ruaanda

Repubulika y'u Rwanda
Réapublique du Rwanda

ruaanda ganaraajya
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtragaan: ruaanda njeeja
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
kigaali
1°a56.633′aS 30°a3.567′aE / 1.943883°aS 30.05945°aE / -1.943883; 30.05945
raajabhaasha(eain) kinyaaruaanda, fraanseesi
kshetrafal
- kul 26,338 varg kilometer
10,169 varg meal
janasankhya
- 2015 janaganana 1,12,62,564

ruaanda (Rwanda) madhya-poorv afreeka mein sthit ek desh hai. iska kshetrafal lagbhag 26 hajaar varg kimi hai, jo Bhaarat ke Kerala raajya se bhi chhota hai. yeh afreeka mahaadveep ki mukhyabhoomi par sthit sabse chhote deshon mein se ek hai. ruaanda pruthvi ki bhoomadhya rekha (ikvetar) se jra dakshin mein sthit hai aur mahaan afreeki jheelon ke kshetr ka bhaag hai. iske pashchim mein pahaadiyaaain aur poorv mein ghaasabhoomi hai.

anukram

log

ruaanda mein teen mukhya maanav jaatiyaaain hain. tva log (Twa) jangalon mein basane vaale pigmi hain. tutasi (Tutsi) aur hootoo (Hutu) donon baantoo jaatiyaaain hain. aitihaasik roop se tutasi alpasankhyak rahe hain lekin unhone shaasan kiya hai jabki hootoo bahusankhyak hone ke baavajood tutsiyon ke adheen rahe hain.[1]

bhaasha

ruaanda mein rahane vaale lagbhag sabhi log kinyaaruaanda bhaasha bolte hain jo ek baantoo bhaasha parivaar ki sadasya hai aur jise ruaanda ki ek raajabhaasha hone ka darja praapt hai. iske alaava fraanseesi bhaasha aur angreji ko bhi raajabhaasha hone ki maanyata praapt hai.

itihaas

hajaaron varsh poov paashaan yug aur lauh yug mein ruaanda kshetr mein shikaari-framar log base aur vartamaan ruaanda ke tva log unhi ke vanshaj hain. baad mein yahaaain baantoo jaatiyon ka vistaar hua. yeh kis kaal aur kin kaaranon se tutasi aur hootoo mein bant gayi ise lekar itihaasakaaron mein matabhed hai. madhya 18veen shataabdi mein ruaanda raajashaahi sthaapit hui jismein tutasiyon ne hootooon par raaj kiya. san 1884 mein Germany ne ruaanda ko apna upanivesh bana liya lekin pratham vishv yuddh mein Belgium ne jarmanon ko yahaaain se khadedkar 1914 mein ruaanda par apna raaj kar liya. baanto aur raaj karo ki vichaaradhaara ke antaragat unhone hootoo aur tutasion mein aapasi nafrat badhaane ke liye kaam kiya aur tutasi raajaaon ko apna mitr banaakar shaasan kiya. 1959 mein hootoo janasamudaaya ne vidroh kar diya aur 1962 mein svatantrata praapt karne mein safal ho gaye. tutasi is hootoo-kendrit raajya se asantusht hue aur unhone aar-pi-ef (RPF, Rwandan Patriotic Front, ruaandaai deshbhakt morcha) naamak sena mein sangathit hokar 1990 mein sarkaar ke viruddh gruh yuddh aarambh kiya. yeh tanaav visfotak roop se 1994 ke ravaanda janasanhaar ka kaaran bana jismein hootooon ne 5 se 10 lakh ke beech tutasi aur nirpeksh hootoo maare. yeh narasanhaar tab samaapt hua jab aar-pi-ef sena ne vijay praapt kar li.[2]

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Adekunle, Julius (2007). Culture and customs of Rwanda. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33177-0.
  2. Roth, Kenneth (11 April 2009). "The power of horror in Rwanda". Human Rights Watch (New York, N.Y.). Retrieved 16 November 2015.