadi aandolanon par gahra asar pada. pratham mahaayuddh ke poorv samaajavaadi dalon ka mat tha ki poonjeevaadi vyavastha hi yuddhon ke liye uttaradaayi hai aur yadi vishvayuddh aarambh hua to pratyek samaajavaadi dal ka kartavya hona chaahiye ki vah apni pooainjeevaadi sarkaar ki yuddhaneeti ka virodh kare aur gruhayuddh dvaara samaajavaad ki sthaapana ke liye prayatnasheel ho. parantu jyon hi yuddh aarambh hua, roos aur Italy ke samaajavaadi dalon ko chhodkar shesh sab dalon ke bahumat ne apni sarkaaron ki neeti ka samarthan kiya. samaajavaadiyon ke keval ek naganya alpamat ne hi yuddh ka virodh kiya aur aage chalakar inmein se kuchh vlaadimeer lenin aur uske saamyavaadi antararaashtreeya sangathan ke samarthak bane. parantu vibhinn deshon ke samaajavaadi aandolanon ki paraspar virodhi yuddhaneeti ke kaaran unka aikya khatm ho gaya.

roos mein saamyavaad

bolshevik dal roos ke kai samaajavaadi dalon mein se ek tha. 1917 ki vishesh paristhitiyon mein isko safalta praapt hui. roosi samaajavaad ki paarshvabhoomi anya Europeeya samaajavaadon ki sthiti se bhinn thi. roosi saamraajya Europe ke agrani deshon se udyog dhandhon mein pichhda hua tha, at: yahaaain majadoor varg bahusankhyak aur adhik prabhaavashaali na ho saka. yahaaain lokatantraatmak shaasan aur vyaktigat svaadheenataaon ka bhi abhaav tha. roosi buddhijeevi aur madhyamavarg inke liye ichhuk tha par jaarashaahi damananeeti ke kaaran inki praapti ka samvaidhaanik maarg avaruddhapraaya tha. in paristhitiyon se prabhaavit vahaaain ke pratham samaajavaadi roos ke graameen kamyoon (samudaaya) ko apne vichaaron ka aadhaar maanate the tatha kraantikaari maarg dvaara jaarashaahi ka naash lokatantravaad ki safalta ke liye pratham sopaan samajhte the. un vichaarakon mein harjen (Herzen), laavarov (Lavrov), charneeshevsaki (Chernishevrzky) aur baakunin (Bakunin) mukhya hain. inse prabhaavit hokar anek buddhijeevi kraanti ki or agrasar hue. is prakaar narodanik (Narodnik) jan aandolan ki neenv padi tatha naarodanya volya (Narodnya Volya, janechha) sangathan bana. san 1901 mein iska naam saamaajik kraantikaari party (Social Revolutionary Party) rakha gaya. san 1917 ki bolshevik kraanti ke samay tak yeh roos ka sabse bada samaajavaadi dal tha, parantu iska prabhaavakshetr adhikaanshat: graameen janta thi. iske vaam paksh ne bolshevik kraanti ka samarthan kiya.

doosari samaajavaadi vichaaradhaara, jismein bolshevik dal bhi sammilit tha, roosi saamaajik janavaadi majadoor party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, R. S. D. L. P.) ke naam se prasiddh hai. iska prabhaav mukhyat: naagrik majadoor varg mein tha. roos mein udyog kam the, parantu bade paimaane ke the aur apekshaya adhik majadooron ko naukar rakhate the. at: in majadooron mein raajaneetik chetna aur sangathan adhik tha. lokatantr ke abhaav mein majadooron ka sangharsh karna kathin tha, isliye majadoor varg kraantikaari prabhaav mein aa gaya aur Germany jaisi paristhitiyon ke kaaran yahaaain ke adhikaansh majadoor neta bhi maarksavaadi tatha Germany ke saamaajik lokatantravaadi dal se prabhaavit hue. san 1890 ke lagbhag eksalarod (Axelrod) aur plekhaanov (Plekhanov) ne peetarsavarg (baad mein leningraad) mein pratham majadoor samooh sthaapit kiye jo aage chalakar 1898 mein roosi saamaajik lokatantravaadi majadoor party ke aadhaar bane.

