roosi kraanti

roosi kraanti
pratham vishvayuddh ka bhaag
Feb 1917.jpg
virodh karte hue kraantikaari (February 1917)
tithi 8 March – 8 November 1917
sthaan roosi
parinaam bolshevikon ki vijay
  • nikolas dviteeya ka tyaag
  • shaahi sarkaar ka patan
  • roosi SFSR ka nirmaan
  • roosi gruh yuddh ki shuruaat
yoddha
shaahi sarkaar a
antarim sarkaar
petrograid soviyt
bolsheviks
vaamapanthi samaajavaadiyon
senaanaayak
nikolas dviteeya a
geogya lvov
alekshander kerensky
vlaadimeer lenin
trotski
lev kamenev
shakti/kshamata
inpeeriyl roosi sena red guard: 200,000
a. March 1917 15 tak.

san 1917 ki roos ki kraanti vishv itihaas ki sabse mahatvapoorn ghatnaaon mein se ek hai. iske parinaamasvaroop roos se jaar ke svechhaachaari shaasan ka ant hua tatha roosi soviyt sanghaatmak samaajavaadi ganaraajya (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) ki sthaapana hui. yeh kraanti do bhaagon mein hui thi - March 1917 mein, tatha October 1917 mein. pehli kraanti ke falasvaroop samraat ko pad-tyaag ke liye vivsh hona pada tatha ek asthaayi sarkaar bani. October ki kraanti ke falasvaroop asthaayi sarkaar ko hataakar bolasevik sarkaar (communist sarkaar) ki sthaapana ki gayi.

1917 ki roosi kraanti beesaveen sadi ke vishv itihaas ki ek mahatvapoorn ghatna rahi. 1789 E. mein France ki raajyakraanti ne svatantrata, samaanata aur bhraatrutv ki bhaavana ka prachaar kar Europe ke janajeevan ko gahre star par prabhaavit kiya. roosi kraanti ki vyaapakata ab tak ki sabhi raajaneetik ghatnaaon ki tulana mein bahut vistrut thi. isne keval nirankush, ekatantri, svechhaachaari, jaarashaahi shaasan ka hi ant naheen kiya balki kuleen jameendaaron, saamanton, poonjeepatiyon aadi ki aarthik aur saamaajik satta ko samaapt karte hue vishv mein majadoor aur kisaanon ki pratham satta sthaapit ki. maarks dvaara pratipaadit vaigyaanik samaajavaad ki vichaaradhaara ko moort roop pehli baar roosi kraanti ne pradaan kiya. is kraanti ne samaajavaadi vyavastha ko sthaapit kar swayam ko is vyavastha ke janak ke roop mein sthaapit kiya. yeh vichaaradhaara 1917 ke pashchaat itni shaktishaali ho gayi ki 1950 tak lagbhag aadha vishv iske antargat aa chuka tha.kraanti ke baad ka vishv itihaas kuchh is tareeke se gatisheel hua ki ya to vah iske prasaarake paksh mein tha athva iske prasaar ke virooddh.

7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October), October samaajavaadi kraanti ki ek badi jeet haasil ki duniya ke pehle samaajavaadi raajya satta sthaapit - roosi soviyt sanghaatmak samaajavaadi ganaraajya. fauran ganatantr ki sthaapana ke baad, hard gruhayuddh ke teen saal baad soviyt shaasan ka bachaav, 14 saamraajyavaadi sashastr hastakshep ke deshon aur sashastr vidroh jameendaaron aur poonjeepatiyon ko tod diya. 30 December 1922, soviyt samaajavaadi ganaraajya, roos aur Ukraine, Belarus aur dakshin kaakeshas sangheeya ki aupachaarik roop se sthaapit sangh mein shaamil hone ke liye (ajarabaijaan, Armenia aur jaurjiya sahit, baad 15 ganaraajyon ke liye badhaaya gaya). [1]

