saaiberiya

saaiberiya ka naksha (gaadhe laal rang mein saaiberiya naam ka sanghi raajya hai, lekin laal aur naarangi rang vaale saare ilaake saaiberiya ka hissa maane jaate hain
garmi ke mausam mein dakshini saaiberiya mein jagah-jagah par jheelein aur hariyaali nazar aati hai
yaakutsk shahar mein 17vi shataabdi mein bana ek roosi sainik-gruh

saaiberiya (roosi: Сaaиaaбaaиaaрaaь, sibir) ek vishaal aur vistrut bhookshetr hai jismein lagbhag samoocha uttar Asia samaaya hua hai. yeh roos ka madhya aur poorvi bhaag hai. san 1991 tak yeh soviyt sangh ka bhaag hua karta tha. saaiberiya ka kshetrafal 131 lakh varg kimi hai. tulana ke liye poore Bhaarat ka kshetrafal 32.8 lakh varg kimi hai, yaani saaiberiya Bhaarat se kreeb chaar guna hai. fir bhi saaiberiya ka mausam aur bhoosthiti itni sakht hai ke yahaaain keval 4 karod log rahate hain, jo 2011 mein keval udeesa raajya ki aabaadi thi.

yooreshiya ka adhiktar staip (maidaani ghaasavaala) ilaaka saaiberiya mein aata hai. saaiberiya pashchim mein yooraal pahaadon se shuroo hokar poorv mein prashaant mahaasaagar tak aur uttar mein uttaradhruveeya mahaasaagar (aarkatik mahaasaagar) tak faila hua hai. dakshin mein iski seemaaeain kaajaakstaan, mangoliya aur cheen se lagti hain.

anukram

itihaas

lagbhag 25 se 50 karod varsh pehle (yaani pruthvi par manushyon ke ubharane se bahut pehle), saaiberiya ke bahut se kshetr mein bhayankar jvaalaamukheeya visfot hue jo kreeb 10 lakh saal tak chalte rahe. maana jaata hai ke inki vajah se pruthvi par maujood 90% jeevon ki naslein maari gayi.[1] saaiberiya ke pathaar ki jameen inhi visfoton mein ugale gaye laava se bani hui hai.

saaiberiya mein maanav upasthiti ke chinh lagbhag 40,000 saal puraane hain. samay ke saath yahaaain bahut si jaatiyaaain bas gayi ya utpann hui, jinmein yainait, nainait, eveink, hoon, skithi aur uigur shaamil hain. 13vi sadi mein saaiberiya par mangol kbja ho gaya aur 14vi sadi mein ek svatantr saaiberiyaai saltanat sthaapit hui. mangolon ke dabaav se bayakaal jheel ke paas basane vaale yaakut log uttar ki or ja kar bas gaye.[2] yahaaain par apne thikaanon se mangol pashchim ki or roos par bhi hamla kiya karte the. 16vi shataabdi mein roos ki shakti badhne lagi aur ve poorv ki or failane lage. pehle vyaapaari aur ikke-dukke sainik saaiberiya pahuainche aur unke peechhe roosi sena ne aakar yahaaain adde aur lakdi ke kile banaane shuroo kar diye. 17vi sadi ke madhya tak roosi niyantran failakar prashaant mahaasaagar tak pahuainch chuka tha. san 1709 mein saaiberiya ki kul roosi nasl ki aabaadi 2,30,000 thi.[3]

19vi shataabdi ke ant tak saaiberiya ek pichhda aur bahut hi kam janasainkhya wala kshetr raha. yahaaain roos ki shaahi sarkaar apne raajanaitik kaidi bheja karti thi, kyonki yahaaain hajaaron meal tak faile barfeele maidaan ko koi bhaga hua kaidi bhi paar naheen kar sakta tha. 1891-1916 ke kaal mein traans-saaiberiyaai relamaarg bana jisne roos ke audyogiki-poorn pashchimi bhaag se saaiberiya ka naata joda. samay ke saath-saath saaiberiya ki aabaadi badhti gayi. yahaaain ka sabse bada aarthik vyavasaaya dharati se dhaatuon, koyala aur anya padaarthon ka nikaalna tha.