roosi saamaajik lokatantravaadi majadoor party ke neta kattar maarksavaadi the, at: unhonne punaraavruttivaad ko asveekaar kiya aur maarksavaad ko viksit kar roosi paristhitiyon mein laagoo kiya. majadooron ki rahan sahan ke star mein unnati hui thi, is satya ko na maanana kathin tha, parantu plekhaanov ne siddh kiya ki nai masheenon ke prayog aur majadoori mein apekshaya vruddhi na hone ke kaaran pooainjeevaadi shoshan ki dar badhti ja rahi hai. bukhaarin (Bukharim) ka tark tha ki saamraajyavaadi desh upaniveshon ke shoshan dvaara apne shramajeevi varg ko santusht rakh paate hain. traataski aadi ne kaha ki pooainjeevaadi ka sankat sarvavyaapi ho gaya hai aur is sthiti mein yeh sambhav hai ki kraanti pashchim Europe ke agrani deshon mein na hokar apekshaakrut pichhde deshon mein, jahaaain samraajyavaadi kadi sabse kamjor hai, vahaaain ho. kuchh vichaarakon ne sarvapratham samaajavaadi kraanti ka sthaan roos ko batalaaya. traataski aur lenin ka mat tha ki samaajavaadi kraanti usi samay safal ho sakti hai jab vah kai deshon mein ek saath faile, sthaayi kraanti ke bina keval ek desh mein samaajavaad ki sthaapana kathin hai. baad mein lenin aur staalin ne is siddhaant mein sanshodhan kar ekadesheeya samaajavaad ke aadhaar par soviyt satta ka nirmaan kiya. nikolaai lenin ne uparyukt vichaaron ka samanvaya karke bolshevik dal ka sangathan aur October (November) kraanti ka netrutv kiya.

san 1903 ki London conference mein roosi saamaajik lokatantravaadi majadoor dal ne apne samaajavaadi aadarsh ko spasht kiya, parantu isi varg dal ke andar do vichaaradhaaraaeain saamane aain aur kaalaantar mein unhonne do dalon ka roop dhaaran kiya. is conference mein utpaadan ke saadhanon ke raashtreeyakaran, jameendaari unmoolan, upaniveshon ka aatmanirmaan ka adhikaar, dhyeya ki praapti ka kraantikaari maarg aur kraanti ke baad sarvahaara ki taanaashaahi-is neeti ko sveekaar kiya gaya, parantu dal ke sangathan ke sambandh mein netaaon mein matabhed ho gaya. prashn tha ki dal ki sadasyata keval kaaryakartaaon tak seemit ho athva aadarshon ko sveekaar karanevaala pratyek vyakti usaka adhikaari ho aur kya keindreeya samiti ko dal ki shaakhaaon ke bhang karne aur unke sthaan mein nai shaakhaaon ki niyukti karne ka adhikaar ho? lenin ek fauji anushaasanavaale suvyavasthit dal ke paksh mein tha aur conference mein usaka bahumat tha, at: is dhaara ka naam bolshevik (bahumat) pada aur doosari dhaara menshevik (alpamat) kahalaai. aage chalakar in dalon ke beech aur bhi matabhed upasthit hue. meinshevik dal pehle jaarashaahi ka ant ka pooainjeevaadi lokatantraatmak kraanti karna chaahata tha aur is kraanti mein vah pooainjeevaadi dalon ke vaam paksh se sahayog karna chaahata tha, parantu 1905 ki kraanti ke baad lenin uske saathi is nishkarsh par pahunche ki samaajavaadi kraanti ke bhaya ke kaaran poonjeevaad pratikriyaavaadi ho gaya hai, at: vah pooainjeevaadi lokatantraatmak kraanti ka netrutv karne mein bhi asamarth hai. isliye is kraanti ka netrutv bhi keval sarvahaara varg hi kar sakta hai aur is kraanti ko sarvahaara kraanti ke saath milaakar jaarashaahi ke baad ekdam samaajavaad ki sthaapana sambhav hai. kraanti mein kisaanon ka sahayog praapt karne ke liye lenin saamantavaadi jameen ko kisaanon mein baaaintane ke paksh mein tha, meinshevik usaka turant samaajeekaran karna chaahate the. bolshevik dal ne pratham mahaayuddh ka virodh kiya aur samaajavaad ki sthaapana ke liye gruhayuddh ka naara diya. yuddh se trust janta aur visheshakar roosi sainikon ne is neeti ka svaagat kiya, parantu meinshevikon ne yuddh ka virodh naheen kiya aur February March (1917) ki kraanti ke baad unhonne sarkaar mein shaamil hokar yuddh jaari rakha. san 1917 ki October kraanti mein lenin ke vichaaron aur bolashevik sangathan ki vijay hui.