fravari 1917, doosra roosi poonjeepati lokataantrik kraanti ke failane mein pratham vishv yuddh ke failane ke baad, petrograid kaaryakartaaon ke ek lambe yuddh, bhookh aur sadkon par utar aae, kyonki sena mauke par vidroh ko dabaane ke liye bheja hai. bas kuchh hi dinon mein, jaar nikolas dviteeya sena aur desh ka niyantran kho diya. jaar petrograid mein tyaagana ek poonjeepati asthaayi sarkaar sthaapit karne ke liye majaboor kiya gaya tha. October kraanti, sanyukt gareeb kisaanon mein bolshevik party ke netrutv mein roosi majadoor varg bhi bolshevik kraanti ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, mahaan samaajavaadi kraanti poora kiya. 1917 mein ek doosare aur antim mahatvapoorn charan ki roosi kraanti. 7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October), lenin aur poonjeepati anantim sarkaar aashram ke sthaan ke liye agrani trotski ki bolshevik balon asthaayi sarkaar ko ukhaad feinkane ke liye ek saamaanya aakraamak, soviyt shaasan ki sthaapana ka shubhaaranbh kiya. is prakaar, duniya ke pehle samaajavaadi raajya ghoshit kiya gaya. 1918-1920 gruhayuddh aur soviyt samaajavaadi ganaraajya (yooesaesaaar) 1922 mein roosi sangh ke netrutv mein yeh kraanti sthaapit kiya gaya tha. kraanti October mein roosi calendar (jooliyn calendar) mein hui hai, isliye yeh bhi kaha jaata hai "October kraanti." [2]

pratham vishv yuddh ke failane se pehle, avanati, pratikriyaavaadi taanaashaahi roosi jaar gahre sankat, kraantikaari charamotkarsh mein pakada gaya hai. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke failane ke baad, roos teji se teevr saamaajik sangharsh, teji se kraantikaari sthiti paripakva. fravari 1917, bolshevik party ke netrutv mein lenin ke netrutv mein roosi log,,, Tsarist nirankushata ko ukhaad feinka. kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ke vidroh soviyt sangh ki sthaapana ki. haalaanki, roosi poonjeepati February kraanti, jeet ka fal chori Kerensky ki adhyakshata mein ek asthaayi sarkaar ki sthaapana ki. itna hai ki do sarkaaron ke samay mein hona the. lok logon ke pradarshanon par antarim sarkaar ki hinsak kaarravaai ka upayog karte hain, aur ek sainya taanaashaahi sthaapit karne ke liye taiyaar rahana. April, videsh mein lenin ant lambe nirvaasan spasht roop se karne ke liye ", sabhi bijli kaha, samaajavaadi kraanti aur vishisht maarg spasht sankraman yojana ko burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti se taiyaar ki prasiddh" April shodh kare ", prakaashit, roos mein laute soviyt "naara. "April shodh kare" nirdesh ke mutaabik, janta aur shiksha sangathan, netrutv petrograid kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon pradarshanon ke beech shuroo ki bolshevik April, June aur July ke virodh pradarshanon mein aayojit ki gayi. us samay, kyonki antarim sarkaar ke liye ek upakaran ke roop mein soviyt sangh ke niyantran ke tahat Mensheviks aur samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon, khula aur ek sainya taanaashaahi sthaapit karne ke liye hinsa ka upayog karne ke liye taiyaar poonjeepati, isliye, bolshevik party naara "soviyt sangh ke liye sabhi power" ko vaapas lene, sashastr taiyaar kiya vidroh drushtikon. October, petrograid aur Moscow soviyt sangh ke liye September bolshevik party pahaloo ko hastaantarit kiya gaya hai, karmachaariyon ki hadtaal, kisaan bagaavat, dangon sainikon, kraantikaari sthiti poori tarah se paripakva. bolshevik party naara "soviyt sangh ke liye sabhi vidyut," fir se uthaaya, aur ek sashastr vidroh ke liye taiyaar karne ke liye desh bhar. sashastr vidroh ke ank mein, bolshevik party ke bheetar bade antar tha, lenin bijli ki bolshevik jabti, Zinoviev aur Kamenev lenin ke vichaaron aur vishesh yojana ke khilaaf ek sashastr vidroh tha jabki jor dekar kaha ki, aur yeh karne ke liye matabhed (October 1917, Kamenev aur Zinoviev mein naheen ek sashastr vidroh ki ghoshana par party ki keindreeya samiti ke faisale ke paksh mein prakaashit gair party patrika "naya jeevan" mein) ko saarvajanik kar diya. ka yeh vyavahaar unke gambhir roop se lenin ne ninda ki. [3]

