saabun

tarah-tarah ke sajaavati saabun

saabun uchch anu bhaar vaale kaarbanik vaseeya amlon ke sodiym ya potaishiym lavan hai. mrudu saabun ka sootr C17H35COOK evam kathor saabun ka sootr C17H35COONa hai. saabuneekaran ki kriya mein vanaspati tel ya vasa evam kaastik soda ya kaastik potaash ke jaleeya ghol ko garm karke raasaayanik pratikriya ke dvaara saabun ka nirmaan hota tatha gleesaraal mukt hota hai.

vasa ya vaseeya aml + NaOH ya KOH → saabun + gleesaraal[1]

saadhaaran taapakram par saabun naram thos evam avaashpasheel padaarth hai. yeh kaarbanik mishran jal mein ghulakar jhaag utpann karta hai. iska jaleeya ghol kshaareeya hota hai jo laal litmas ko neela kar deta hai.

anukram

parichay

ek aam saabun (sodiym stiaret) ki sanrachana ke do chitr ; donon chitr samatulya hain.

saabun, basa amlon ke jalavileya lavan hain. aisa vasa amlon mein 6 se 22 kaarban parmaanu rah sakte hain. saadhaaranataya vasa amlon se saabun naheen taiyaar hota. vasa amlon ke glisraaid prakruti mein tel aur vasa ke roop mein paae jaate hain. in glisraaidon se hi daahak soda ke saath dvik apaghatan se sansaar ka adhikaansh saabun taiyaar hota hai. saabun ke nirmaan mein upajaat ke roop mein glisreen praapt hota hai jo bada upayogi padaarth hai.

utkrusht koti ke shuddh saabun banaan ke do kram hain: ek kram mein tel aur vasa ka jal apaghat hota hai jisse glisreen aur vasa aml praapt hote hain. aasavan se vasa amlon ka shodhan ho sakta hai. doosare kram mein vasa amlon ko kshaaron se udaaseen karte hain. kathor saabun ke liye soda kshaar aur mulaayam saabun ke liye potaish kshaar istemaal karte hain.

saabun kapde dhone evam nahaate samay shareer ki safaai mein prayukt hota hai. aitihaasik roop se yeh thos ya drav ke roop mein upalabdh hai. aajkal saabun ka sthaan anya safaai karne vaale utpaadon ne liya hai, jaise sanshleshit ditrjeint aadi. sodiym saabun kada hota hai isliye kapda dhone ke liye iska upayog hota hai evam potaishiym saabun mulaayam hota hai isliye iska upayog shareer dhone ke liye, tvacha ko mulaayam rakhane evam daadhi banaane mein hota hai. kaarbolik saabun ka upayog tvacha rogon ke ilaaj mein tatha jeevaanunaashak ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. ismein 0.5 pratishat fenaal hota hai, ise aushadheeya saabun bhi kehte hain. salfar yukt saabun ka upayog bhi tvacha rogon mein kiya jaata hai. elyoomeeniym saabun ka upayog vaatar proofing mein hota hai.[2]

british shaasan ke dauraan England ke leevar brothers ne Bhaarat mein pehli baar aadhunik saabun pesh karne ka jokhim uthaaya. company ne saabun aayaat kiye aur yahaan unki maarketing ki. haalaanki North vest sop company pehli aisi company thi jisne 1897 mein yahaan kaarkhaana lagaaya. saabun ki kaamayaabi ki ek aham kadi mein jamashedaji tata ne 1918 mein Kerala ke kochchi mein oke kokonat Oil mils khareedi aur desh ki pehli svadeshi saabun nirmaan ikaai sthaapit ki.[3] iska naam badalkar tata Oil mils company kar diya gaya aur uske pehle braanded saabun baajaar mein 1930 ki shuruaat mein dikhne lage. 1937 ke kareeb saabun dhani varg ki jaroorat ban gaya.

saabun ke liye kachche maal

badi maatra mein saabun banaane mein tel aur vasa istemaal hote hain. telon mein mahuaa, gari, mooaingafali, taad, taad guddi, binaule, teesi, jaitoon tatha soyaabeen ke tel, aur jaantav tailon tatha vasa mein machhali evam hvel ki charabi aur haddi ke greej (grease) adhik mahatva ke hain. in telon aur vasa ke atirikt rojin bhi istemaal hota hai.

