saami bhaashaaeain

praacheen kaal ki saami bhaashaaoain ka failaav

saami bhaashaaeain ya saimaitik bhaashaaeain 27 karod se adhik logon dvaara boli jaane waali bhaashaaoain ka ek bhaasha parivaar hai jo swayam saami-haami bhaasha-parivaar ki ek upashaakha hai. yeh bhaashaaeain madhya poorv, uttar afreeka aur afreeka ke seeng ke kshetron mein boli jaati hain. sab se adhik boli jaane waali saami bhaasha arabi hai, jise 20 karod se adhik log apni maatrubhaasha ke roop mein bolte hain. iske aalaava amhaarik (2.7 karod), tigrinya (67 lakh), ibraani (50 lakh) aur aaraamaaik (22 lakh) kuchh anya prachalit saami bhaashaaeain hain.[1]

saami bhaashaaon ko itihaas mein bahut hi jaldi likhit roop mein dekha gaya tha. san 3000 isaapoorv mein sumer sabhyata dvaara viksit ankan lipi (kyooneefaurm) ka prayog eblaai aur akkaadi bhaashaaoain ke liye aarambh ho gaya jo saami bhaashaaeain theen. saami bhaashaaeain ab ibraani, Syriai, arabi aur geej lipi mein likhi jaati hain. inmein aksar svaron ko prayog naheen kiya jaata kyonki adhiktar saami bhaashaaon mein arth vyanjanon se hi aata hai. hind-Europeeya bhaashaaoain (jaise ki hindi) aur saami bhaashaaon mein ek bada antar yeh hai ki hind-Europeeya bhaashaaon mein jyaadaatar har shabd ki ek jad hoti hai jiske aage-peechhe akshar jodkar usaka arth parivrtit kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye 'likh' jad mein akshar jodkar 'likhaai', 'likho', 'likhna', 'likha', ityaadi bante hain. saami bhaashaaon mein jade aam taur par teen vyanjanon ka samooh hoti hain jinke beech mein svar bharakar unka arth parivrtit kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye arabi mein: kitaab (pustak), kutub (pustakein), kaatib (lekhak), kuttaab (kai lekhak), kataba (usane likha), yaakatuboo (vah likhta hai). ismein k-t-b ke vyanjanon ke beech mein svar badalkar matlab badle ja rahein hain.[2]

anya bhaashaaoain mein

angreji mein "saami bhaashaaoain" ko "saimaitik laingavejij" (Semitic languages) kehte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. An introduction to the languages of the world, Anatole Lyovin, Oxford University Press US, 1997, ISBN 978-0-19-508116-9
  2. Introduction to Arabic Natural Language Processing, Nizar Y. Habash, pp. 42, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2010, ISBN 978-1-59829-795-9, ... the words katab 'to write', kAtib 'writer', maktuwb 'written' and all the words in Figure 4.2 share the root morpheme -- k-t-b 'writing-related' ...