7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October), roosi rajdhani, Petrograd (seint peetarsabarg) kaaryakarta lenin mein red guard aur sainikon aur pratham sashastr vidroh ke netrutv mein bolshevik party. sanket ke liye neva "aroda sankhya" cruiser bandookein par moored karne ke liye, petrograid kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ke aashram par hamla karne lage, aashram antarim sarkaar ke sadasyon ko giraftaar karne, der raat run banaae. Kerensky bhaag gaye, antarim sarkaar paraast kiya gaya tha. us raat, Smolny soviyt sangh ka doosra Congress ke aayojan mein, antarim sarkaar ne sabhi keindreeya aur sthaaneeya sarkaar soviyt sangh ko hastaantarit kiya gaya hai, paraast ghoshit kar diya. duniya ke pehle samaajavaadi raajya ghoshit people's samiti, - agale din, lenin ki baithak mein ek report banaane, mahaasabha soviyt sarkaar ke pehle satr ke adhyaksh ke roop mein lenin dvaara gathit 'shaanti adhiniyam "aur" bhoomi adhiniyam' ko apnaaya paida hua. petrograid mein sashastr vidroh ki jeet, soviyt shaasan ke vijayi agrim ke liye aadhaar diya. [4]

bandookon ke aashram ki apni bamabaari ke saath 7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October) shaam 21:45, "aroda sankhya" cruiser, taaki, mahaan roosi October kraanti ke liye ek prastaavana khola gauravashaali October kraanti, yeh ek sanket ki tarah ban gaya. [3]

"aroda sankhya" mool roop se roosi baaltik bede cruiser cruiser, May 1905 mein sakriya duty mein shaamil 1903 mein 16.8 meter chauda kaptaan 124 meter ki doori par, Japan aur roos ke beech Tsushima ki ladaai mein bhaag liya tha. [5]

"aroda" arth "Don" ya roman pauraanik kathaaon mein "Don", "aroda" sachiv subah devi hai, vah logon ko jagaane, bhor bheja. 24 October, 1917 (gregoriyn calendar November 6) kraantikaari sainya aayog par savaar sabhi adhikaariyon aur purushon ke liye pradarshan, "aroda sankhya" cruiser nikolev nadi pul (lieutenant shmit pul) ke liye khul jaaega. 7 November (roosi calendar 25 October) 10:00, enabeesi par "aroda sankhya" mein "roosi naagrikon pustak ko soochana" ka masauda taiyaar karne ke naam par lenin kraantikaari sainya samiti. din shaam 21:45, sarkaar aashram ki asthaayi seat golaabaari "aroda sankhya" cruiser, "October kraanti 'shuroo hota hai ki ghoshana ki. [5]

1923 mein, jahaaj abhyaas karne ke liye jahaaj. soviyt sangh ke mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh, France aur Germany leningraad hamla, jab jahaaj ke nau bandookein, hataaya shahar ke baahari ilaake mein tainaat guard Fangde ek "vishesh topakhaane svatantr baaltik bede" ka gathan kiya gaya. dhaara 10 bandookein aur topein daste commanderon aur ke khilaaf jahaaj mein rahate hain. mahatvapoorn mod ke baad, der se yuddh mein bandargaah mein doobne se "aroda sankhya" cruiser yeh bachaaya gaya tha aur 1944 mein marammat ki. November 1948 ke baad se, keindreeya sainya sangrahaalaya ke smaarakon aur sangrahaalayon ki October kraanti ke roop mein sthaayi roop se logon ki yaatra aur unke antim shraddhaanjali dene ke liye, leningraad ki shahar mein neva nadi mein moored. [5]