adhikaansh saabun ek tel se naheen bante, yadyapi kuchh tel aise hain jinse saabun ban sakta hai. achhe saabun ke liye kai telon athva telon aur charabi ko milaakar istemaal karte hain. bhinn-bhinn kaamon ke liye bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke saabun bante hain. dhulaai ke liye saabun sasta hona chaahiye. nahaane wala saabun mahanga bhi rah sakta hai. telon ke vasa amlon ke taaitar, telon ke aayodeen maan, saabuneekaran maan aur rang mahatva ke hain. taaitar ke saabun ki vileyata ka, aayodeen maan se telon ki asantrupti ka aur saabuneekaran maan se vasa amlon ke anubhaar ka pata lagta hai aur kuchh ke liye ooainche taaitar wala. asantrupt vasa amlon wala saabun rakhane se saabun mein se pootigandh aati hai. kam anubhaar vaale amlon ke saabun chamade par mulaayam naheen hote. kuchh pramukh telon aur vasaaon ke aaainkade is prakaar hain:

tel taaitar bindu (seinlsiys) saabuneekaran maan aayodeen maan
naariyl 22-25 258-266 9
taadguddi 20-25 252-264 12
taad 35-45 205-206 43
jaitoon 17-26 200 86-90
mooaingafali 29-32 201-206 96-103
binaula 32-35 202-208 111-115
teesi 26 197 179-209
haddi greej 39-41 200 56-57
go-charbi 38-48 198 41-43

tel ke rang par hi saabun ka rang nirbhar karta hai. safed saabun ke liye tel aur rang ki safaai nitaant aavashyak hai. tel ki safaai tel mein thoda sodiym haaidrauksaait ka vilyan daalkar garam karne se hoti hai. tel ke rang ki safaai tel ko vaayu ke bulabule aur bhaap paarit kar garam karne se athva sakriyit sarandhr fular mitti ke saath garam kar chhaanane se hoti hai. saabun mein rojin ke aml ka sodiym lavan banta hai. yeh saabun sa hi kaam karta hai. rojin ki maatra 25 pratishat se adhik naheen rahani chaahiye. saamaanya saabun mein yeh maatra praaya: 5 pratishat rahati hai. saabun ke choorn mein rojin naheen rahata. rojin se saabun mein pootigandh naheen aati. saabun ko mulaayam athva jald ghulane wala aur chipkane wala banaane ke liye usamein thoda amoniya ya traai-ithenolaimin mila dete hain. hajaamat banaane mein prayukt hone vaale saabun mein uparyukt raasaayanik dravyon ko avashya daalte hain.

saabun ka nirmaan

saabun banaane ke liye tel ya vasa ko daahak soda (kaastik soda) ke vilyan ke saath milaakar bade-bade kadaahon ya ketali mein ubaalate hain. kadaahe bhinn-bhinn aakaar ke ho sakte hain. saadhaaranataya 10 se 150 tan jaladhaarita ke oordhvaadhaar silindar mrudu ispaat ke bane hote hain. ye bhaapakundali se garam kiye jaate hain. dhaarita ke keval 1/3 hi tel ya vasa se bhara jaata hai.

kadaahe mein tel aur kshaar milaane aur garam karne ke tareeke bhinn-bhinn kaarkhaanon mein bhinn-bhinn ho sakte hain. kaheen-kaheen kadaahe me tel rakhakar garam kar usamein soda draav daalte hain. kaheen-kaheen ek or se tel le aate aur doosari or soda vilyan le aakar garam karte hain. praaya: 8 ghante tak donon ko joron se ubaalate hain. adhikaansh tel saabun ban jaata hai aur glisreen unmukt hota hai. ab kadaahein mein namak daalkar saabun ka lavanan (salting) kar nithrane ko chhod dete hain. saabun oopari tal par aur jaleeya draav nichle tal par alag-alag ho jaata hai. nichle tal ke draav mein glisreen ko nikaal lete hain. saabun mein kshaar ka saandr vilyan (8 se 12 pratishat) daalkar teen ghante tak fir garam karte hain. ise saabuneekaran paripoorn ho jaata hai. saabun ko fir paani se dhokar 2 se 3 ghante ubaalakar thiraane ke liye chhod dete hain. 36 se 72 ghante rakhakar oopar ke svachh chikne saabun ko nikaal lete hain. aise saabun mein praaya: 33 pratishat paani rahata hai. yadi saabun ka rang kuchh halka karna ho, to thoda sodiym haaidrosalfaait daal dete hain.

