rooso

mahaan daarshanik rooso

jeen-jakkues rooso (1712 - 78) ki ganana pashchim ke yugapravartak vichaarakon mein hai. kintu antarvirodh tatha virodhaabhaason se poorn hone ke kaaran uske darshan ka svaroop vivaadaaspad raha hai. apne yug ki upaj hote hue bhi usane tatkaaleen maanyataaon ka virodh kiya, baddhivaad ke yug mein usane buddhi ki ninda ki (vishvakosh ke pranetaaon (Encyclopaedists) se usaka virodh is baat par tha) aur sahaj maanaveeya bhaavanaaon ko atyadhik mahatva diya. saamaajik prasanvida (social kantraikt) ki shabdaavali ka avalanban karte hue bhi usane is siddhaant ki antaraatma mein sarvatha naveen arth ka sannivesh kiya. saamaajik bandhan tatha raajaneetik daasata ki katu aalochna karte hue bhi usane raajya ko naitikta ke liye anivaarya bataaya. aarthik asamaanata aur vyaktigat sampatti ko avaanchhaneeya maanate hue bhi rooso saamyavaadi naheen tha. ghor vyaktivaad se praarambh hokar use darshan ki parinti samashtivaad mein hoti hai. svatantrata aur jantantra ka pujaari hote hue bhi vah raabesapeeyar jaise nirankushataavaadiyon ka aadarsh ban jaata hai.

anukram

mukhya rachanaaeain

usaki mukhya rachanaaeain ye hain-

1. diskors on di aarijin ov inaikvailiti;

2. ikaanaami paalitik;

3. di social kantraikt ;

4. imili.

rooso ka charitra va darshan

kisi bhi vichaarak ka darshan uske jeevan se alag naheen kiya ja sakta. kitu rooso ko samajhne ke liye usaki chaaritrirk visheshataaeain tatha dubarlataaeain vishesh roop se jnyaaatavya hain. apne vyaktitagat doshon ke liye samaaj ko uttaradaayi thaharaakar rooso ne na keval apne ko nirparaadh balki manushyamaatr ko nisrgat: nek aur vishuddhaatma bataaya. peris ki bhautikvaadi sabhyata ke krutrim vaataavaran ko apne svabhaav ke pratikool paakar usane praakrutik avastha ke saral jeevan ki kalpana ki. shikshit aur sabhya samaaj ke saath apne vyaktitv ka saamanjasya vah kabhi naheen sthaapit kar paaya. uske jeevan ke antim varsh daihik santaap, maanasik vishaad, kaalpanik bhaya, vikshobh tatha unmaad ke aaveg se poorn the. baalyaavastha se hi vah charitraheen tha. kitu vaasanaaon ka das hote hue bhi usamein udaatt bhaavanaaon ka abhaav naheen tha. usaki krutiyaaain usaki sahaj anubhootiyon ki abhivyakti hain. iseeliye ve itni marmasparshani tatha prabhaavotpaadak hain.

aadhunik sabhyata ke doshon ka varnan karte hue rooso apne samay ke anya vichaarakon ki bhaaainti praakrutik aur roodhigat ka antar prastut karta hai. kintu praakrutik avastha ki kalpana uske raajya sambandhi vichaaron ki pushti ke liye anaavashyak si hai. rooso ke anusaar praakrutik avastha mein jeevan saral tha. buddhi tatha bhaasha ka vikaas naheen hua tha. manushya apni sahaj pravruttiyon ke anusaar aacharan karta tha. vah naitikta anaitikta se pare tha. use na ham sukhi kah sakte hain, na du:khi. yeh avastha rooso ka aadarsh naheen hai. vah buddhi tatha bhaavana ka saamanjasya chaahata hai jo praakrutik avastha ke vikaas ki doosari manjil hai. yeh praarambhik jeevan ki saral nishkriyta tatha vaigyaanik seeyata ki vishaakt jatilta ke beech ki sthiti hai. bhaasha ka vikaas, saamaajik sahayog, shaanti aur sauhaardr, iski visheshataaeain hain. dheere-dheere buddi bhaavanaaon ko paraabhoot kar leti hai aur shraddha, vishvaas prem tatha daya ka sthaan avishvaas, vaimanasya, svaarth le lete hain. vyaktigat sampatti ka aavirbhaav hota hai aur manushya daasata ki shrunkhala mein jakad jaata hai. aarthik shoshan tatha saamaajik atyaachaar ke kaaran usaka vyakti nasht ho jaata hai. is varnan mein France ki raajyakraanti ke poorv ki avastha pratibimbit hai. isi sthiti se makti paane ke liye saamaajik prasanvida ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