jahaaj 1968 mein 1927 mein laal banner, October kraanti ke padak se sammaanit kiya gaya. [5]

prushthabhoomi

February kraanti mein, kaaryakartaaon, sainikon jaar ke khilaaf mukhya bal hain, poonjeepati varg kraanti naheen ho pai. soviyt sangh: kraanti ki safalta ke baad kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ko apne swayam ke shaasi nikaaya ka aayojan kiya. soviyt sangh mein koi shakti poonjeepati. sashastr bhi soviyt kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ke haathon mein hai. soviyt vaastavik satta mein mahaarat haasil hai, lekin un par ek adhibhaavi antarim sarkaar hai. poonjeepati anantim sarkaar aur paksh dvaara soviyt sainikon ki or do sarkaaron sthiti ki or se dikhaai diya. [6]

soviyt sadasyon, naradaleeya rusi saamyavaadi bahumat. bolshevik daman ke kaaran yuddh ke dauraan saamana karna pada, lekin us samay, bolshevik netrutv ke bahumat. [6]

log, jail aur nirvaasan mein Switzerland mein is samay lenin, staalin abhi bhi nirvaasan hain. majadooron aur kisaanon ke bahumat raajaneetik anubhav ki kami hai, soviyt netrutv mein jiske parinaamasvaroop Mensheviks tha aur samaajavaadi-kraantikaariyon ek asthaayi sarkaar sthaapit karne ki poonjeepati varg ke liye apne samarthan ki chori. kisaanon ke beech saamaajik kraantikaariyon paaramparik pratishtha adhik hai kyonki sainikon (mukhya roop se kisaanon dvaara gathit) nirvaachit soviyt sangh, samaajavaadi-kraantikaariyon (ek kshudr poonjeepati party), bahumat ke liye jimmedaar hai. ye doosari kraanti naradaleeya rusi saamyavaadi aalochak hain. ve roos burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti ke charan mein ab bhi lagta hai ki, lekin yeh bhi poonjeepati antarim sarkaar ke saath sahayog bhoomi sudhaar aur lokataantrik sudhaar ke liye baahar le jaane ke liye. is prakaar ve antarim sarkaar ka samarthan karte hain. oopari kshudr poonjeepati varg se saamaajik kraantikaariyon, ve poonjeepati asthaayi sarkaar ka paalan karte hain. bolshevik lenin bhi asthaayi sarkaar ki neeti ke god lene se pehle petrograid Mensheviks samarthan mein laut aae. shramik aur sainikon avishvaas asthaayi sarkaar, lekin unke netaaon mein vishvaas. samarthan par soviyt netaaon mein antarim sarkaar ki satta ki sthaapana par. is ghatna lenin "dohari shakti." kaha jaata tha buraai saamraajyavaadi yuddh aage badhne ke liye poonjeepati asthaai sarkaar kaam kar rahe logon ke bahumat ke vash mein rakhana jaari hai, aur sab kuchh sambhav kraantikaari lau bujhaane ke liye karte hain. [6]