san 1871 ki peris kamyoon ke baad san 1917 mein pratham sthaayi samaajavaadi raajya-soviyt samaajavaadi ganaraajya sangh ki sthaapana hui. is raajya mein utpaadan ke saadhanon-udyog dhandhe, vyaapaar, vinimay, bhoomi aadi-ka raashtreeyakaran kiya gaya aur shoshak varg ki aarthik tatha raajaneetik shakti ka ant kar diya gaya. desh ke andar, aarambh mein kisaan, majadoor aur sainikon ke pratinidhiyon ki mileejuli soviyton ke haath mein shaasan tha, parantu san 1936 ke samvidhaan ke anusaar ek dvisdanaatmak sansad ki sthaapana hui. iske oopari sadan ka chunaav soviyt desh ke vibhinn ganaraajyon dvaara hota hai tatha nimn sadan ke sadasya kshetreeya nirvaachan kshetron dvaara chune jaate hain. parantu soviyt desh ekadaleeya raajya hain, vahaaain raajakeeya shakti saamyavaadi dal ke haath mein hai. kisi doosare dal ko raajaneeti mein bhaag lene ka adhikaar naheen.

October kraanti ke baad bolshevik dal ne apna naam saamyavaadi dal rakha aur san 1919 mein usane ek doosra saamyavaadi ghoshanaapatr (pratham ghoshanaapatr maakrs aur engils ne san 1847-48 mein likha tha) prakaashit kiya jiske aadhaar par ek nae antararaashtreeya aandolan-saamyavaadi antararaashtreeya-ki sthaapana hui aur usaki sahaayata se vibhinn deshon mein saamyavaad ka prachaar aarambh hua.

lenin ke vichaaron ko saamyavaad ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai, parantu lenin ke baad Joseph staalin (Joseph Stalin) maaotsetung (Mao Tse tung) nikeeta khrishchov (Nikita Khrushchov) tatha vibhinn deshon ke saamyavaadi netaaon ne in vichaaron ki vyaakhya aur unka vikaas kiya hai. ye sabhi vichaar saamyavaad ki koti mein aate hain. staalin ke vichaaron mein usaka upaniveshon ko aatmanirnaya ka adhikaar, niyojit arthavyavastha arthaat panchavarsheeya aadi yojanaaeain tatha saamoohik aur raajakeeya svaamitv mein kheti mukhya hain.