rooso ki praaranmbhik krutiyon tatha saamaajik prasanvida ke kuchh anshon ke avlokan se prateet hota hai ki lekhak samaaj vyavastha ka virodhi hai aur vyakti ki nirpeksh svatantrata mein vishvaas karta hai. kitu rooso swayam aalochakon dvaara varnit samaanata ki utpatti ke ghor vyaktivaad aur "saamaajik prasanvida' ke ghor samashtivaad ke paraspar virodh ko naheen maanata. apni praarambhik krutiyon mein usaka udashya prachalit maanyataaon ka khandan maatr tha. kitu saamaajik prasanvida mein vah apna svatantr darshan prastut karta hai. uske anusaar manushya saamaajik praani hai. samaaj mein hi uske maanavochit gunon ka vikaas ho sakta hai. kitu vartamaan samaaj use anaavashyak tatha anishtakaari bandhanon se jakad deta hai. prasanvida ka uddeshya aise samaaj ki sthaapana karna hai jo apni sampoorn saamoohik shakti ke dvaara pratyek sadasya ki svatantrata aur sampatti ki raksha kar sake aur jismein pratyek vyakti samashti mein sammilit hokar bhi apni hi aajnyaa ka paalan kare aur poorvavat svatantr bana rahe. iske liye pratyek vyakti apni sampoorn shaktiyon ko saamaanya sankalp ke sarvochch nirdeshan mein samaaj ko saunp deta hai aur fir samashti ke avibhaajya ansh ke roop mein un sabhi adhikaaron ko praapt kar leta hai. prasanvida ke parinaamasvaroop jis raajya ki utpatti hoti hai vah ek naitik avayavi hai jiska apna svatantr sankalp hota hai. yeh saamaanya sankalp jo sadaiv samashti aur vyashti donon ki raksha aur kalyaan mein pravrutt rahata hai, samaaj mein vidhaan ka strot tatha nyaaya ka maanadand hai. spasht hai ki aisa samaaj prasanvida ka parinaam kadaapi naheen ho sakta, kyonki prasanvida ki poorn maanyata vyakti ki naitik tatha taarkik praathamikta hai, na ki samaaj ki.

rooso saamaanya sankalp (general vil) aur sabke sankalp (vil ov all) mein antar bataata hai. sabka sankalp vishesh sankalpon (partikular vils) ka yog maatr hai jo vyaktigat hiton ke hi star par rah jaata hai. saamaanya sankalp sadaiv svaartharahit tatha saamaanya hit ke liye hota hai. kabhi kabhi rooso bahumat ko hi saamaanya sankalp kah deta hai. vah yeh bhi kehta hai ki paraspar virodhi vichaaron ke takaraane se jo avashesh rahata hai vahi saamaanya sankalp hai. kitu ye baatein usaki mool dhaarana ke viruddh hain.

saamaajik prasanvida ka siddhaant svatantrata ka virodhaabhaas utpann karta hai. rooso ke anusaar saamaanya sankalp sthaayi avibhaajya tatha adeya hai. vah nitya satya hai. vyakti ka hit usi se sannihit hai. choonki manushya ko apne hit ke viruddh kaarya karne ki svatantrata naheen ho sakti, isliye jo vyakti saamaanya sankalp ka virodh karta hai vah vaastav mein aatmadrohi hai. saamaanya sankalp ka moortaroop hone ke naate raajya use sachche arth mein "svatantr' hone ke liye baadhya kar sakta hai. dand bhi svatantrata ka hi roop hai. is prakaar yeh Êaasaddhaant svatantrata ke naam par adhinaayakavaad ka poshak ban jaata hai. rooso swayam adhinaayakavaad ka samarthak hai, yeh kehna theek naheen hai, kyonki vah kehta hai ki samprabhu samaaj ki maanya prathaaon ka ullanghan naheen kar sakta. saamaajik hit ke liye vyaktigat svatantrata aavashyak hai.

raajya ke liye rooso vidhaayakon (lejisletars) ko aavashyak bataata hai. usaki aavashyakta isliye padti hai ki yadyapi janta sarvada lokakalyaan chaahati hai tathaapi usako samajhne mein vah sadaiv samarth naheen hoti. vidhaayak ya vyavasthaapak uchit paraamarsh dekar usaka pathapradarshan karta hai.

