saamaanya aapekshikta

saamaanya aapekshikta siddhaant ya saamaanya saapekshata siddhaant, jise angreji mein "jainairal thiori of railaitiviti" kehte hain, ek vaigyaanik siddhaant hai jo kehta hai ki brahmaand mein kisi bhi vastu ki taraf jo gurutvaakarshan ka khinchaav dekha jaata hai usaka asli kaaran hai ki har vastu apne maan aur aakaar ke anusaar apne ird-gird ke dik-kaal (space-time) mein marod paida kar deti hai. barso ke adhyayan ke baad jab 1916 mein albart aainsteen ne is siddhaant ki ghoshana ki to vigyaan ki duniya mein tahalaka mach gaya aur dhaai-sau saal se kaayam aaijk nyootan dvaara 1687 mein ghoshit brahmaand ka najriya hamesha ke liye ulat diya gaya.[1] bhautik shaastr par iska itna gahra prabhaav pada ki log aadhunik bhautiki (maadarn fijiks) ko shaastreeya bhautiki (klaasikl fijiks) se alag vishay bataane lage aur albart aainsteen ko aadhunik bhautiki ka pita maana jaane laga.

anukram

dik-kaal (space-time)

pruthvi ke gurutvaakarshan ka asli srot dik-kaal ka mudaav hai, theek ek chaadar ke beech mein rakhe ek bhaari gole ki tarah
aainastaain kraus ek aise kvaasar ka naam hai jiske aage ek badi aakaashaganga ek gurutvaakarshak leins ban kar usaki chaar chhaviyaaain dikhaati hai- gaur se dekhne par pata lagta hai ki yeh chaaron vastuen vaastav mein ek hi hain

dik sanskrut ka shabd hai jiska arth hai ird-gird ki jagah. ise angreji mein "space" kehte hain. manushya dik ke teen pahaluon (aayaamon ya dimainashanon) ko bhaap sakane ki kshamata rakhate hain- oopar-neeche, aage-peechhe aur daaeain-baaeain. aam jeevan mein manushya dik mein koi badlaav naheen dekhte. nyootan ki bhautiki kehti thi ki agar antariksh mein do vastueain ek-doosare se ek kilometer door hain aur un donon mein se koi bhi na hile, to ve ek-doosare se ek kilometer door hi raheingi. hamaara roj ka saadhaaran jeevan bhi hamein yahi dikhlaata hai. lekin aainastaain ne kaha ki aisa naheen hai. dik khich aur sikud sakta hai. aisa bhi sambhav hai ki jo do vastueain ek-doosare se ek kilometer door hain ve swayam na hilein, lekin unke beech ka dik kuchh paristhitiyon ke kaaran fail kar sava kilometer ho jaae ya sikud ke pauna kilometer ho jaae.

nyootan ki shaastreeya bhautiki mein yeh kaha jaata tha ki brahmaand mein har jagah samay (kaal) ki raftaar ek hi hai. agar aap ek jagah tik kar baithe hain aur aapka koi mitr prakaash se aadhi gati ki raftaar par das saal ka safr tay kare to, us safr ke baad, aapke bhi das saal gujr chuke honge aur aapke dost ke bhi. lekin aainastaain ne is par bhi kaha ki yeh vishvaas glata​ hai. jab koi cheej gati se chalti hai, uske liye samay dheere ho jaata hai aur vah jitna tej chalti hai, samay utana hi dheere ho jaata hai. aapka mitr agar apne hisaab se das varsh tak roshani se aadhi gati par yaatra kar ke laut aae, to uske to das saal gujreinge lekin aapke saadhe gyaarah saal gujr chuke honge.

aainastaain ne saapekshata siddhaant mein dikhaaya ki vaastav mein dik ke teen aur kaal ka ek milaakar brahmaand mein chaar pahaluon wala dik-kaal hai jisme saari vastuen aur urjaaeain sthit hoteen hain. yeh dik-kaal sthaai naheen hai- na dik bina kisi badlaav ke hota hai aur na yeh zaroori hai ki samay ka bahaav har vastu ke liye ek jaisa ho. dik-kaal ko prabhaavit kar ke use maroda, kheencha aur sikoda ja sakta hai aur aisa hi brahmaand mein hota hai. is siddhaant ke maadhyam se hi samay yaatra ki avadhaarana nirmit hui hai.

manushyon ko dik-kaal mein badlaav kyon naheen prateet hota

dik-kaal mein badlaav har vastu aur har raftaar paida karti hai lekin badi vastuen aur prakaash ke sameep ki raftaarein adhik badlaav paida karti hain. manushyon ka aakaar itna chhota aur usaki raftaar itni dheemi hai ki unhein saapekshata siddhaant ke asar apne jeevan mein nazar hi naheen aate, lekin jab vah brahmaand mein aur cheejon ka gaur se adhyayan karte hain to saapekshata ke chinh kai jagahon par paate hain. jab vastu ka veg prakaash ke veg ka 5% bhi ho jaae, to saapekshata ke siddhaant ke chinh hame dikhaai dene lagte hai.

saapekshata aur gurutvaakarshan

nyootan ka maanana tha ki har vastu mein apni or kheenchne ki ek shakti hoti hai jise usane gurutvaakarshan (greviti) ka naam diya. pruthvi jaisi badi cheej mein yeh gurutvaakarshan bahut adhik hota hai, jisse ham pruthvi se chipke rahate hain aur anaayaas hi ud kar antariksh mein naheen chale jaate. lekin yeh nyootan nahi bata paaye ki gurutvaakarshan bal vaastav mein kis prakaar kaarya karta hai aur kyon kaarya karta hai.