prasiddh hai jo bolshevik lenin ki 17 April 1917, baithak ek bana diya "is kaarya mein sarvahaara kraanti ke siddhaant," report mein, "April shodh kare." kraanti ke bhavishya ke vikaas ki or ishaara karte hue jab burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti se line ki samaajavaadi kraanti ke liye sankraman, sthaapit bolshevik "ke roop mein April shodh kare". burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti se samaajavaadi kraanti kaaryon ke liye sankraman bana. unke aagaman bolshevik samarthan antarim sarkaar ki neeti kraanti la di hai. lenin ki pratibha vaastavikta ki chunautiyon ka saamana karne ke liye avaastavik siddhaant ko sanshodhit karne ka saahas karne mein nihit hai. roos mein February kraanti ke baad, antarim sarkaar lokataantrik kraanti ke kaarya ko poora naheen kar sakte hain. kisaanon ko antarim sarkaar ka paalan naheen, sarvahaara varg ki taanaashaahi ka samarthan karne ke liye hai, ve svatantr raajaneetik kaaryakram naheen hai. ya satta ko jabt karne aur Europe mein samaajavaadi kraanti shuroo karne ke liye sarvahaara varg hai, ya asthaayi sarkaar ki jeet, naheen, naheen, beech sadak February kraanti dafanaane ka fal hai. Mensheviks aur samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon bhi alagaavavaadi shivir ka utpaadan kiya hai, jabki unke vibhaajan na keval bolshevik neeti parivartan,. antarraashtravaadi Mensheviks aur samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon ke bhaag ving bolshevik ki shreni mein shaamil ho chhod diya. trotski ka jila bhi sabhi bolshevik gut mein shaamil ho gaye. 1 July jarman saamraajya ke liye saahasik aur ostriya, Hungary sena par poonjeepati anantim sarkaar yuddh ki kraanti ko nasht karne ki koshish mein ek aakraamak shurooaat ki. is saahasik kaarya ke hamle kaaryakartaaon sainikon ko bhaavanaatmak roop se rajdhani tak pahuainch 60,000 seemaavarti khabar haar roosi sainya nuksaan ke das dinon ke bheetar, buri tarah vifal rahe. petrograid kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon aur 16 July 1917 mein anya kraantikaari janta poorn bahaali soviyt shaasan ki maang karne pradarshanon pakade, sadkon par utar aae. antarim sarkaar ke sainikon ke khooni daman bheja, 600 se adhik kaaryakarta maare gaye ya ghaayal ho gaye. yeh prasiddh July khooni ghatna hai. logon ke narasanhaar ke aage kraantikaari hinsa counterrevolutionary hinsa ko ukhaad feinkane ki jaroorat hai pehchaan karne ke liye. 26 July, Kerensky, kaaryakartaaon ke netrutv mein ek gathabandhan sarkaar hai aur ek vyaapak khilaaf kaarravaai, safed aatank chha desh aayojit bolshevik party ki sthaapana ki. do sarkaaron ke oopar ek samay mein hona, bolshevik party bhoomigat ho gaya tha, ki or se do shaasanon paksh ke ant ki sthiti, roosi kraanti ke ek nae charan mein pravesh kar gaya hai. [7]

Tsarist

1907 ke baad se Peter Stolypin, satta mein rakharakhaav Tsarist nirankushata bharosa raajaneetik lohe ki mutthi neeti, aur udaar samaajavaadiyon ke kroor daman aaya. kuleenatantr poonjeevaad aarthik roop se aarthik vikaas ke laabh ke liye kaafi naheen tha ki janta ke neeche se, bhoomi sudhaar ke nijeekaran, roos mein uchch aarthik vruddhi haasil karne ke liye, lekin kyonki iski hinsak nijeekaran charam anyaaya ka badhaava dene ke liye neetiyon ko laagoo karne, lekin kisaanon ki niji sampatti ka kaafi hissa kshati ka saamana karna pada, jisse ki saamaajik asantosh ki degree teji se badh raha hai.