samaajavaad (saamyavaad) ka prasaar aur kathinaaiyaaain

dviteeya mahaayuddh ke beech aur uske baad soviyt senaaon ki safalta tatha anya antararaashtreeya paristhitiyon ke kaaran sansaar mein samaajavaad (saamyavaad sahit) ka prabhaav badha. yuddh ka ant hone tak na keval poorvi Europe soviyt prabhaavakshetr ban gaya, varan san 1948 E. tak inmein se adhikaansh deshon mein saamyavaadi raajya sthaapit ho gaye. Asia mein bhi cheen jaise vishaal desh mein saamyavaad safal hua aur soviyt tatha janavaadi cheeni ganaraajya ke prabhaav mein uttari Asia aur uttari viytanaam ke shaasan saamyavaadi prabhaav mein aa gaye. saamyavaad ka asar sabhi deshon mein badha. France, Italy aur hindaeshiya jaise deshon mein shaktishaali saamyavaadi dal hain. parantu saamyavaad ke prasaar ne us aandolan ke saamane kai saiddhaantik aur vyaavahaarik kathinaaiyaaain upasthit ki hain-

(1) maarksavaad leninvaad ki dhaarana thi ki saamyavaadi sthaapana kraanti dvaara hi sambhav hai parantu yoogoslaaviya aur albaaniya ko chhod kar shesh poorveeya Europe mein yuddhakaal mein saamyavaadi dalon ka astitv naheen ke baraabar tha aur baad mein bhi chekoslovaakiya ko chhod kadaachit kisi bhi desh mein inka bahumat naheen tha. poorvi Europe aur uttari Korea mein se adhikaansh deshon mein saamyavaadi shaasanon ki sthaapana kraanti dvaara naheen, soviyt prabhaav dvaara hui.
(2) doosari samasya saamyavaadi aandolan ke netrutv aur saamyavaadi deshon ke paarasparik sambandhon ki thi. saamyavaadi vichaarakon ka saamyavaad ki vishvavyaapakata mein vishvaas hai. jab tak saamyavaad keval ek desh tak seemit tha, saamyavaadi aandolan saadhaaranat: soviyt netrutv ko sveekaar karta raha. us samay bhi maao jaise vichaarakon ka staalin se matabhed tha parantu adhikaanshat: saamyavaadi dal aur neta saamyavaadi antararaashtreeya ke ananya bhakt the. dviteeya mahaayuddh ke baad yeh ekta sambhav na ho saki.

saamyavaadi yoogoslaaviya ka shaasak josip brojovit teeto (Josip Brozovich Tito, 1892) aur uske anya saamyavaadi saathi soviyt netrutv ko chunauti dene mein pratham the. yoogoslaaviya bahut kuchh apne prayatnon se svatantr hua tha at: uske andar svaabhimaan ki bhaavana thi. vah poorv Europe ke anya saamyavaadi deshon ki bhaaainti soviyt prabhaav se ghira hua bhi na tha. yoogoslaav paksh ka kehna tha ki soviyt sarkaar unki audyogik unnati mein baadhak hai tatha unki svatantrata ko seemit karti hai. unke ye laanchhan baad mein satya siddh hue parantu us samay teetovaad ko punaraavruttivaad, traataskeevaad athva saamraajyavaad ka pitthoo kaha gaya. siddhaant ke star par teetovaad ne raashtreeya saamyavaad, shakti ke vikeindreekaran, kisaanon dvaara bhoomi ka niji svaamitv, raajya aur naukarashaahi ke sthaan mein udyogon par majadooron ka niyantran tatha saamyavaadi dal aur desh ke andar apekshaakrut adhik svaadheenata par jor diya. teeto ke in vichaaron ka prabhaav poorvi Europe ke anya saamyavaadi deshon par bhi pada hai.