aainastaain ne kaha ki aapekshikta ke siddhaant ke anusaar yeh vichaar ki bhautik vastueain ek doosar ko aakarshit karti hain, ek bhram hai, jo prakruti sambandhi galat yaaaintrik dhaaranaaon ke kaaran paida hua hai. unhonne kaha ki pruthvi badi hai aur usaki vajah se uske ird-gird ka dik-kaal mud gaya hai aur apne oopar tah ho gaya hai. ham is khiche-mude dik-kaal mein rahate hain aur is mudn ki vajah se pruthvi ke kreeb dhakele jaate hain. iski tulana ek chaadar se ki ja sakti hai jiske chaar kono ko chaar logon ne kheench ke pakada ho. ab is chaadar ke beech mein ek bhaari gola rakh diya jaae, to chaadar beech se baith jaaegi, yaani uske soot mein beech mein mudn paida ho jaaegi. ab agar ek halaki geind ham chaadar ke kone par rakhe to vah ludk kar bade gole ki taraf jaaegi. aainastaain ne kaha ki koi anaadi aadmi yeh dekh kar kah sakta hai ki chhoti geind ko bade gole ne kheencha isliye geind uske paas gayi. lekin asli vajah thi ki geind jameen ki taraf jaana chaahati thi aur gole ne chaadar mein kuchh aisi mudn paida ki ki geind uske paas chali gayi. isi tarah se unhonne kaha ki yeh ek mithya hai ki gurutvaakarshan kisi aakarshan ki vajah se hota hai. gurutvaakarshan ki asli vajah hai ki har vastu jo antariksh mein chal rahi hoti hai, vah dik ke aisi mudn ke prabhaav mein aakar kisi badi cheej ki or chalne lagti hai.

vastut: gurutvaakarshan jadta ka ek bhaag maatr hai, taare aur grahon ki gatividhiyaaain, unke svabhaavagat jadtv (inarshiya) se utpann hoteen hain aur unka maarg dik-kaal-satati (space-time-kauntinuam) ke vrutteeya tatvon par nirbhar karta hai. jis prakaar chumbak ke chaaron or chunbakeeya kshetr hota hai usi prakaar khagoleeya vastu apne chaaron or ke aakaash mein ek kshetr bikherati hai. jis tarah chunbakeeya kshetr mein ek lohe ke tukade ki gatividhi kshetr ki banaavat se nirdeshit hoti hai usi tarah gurutveeya kshetr mein kisi vastu ka maarg us kshetr ki jyaamitik avastha se nirdhaarit hota hai.

aainstaain ka gurutvaakarshan sambandhi niyam dikkaal satati ke kshetreeya tatvon ki jaankaari deta hai. mukhyat: is niyam ka ek bhaag gurutvaakarshanajanya vastu ke chaaron or ke kshetr ke dhaanche se sambandh vyakt karta hai.

gurutvaakarshan aur prakaash

ek galaxy ke aage ek bada black hol (kaala chhidr) hai - jaise-jaise galaxy uske peechhe se niklati hai, usaka prakaash black hol ke gurutvaakarshak leins ke prabhaav se mudta hai

aainastaain ke is sanasani faila dene vaale siddhaant ka ek bahut bada pramaan roshani par gurutvaakarshan ka asar dekhne se aaya. nyootan ki bhautiki mein siddhaant tha ki do vastuen ek-doosare ko donon ke dravyamaan (angreji mein "maas") ke anusaar kheenchati hain. lekin prakaash ka to dravyamaan hota hi naheen, yaani shoonya hota hai. to nyootan ke mutaabik jis cheej ka koi dravyamaan ya vajn hi naheen usaka kisi doosari vastu ke gurutvaakarshan se khichne ka savaal hi naheen banta chaahe doosari vastu kitni bhi badi kyon na ho. prakaash hamesha ek seedhi lakeer mein chalta hi rahata hai. lekin agar aainastaain sahi hai aur kisi badi vastu (jaise ki grah ya taara) ki vajah se dik hi mud jaae, to roshani bhi dik ke mudne ke saath mud jaani chaahiye. yaani brahmaand mein sthit badi vastuon ko leins ka kaam karna chaahiye- jis tarah chashme, doorabeen ya sookshmabeen ka leins prakaash modta hai usi tarah taaron aur grahon ko bhi modna chaahiye.

1924 mein ek oraist khvolasan naam ke roosi bhautikvijnyaaani ne aainastaain ke saapekshata siddhaant ko samajhakar bhavishyavaani ki ki aise gurutvaakarshak leins brahmaand mein zaroor honge. pachapan saal baad, 1979 mein pehli dafa yeh cheej dekhi gayi jab tvin kvaasar naam ki vastu ki ek ke bajaae do-do chhaviyaaain dekhi gayi. uske baad kaafi door-daraaj vastuon ki aisi chhaviyaaain dekhi ja chuki hain jinmein un vastuon aur pruthvi ke beech koi bahut badi anya vastu rakhi ho jo pehli vastu se aa rahi prakaash ki kirnon par leinson ka kaam kare aur usaki chhavi ko ya to marod de ya aasmaan mein usaki ek se zyaada chhavi dikhaae.

inhein bhi dekhe

sandarbh