us samay ke baad se roosi mahaaraani elekjeindra 费aa奥aa多aa罗aa芙aa娜 (hesse ke grand dachi aur raain Rajkumari Alex kauks) jarman hai, yuddh ke dauraan saamane line bheja raani ke saath, samraat sangharsh viraam ki ghoshana ki ek taar ki aavashyakataaon ko bheja tha Rasputin ki kor aankada bhi drudhta se pratham vishv yuddh ke sainya paraajaya ki ek shrrunkhala mein roosi bhaageedaari ke baad Germany ke saath 1914 ke yuddh, Germany ke liye parinaamon mein roos ka virodh kiya hai, raani ke gut raani bhi kaha jaata hai, ek jarman jaasoos ghareloo paartiyon hone ka aarop lagaaya gaya tha foohad (vaastav mein donon koi nirnaayak saboot ke bina). is romaanov shaahi parivaar poori tarah se jaar "thoda pita" chhavi nasht lakshya ban jaata hai, saadhaaran roosiyon ke man mein chhavi sadiyon ke liye rakha. 29 December 1916 (roosi calendar 16 December), Rasputin, Rajkumar Yusupov, roos ke shaahi parivaar ke sadasyon damitri paavlovich romaanov grand Duke sahit hatyaaron, hatya kar di gayi shri Abramovich Pulishikai dakshinpanthi dyooma, Yusupov vishvaasapaatr sukhoi jin daavei. yeh roos ghareloo paartiyon hatya virodhaabhaas saamane aata hai.

1917 mein, Rasputin ek maheene se bhi kam samay maut ho gayi, social democratic lebar party yuddh, khel ko rokane ke liye, rajdhani mein saamraajyavaadi yuddh ke khilaaf Petrograd yojana banaai virodh aandolan ka netrutv le liya aur fir Moscow, baakoo aur anya shaharon ke liye virodhi ka upayog karne ke liye badhaaya samarthan yuddh jo. 8 March, February kraanti, romaanov vansh, roos saamraajya shaasan ke patan ke liye neeche kadam petrograid, jaar nikolas dviteeya mein baahar tod diya.

antarim sarkaar

roos ke nirankush samaaj pratikool prabhaav, udaaravaad mukt arthavyavastha October party, spasht roop se jameen khone February kraanti ki agali lahar mein progressive party aur anya sangathanon ki ek baar champion ko Stolypin sudhaaron ke nijeekaran ke baad se. ek samvaidhaanik lokatantr aandolan ke roop mein kraanti ki samvaidhaanik democratic party ke udaaravaadi vaamapanthi poorv neta, udaar raajaneetik dalon ke liye ek nishchit appeal hai vahaaain keval ek hi hota ja raha hai. iske vipreet, samay par roos ek uchch samarthan dar do pramukh vaamapanthi party samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon aur social democrat rahe hain. yuddh aur samasya ke saath, teji se vibhaajit balon ke sanyojan ko garm hai. social democratic party dheere - dheere lokalubhaavan samarthan Mensheviks mein vibhaajit hai, aur logon ki lokataantrik taanaashaahi bolshevik samarthan karte hain. saamaajik rivolyooshanari party tadanusaar prabhutv shaili aur vaamapanthiyon vibhaajit. saamaajik kraantikaariyon aur Mensheviks mukhyadhaara aam sahamati jeet tak yuddh jaari rakhane ke liye aavashyak, kuchh vaamapanthi samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon aur bolshevik fir yuddhaviraam jitni jaldi ho sake ek shaanti sandhi par hastaakshar sahamat hue.

roos ki yuddh virodhi pravrutti ke baare mein chintit samvaidhaanik democrat niyantrit naheen kar sakte, aur mitr deshon ke samooh ke saath roos ke badhte kootaneetik sambandh khatre mein pad jaaega, isliye ek saamaajik kraanti aur social democratic party dvidleeya asantosh ke kaaran dheemi gati se lokataantrik prakriya ki vakaalat. general aavashyakta dvidleeya antarim sarkaar ko jald se jald samvidhaan sabha chunaav, nirsan Stolypin krushi sudhaar, pratham vishv yuddh se baahar niklein. jo bolshevik lenin aavaaj bahut bhayankar pratinidhitv kiya. bolshevik aandolan yuddhavirodhi sainikon ke saamane line se lautane, aur sakriya naagrik samaaj vakaalat mein samvaidhaanik lokatantr ke liye baahar le. lenin ek baar bolshevik chunaav haar gaye hain, bhale hi ve logon ki pasand ka paalan karna hoga jiska matlab hai ki samvaidhaanik banaae rakhane ki thi.