rooso sansadeeya pratinidhitv ko saamaanya sankalp ke pratikool bataata hai. vah pratyaksh jantantra ke paksh mein hai jo keval usaki janmabhoomi jineeva jaise chhote raajya mein hi sambhav hai. raashtrasangh ki sambhaavana maanate hue bhi rooso raashtraraajya ko hi vishesh mahatva deta hai. jab tak satta janta ke haath mein hai, sarkaar ka svaroop gaun hai. sarkaar keval janta ke hit ka saadhan hai. at: use kisi bhi samay badla ja sakta hai. gaayarke (Gierke) ne ise "nityakraanti (permanent revolution) ka siddhaant kaha hai. rooso sarkaar ke do anshon ki charcha karta hai : vyavasthaapika tatha kaaryakaarini. vyavasthaapika ko vah shreshth bataata hai, kyonki saamaanya sankalp usi ke dvaara vyakt hota hai. raajaneetik dal saamaanya sankalp ki abhivyakti mein baadhak hote hain. at: rooso unke viruddh hai. ek samiti arth mein dharm ko vah raajya ke liye upayogi bataata hai. samaaj ki suvyavastha ke liye raajya ko dharm ke kuchh sisddhaanton ko nirdisht kar dena chaahiye aur janta ko unhein maanane ke liye baadhya karna chaahiye.

buddhivaadi vyaktivaad evam praakrutik vidhaan rooso mein kahaaain tak vidyamaan hai, yeh matabhed ka vishay hai. kintu ismein sandeh naheen ki usane in siddhaanton ka atikraman kiya aur aadhunik raajadarshan mein yoonaani drushtikon ko pun: pratishthit kiya jiske anusaar raajya ki saamoohik chetna hi vyakti ki naitikta aur svatantrata ka strot hai. jaisa arastoo ne kaha tha, raajya ke baahar rahanevaala vyakti ya to pashu hai ya Dave. iseeliye rooso ko prasanvidaavaadi vichaarakon mein antim na kehkar aadhunik pratyayavaadiyon mein pratham kaha jaata hai. can't ne use aachaarashaastr ka nyootan kaha hai. heegel tatha uske aangl anuyaayiyon (greev, bosaanke aadi) par usaka prabhaav spasht hai. aadhunik jantantra tatha raashtravaad ko usase vishesh prerana mili hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

mukhya kaarya

  • Dissertation sur la musique moderne 1736
  • Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (Discours sur les sciences et les arts), 1750
  • Narcissus, or The Self-Admirer: A Comedy, 1752
  • Le Devin du Village: an opera, 1752, scorepeedeeऍf (21.7 MiB)
  • Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inéaagalité parmi les hommes), 1754
  • Discourse on Political Economy, 1755
  • Letter to M. D'Alembert on Spectacles, 1758 (Lettre à d'Alembert sur les spectacles)
  • Julie, or the New Heloise (Julie, ou la nouvelle Héaloïase), 1761
  • Éaamile: or, on Education (Éaamile ou de l'éaducation), 1762
  • The Creed of a Savoyard Priest, 1762 (in Éaamile)
  • The Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right (Du contrat social), 1762
  • Four Letters to M. de Malesherbes, 1762
  • Pygmalion: a Lyric Scene, 1762
  • Letters Written from the Mountain, 1764 (Lettres de la montagne)
  • Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Les Confessions), 1770, published 1782
  • Constitutional Project for Corsica, 1772
  • Considerations on the Government of Poland, 1772
  • Essay on the origin of language, published 1781 (Essai sur l'origine des langues)
  • Reveries of a Solitary Walker, incomplete, published 1782 (Rêaveries du promeneur solitaire)
  • Dialogues: Rousseau Judge of Jean-Jacques, published 1782

angreji sanskaran

  • Basic Political Writings, trans. Donald A. Cress. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1987.
  • Collected Writings, ed. Roger D. Masters and Christopher Kelly, Dartmouth: University Press of New England, 1990-2005, 11 vols. (Does not as yet include Éaamile.)
  • The Confessions, trans. Angela Scholar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Emile, or On Education, trans. with an introd. by Allan Bloom, New York: Basic Books, 1979.
  • "On the Origin of Language," trans. John H. Moran. In On the Origin of Language: Two Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
  • Reveries of a Solitary Walker, trans. Peter France. London: Penguin Books, 1980.
  • 'The Discourses' and Other Early Political Writings, trans. Victor Gourevitch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • 'The Social Contract' and Other Later Political Writings, trans. Victor Gourevitch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • 'The Social Contract, trans. Maurice Cranston. Penguin: Penguin Classics Various Editions, 1968-2007.

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