soviyt sangh ke jmaane mein yahaaain kaidiyon ko rakhane ke liye bade adde banaae gaye, jinhein "gulaag" kaha jaata tha.[4] anumaan kiya gaya hai ki in gulaagon mein lagbhag 1.4 karod logon ko bheja gaya. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke dauraan khaana kam padne se 5 lakh se adhik kaidiyon ne in gulaagon mein apna dam tod diya.[5] soviyt neeti ke anusaar agar soviyt sangh ke kisi bhaag mein koi raashtriya samudaaya shak ki nazar se dekha jaane lage to kabhi-kabhi poore samudaayon ko desh-nikla dekar saaiberiya bhej diya jaata tha.[6]

mausam

uttari saaiberiya bahut sard kshetr hai aur yahaaain garami ka mausam keval ek maheene rahata hai. saaiberiya ki lagbhag poori aabaadi uske dakshin bhaag mein rahati hai aur traans-saaiberiyaai relamaarg ke paas hi rahati hai. is dakshini bhaag mein sardiyaaain to sakht hoti hain (January ka ausat taapamaan −15°aaseinteegred) lekin kam se kam 4 maheene ka garami ka mausam bhi hota hai jismein achhi fsal ugaai ja sakti hai. July mein ausat taapamaan 16°aaseinteegred aur din ke samay ka taapamaan 20°aaseinteegred se bhi oopar pahuainch jaata hai. yahaaain ki dharati vishesh prakaar ki hoti hai. ise chairnojaim kehte hain, jiska roosi mein arth hai "kaali mitti" aur yeh bahut hi upajaaoo hoti hai.

saaiberiya ke ek prashaasanik vibhaag ka naam saakha ganatantr hai, jismein sthit oymyaakon shahar mein −71.2°aaseinteegred tak ka nyoonatam taapamaan dekha ja chuka hai, jiske aadhaar par ise vishv ka sabse thanda shahar hone ka khitaab praapt hai.

aabaadi

saaiberiya mein janasainkhya ka ausat ghanatv keval 4 vyakti prati varg kilometer hai. tulana ke liye san 2011 ki janaganana mein Bhaarat ke Bihar raajya mein jan-ghanatv 1102 vyakti prati varg kimi tha. yahaaain ke adhiktar log roosi hain, ya yookreniyaai mool ke log hain jinhonne roosi pehchaan apna li hai. saaiberiya mein lagbhag chaar lakh jarman mool ke bhi log hain jinhonne roosi pehchaan apna li hai. saaiberiya roos ka hissa 17vi shataabdi ke baad hi bana tha aur roosi is kshetr mein tab hi daakhil hue the. us se pehle yahaaain bahut si janajaatiyaaain rahati thi, jinke vanshaj abhi bhi yahaaain rahati hain. inmein burayaat, toovaai, yaakoot aur saaiberiyaai tataar log shaamil hain. burayaaton aur yaakuton ki sankhya chaar-chaar lakh se adhik hai. yahaaain kuchh anya aadivaasi jaatiyon ki chhoti aabaadiyaaain bhi rahateen hain, jaise ki ket, eveink, chukachi, korayaak, yukaageer, vagairah.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Yellowstone's Super Sister", Discovery Channel.
  2. "Investigating the effects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts.". Hum Genet. 2006 Oct;120(3):334-53. Epub 2006 Jul 15.
  3. Sean C. Goodlett. "Russia's Expansionist Policies I. The Conquest of Siberia". Falcon.fsc.edu. http://falcon.fsc.edu/sgoodlett/courses/hist1100/lect08.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-15.
  4. "The unknown gulag: the lost world of Stalin's special settlements". Lynne Viola (2007). Oxford University Press US. p.3. ISBN 0-19-518769-5
  5. Zemskov, Gulag, Sociologičaeskije issledovanija, 1991, No. 6, pp. 14-15.
  6. Victims of Stalinism: A Comment. Robert Conquest. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 49, No. 7 (Nov., 1997), pp. 1317-1319:"We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to Gulag 'camps' alone, to which must be added 4-5 million going to Gulag 'colonies', to say nothing of the 3.5 million already in, or sent to, 'labour settlements'. However taken, these are surely 'high' figures."