1 July, 1917, antarim sarkaar das dinon ki haar ke baad, Germany ke khilaaf aakraamak yojana banaai hai. vifal raha hai hamle ki khabar ke baad, bolshevik fir se yuddh ko rokane ke liye, saamraajyavaadi yuddh ke virodh aandolan karavaaya. jald hi donon yuddh, jiske parinaamasvaroop mein daba diya aur yuddh aparihaarya hai kiya jaana hai7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October), October samaajavaadi kraanti ki ek badi jeet haasil ki duniya ke pehle samaajavaadi raajya satta sthaapit - roosi soviyt sanghaatmak samaajavaadi ganaraajya. fauran ganatantr ki sthaapana ke baad, hard gruhayuddh ke teen saal baad soviyt shaasan ka bachaav, 14 saamraajyavaadi sashastr hastakshep ke deshon aur sashastr vidroh jameendaaron aur poonjeepatiyon ko tod diya. 30 December 1922, soviyt samaajavaadi ganaraajya, roos aur Ukraine, Belarus aur dakshin kaakeshas sangheeya ki aupachaarik roop se sthaapit sangh mein shaamil hone ke liye (ajarabaijaan, Armenia aur jaurjiya sahit, baad 15 ganaraajyon ke liye badhaaya gaya). [1]

fravari 1917, doosra roosi poonjeepati lokataantrik kraanti ke failane mein pratham vishv yuddh ke failane ke baad, petrograid kaaryakartaaon ke ek lambe yuddh, bhookh aur sadkon par utar aae, kyonki sena mauke par vidroh ko dabaane ke liye bheja hai. bas kuchh hi dinon mein, jaar nikolas dviteeya sena aur desh ka niyantran kho diya. jaar petrograid mein tyaagana ek poonjeepati asthaayi sarkaar sthaapit karne ke liye majaboor kiya gaya tha. October kraanti, sanyukt gareeb kisaanon mein bolshevik party ke netrutv mein roosi majadoor varg bhi bolshevik kraanti ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, mahaan samaajavaadi kraanti poora kiya. 1917 mein ek doosare aur antim mahatvapoorn charan ki roosi kraanti. 7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October), lenin aur poonjeepati anantim sarkaar aashram ke sthaan ke liye agrani trotski ki bolshevik balon asthaayi sarkaar ko ukhaad feinkane ke liye ek saamaanya aakraamak, soviyt shaasan ki sthaapana ka shubhaaranbh kiya. is prakaar, duniya ke pehle samaajavaadi raajya ghoshit kiya gaya. 1918-1920 gruhayuddh aur soviyt samaajavaadi ganaraajya (yooesaesaaar) 1922 mein roosi sangh ke netrutv mein yeh kraanti sthaapit kiya gaya tha. kraanti October mein roosi calendar (jooliyn calendar) mein hui hai, isliye yeh bhi kaha jaata hai "October kraanti." [2]