saamyavaadi deshon ke beech samaanata ki maaaing ko sveekaar karke khrushchov ne teetovaad ko anshat: sveekaar kiya, parantu saath hi usane lenin staalinvaad mein bhi kai mahatvapoorn sanshodhan kiye hain. lenin ka vichaar tha ki jab tak saamraajyavaad ka ant naheen hota sansaar mein yuddh hote raheinge, parantu khrushchov ke anusaar is samay pragati ki shaktiyaaain itni majaboot hain ki vishvayuddh ko roka ja sakta hai aur pooainjeevaadi tatha samaajavaadi vyavasthaaon ke beech shaantimya sahaastitv sambhav hai. vah yeh bhi kehta hai ki in paristhitiyon mein samaajavaad ki sthaapana ka keval kraantikaari maarg hi naheen hai, varan vibhinn deshon mein alag alag saamyavaadi dalon dvaara vikaasavaadi aur shaantimya tareekon se bhi usaki sthaapana sambhav hai.

vishv ke anya deshon mein saamyavaad

vishv ke anya deshon mein saamyavaadi vichaaradhaara par uparyukt vichaar parivartan ka gahra prabhaav pada hai. teeto ke vidroh ke baad poorv Europe ke anya saamyavaadi deshon ne bhi soviyt prabhaav se svatantr hone ka prayatn kiya hai. roosi saamyavaadi khrushchev ke sanshodhanon ko asveekaar karte hain aur soviyt tatha cheen ke beech saiddhaantik hi naheen sainya sangharsh bhi vikt roop dhaaran karta ja raha hai. sansaar ke lagbhag sabhi saamyavaadi dal soviyt aur cheeni vichaaradhaaraaon ke aadhaar par vibhkt hote ja rahe hain kuchh vichaarak raashtreeya saamyavaadi dalon ki saiddhaantik aur sangathanaatmak svatantrata par bhi jor dete hain. is prakaar saamyavaadi vichaaron aur aandolan ki ekta aur antararaashtreeyata ka hraas ho raha hai.

pratham mahaayuddh ke baad saamyavaad ki hi naheen lokatantraatmak samaajavaad ki bhi pragati hui hai. do mahaayuddhon ke beech Britain mein alpakaal ke liye do baar majadoor sarkaarein bani. pratham mahaayuddh ke baad Germany aur aastriya mein samaajavaadi shaasan sthaapit hue; France aur Spain aadi deshon mein samaajavaadi dalon ki shakti badhi. parantu sheegra hi inki pratikriya bhi aarambh hui. san 1922 mein benito musolini ne Italy mein faasist shaasan sthaapit kiya. faasijm majadoor aur samaajavaadi aandolanon ka shatru aur yuddh aur saamraajyavaad ka samarthak hai. vah pooainjeevaadi vyavastha ka ant naheen karta. naatseevaad ke mool siddhaant faasijm se milte julate hain. is vichaaradhaara ka prachaarak edolf hitlar tha. san 1929 ke aarthik sankat ke baad san 1932 mein Germany mein naatsi shaasan sthaapit ho gaya aur baad mein is vichaaradhaara ka prabhaav Spain, aastriya, chekoslovaakiya, Poland aur France aadi deshon mein fail gaya.

dviteeya mahaayuddh ke beech faaseevaadi vichaaron ka hraas tatha samaajavaadi vichaaron aur aandolanon ki pragati hui hai. poorvi Europe ke saamyavaadi shaasanon ke atirikt pashchimi Europe mein kuchh kaal ke liye kai deshon mein samaajavaadi aur saamyavaadi dalon ke sahayog se sammilit shaasan bane. Europe ke kuchh anya deshon jaise (Britain, sveedan, naarvein, Finland) tatha Australia aur New Zealand aadi deshon mein samay samay par samaajavaadi sarkaarein banti rahi hain. is kaal mein Asia, Africa aur laateeni amareeka ke deshon mein bhi samaajavaadi shaasan sthaapit ho chuke hain. inmein cheen, barma, hind Asia, Singapore, Ghana aur kyooba mukhya hain.

sandarbh

  1. raajaneetik siddhaant ki rooparekha, om prakaash gaaba, mayoor peparabaiks, 2010, prushth- 27, ISBN:81-7198-092-9

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