is prakaar saabun taiyaar karne mein 5 se 10 din lag sakte hain. 24 ghante mein saabun taiyaar ho jaae aisi vidhi bhi ab maaloom hai. ismein tel ya vasa ko ooainche taap par jal apaghatit kar vasa aml praapt karte aur usako fir sodiym haaidrauksaaid se upachaarit kar saabun banaate hain. saabun ko jaleeya vilyan se pruthak karne mein apakeinditr (sentreefyooj) ka bhi upayog hua hai. aaj thandi vidhi se bhi thoda garam kar soda vilyan ke saath upachaarit kar saabun taiyaar hota hai. aise tel mein kuchh asaabuneekrut tel rah jaata hai. tel ka glisreen bhi saabun mein hi rah jaata hai. yeh saabun nikrusht koti ka hota hai, par apekshaya sasta hota hai. ardh-kvathan vidhi se bhi praaya: 80 degree celcius tak garam karke saabun taiyaar ho sakta hai. mulaayam saabun, visheshat: hajaamat banaane ke saabun, ke liye yeh vidhi achhi samajhi jaati hai.

yadi kapda dhone wala saabun banaana hai, to usamein thoda sodiym siliket daalkar, thandha kar, tikiyon mein kaatkar us par mudraankan karte hain. aise saabun mein 30 pratishat paani rahata hai. nahaane ke saabun mein 10 pratishat ke lagbhag paani rahata hai. paani kam karne ke liye saabun ko pattavaahi par surang kism ke shoshak mein sukhaate hain.

yadi nahaane ka saabun banaana hai, to sookhe saabun ko kaatkar aavashyak rang aur sugandhit dravya milaakar peesate hain, fir use press mein dabaakar chhad (baar) banaate aur chhota-chhota kaatkar usako mudraankit karte hain. paaradarshak saabun banaane mein saabun ko ailkohaul mein ghulaakar tab tikiya banaate hain.

dhone ke saabun mein kabhi-kabhi kuchh aise dravya bhi daalte hain jinse dhone ki kshamata badh jaati hai. inhein 'nirmaan dravya' kehte hain. aise dravya soda aish, traai-sodiym faasfet, sodiym meta siliket, sodiym paraboret, sodiym parakaarbonet, tetra-sodiym paairon-faasfet aur sodiym heksa-metaafausfet hain. kabhi-kabhi aise saabun mein neela rang bhi daalte hain jisse kapda adhik safed ho jaata hai. bhinn-bhinn vastron, rooi, resham aur oon ke tatha dhaatuon ke liye alag-alag kism ke saabun bane hain. nikrusht koti ke nahaane ke saabun mein poorak bhi daale jaate hain: poorakon ke roop mein keseen, maida, cheeni aur deksatrin aadi padaarth prayukt hote hain.

saabun va ditrajeint ke nirmaan ki prakriya

dhulaai ki prakriya

saabun se vastron ke dhone par mail kaise niklati hai, is par anekash nibandh samay-samay par prakaashit hue hain. adhikaansh mail tel kism ki hoti hai. aise tel vaale vastr ko jab saabun ke saath milkar chhoti-chhoti gulikaaeain ban jaata hai, jo kachaarane se vastr se alag ho jaati hai. aisa yaantrik vidhi se ho sakta hai athva saabun ke vilyan mein upasthit vaayu ke chhote-chhote bulabulon ke kaaran ho sakta hai. gulikaaeain vastr se alag hi tal par tairane lagti hain.

saabun ke paani mein ghulaane se tel aur paani ke beech ka prushth tanaav bahut kam ho jaata hai. isse vastr ke reshe vilyan ke ghanishth sansparsh mein aa jaate hain aur mail ke nikalne mein sahaayata milti hai. maile kapde ko saabun ke vilyan pravisht kar jaata hai jisse reshe ki koshion se vaayu nikalne mein sahaayata milti hai.

theek-theek dhulaai ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki vastron se nikli mail reshe par fir jam na jaae. saabun ka imalashan aisa hone se rokata hai. at: imalashan banane ka gun bade mahatva ka hai. saabun mein jalavileya aur telavileya donon samooh rahate hain. ye samooh tel booaind ki chaaron or ghere rahate hain. inka ek samooh tel mein aur doosra jal mein dhula rahata hai. tel booaind mein chaaron or saabun ki dasha mein keval rinaatmak vaidyut aavesh rahate hain jisse unka sammilit hona sambhav naheen hota.

sandarbh

  1. prasaad, chandramohan (July 2004). bhautik evam rasaayan vigyaan. Kolkata: bhaarati sadan. pa॰ 247-248.
  2. gupt, taarak naath (July 2004). bhautiki evam rasaayan shaastr. Kolkata: bhaarati pustak mandir. pa॰ 266.
  3. "saabun ne tay kiya 110 saal ka safar". ikanaumik times. http://hindi.webdunia.com/religion/occasion/others/0811/08/1081108017_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.