pratham vishv yuddh ke failane se pehle, avanati, pratikriyaavaadi taanaashaahi roosi jaar gahre sankat, kraantikaari charamotkarsh mein pakada gaya hai. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke failane ke baad, roos teji se teevr saamaajik sangharsh, teji se kraantikaari sthiti paripakva. fravari 1917, bolshevik party ke netrutv mein lenin ke netrutv mein roosi log,,, Tsarist nirankushata ko ukhaad feinka. kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ke vidroh soviyt sangh ki sthaapana ki. haalaanki, roosi poonjeepati February kraanti, jeet ka fal chori Kerensky ki adhyakshata mein ek asthaayi sarkaar ki sthaapana ki. itna hai ki do sarkaaron ke samay mein hona the. lok logon ke pradarshanon par antarim sarkaar ki hinsak kaarravaai ka upayog karte hain, aur ek sainya taanaashaahi sthaapit karne ke liye taiyaar rahana. April, videsh mein lenin ant lambe nirvaasan spasht roop se karne ke liye ", sabhi bijli kaha, samaajavaadi kraanti aur vishisht maarg spasht sankraman yojana ko burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti se taiyaar ki prasiddh" April shodh kare ", prakaashit, roos mein laute soviyt "naara. "April shodh kare" nirdesh ke mutaabik, janta aur shiksha sangathan, netrutv petrograid kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon pradarshanon ke beech shuroo ki bolshevik April, June aur July ke virodh pradarshanon mein aayojit ki gayi. us samay, kyonki antarim sarkaar ke liye ek upakaran ke roop mein soviyt sangh ke niyantran ke tahat Mensheviks aur samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon, khula aur ek sainya taanaashaahi sthaapit karne ke liye hinsa ka upayog karne ke liye taiyaar poonjeepati, isliye, bolshevik party naara "soviyt sangh ke liye sabhi power" ko vaapas lene, sashastr taiyaar kiya vidroh drushtikon. October, petrograid aur Moscow soviyt sangh ke liye September bolshevik party pahaloo ko hastaantarit kiya gaya hai, karmachaariyon ki hadtaal, kisaan bagaavat, dangon sainikon, kraantikaari sthiti poori tarah se paripakva. bolshevik party naara "soviyt sangh ke liye sabhi vidyut," fir se uthaaya, aur ek sashastr vidroh ke liye taiyaar karne ke liye desh bhar. sashastr vidroh ke ank mein, bolshevik party ke bheetar bade antar tha, lenin bijli ki bolshevik jabti, Zinoviev aur Kamenev lenin ke vichaaron aur vishesh yojana ke khilaaf ek sashastr vidroh tha jabki jor dekar kaha ki, aur yeh karne ke liye matabhed (October 1917, Kamenev aur Zinoviev mein naheen ek sashastr vidroh ki ghoshana par party ki keindreeya samiti ke faisale ke paksh mein prakaashit gair party patrika "naya jeevan" mein) ko saarvajanik kar diya. ka yeh vyavahaar unke gambhir roop se lenin ne ninda ki. [3]

7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October), roosi rajdhani, Petrograd (seint peetarsabarg) kaaryakarta lenin mein red guard aur sainikon aur pratham sashastr vidroh ke netrutv mein bolshevik party. sanket ke liye neva "aroda sankhya" cruiser bandookein par moored karne ke liye, petrograid kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ke aashram par hamla karne lage, aashram antarim sarkaar ke sadasyon ko giraftaar karne, der raat run banaae. Kerensky bhaag gaye, antarim sarkaar paraast kiya gaya tha. us raat, Smolny soviyt sangh ka doosra Congress ke aayojan mein, antarim sarkaar ne sabhi keindreeya aur sthaaneeya sarkaar soviyt sangh ko hastaantarit kiya gaya hai, paraast ghoshit kar diya. duniya ke pehle samaajavaadi raajya ghoshit people's samiti, - agale din, lenin ki baithak mein ek report banaane, mahaasabha soviyt sarkaar ke pehle satr ke adhyaksh ke roop mein lenin dvaara gathit 'shaanti adhiniyam "aur" bhoomi adhiniyam' ko apnaaya paida hua. petrograid mein sashastr vidroh ki jeet, soviyt shaasan ke vijayi agrim ke liye aadhaar diya. [4]

bandookon ke aashram ki apni bamabaari ke saath 7 November 1917 (roosi calendar 25 October) shaam 21:45, "aroda sankhya" cruiser, taaki, mahaan roosi October kraanti ke liye ek prastaavana khola gauravashaali October kraanti, yeh ek sanket ki tarah ban gaya. [3]

"aroda sankhya" mool roop se roosi baaltik bede cruiser cruiser, May 1905 mein sakriya duty mein shaamil 1903 mein 16.8 meter chauda kaptaan 124 meter ki doori par, Japan aur roos ke beech Tsushima ki ladaai mein bhaag liya tha. [5]

"aroda" arth "Don" ya roman pauraanik kathaaon mein "Don", "aroda" sachiv subah devi hai, vah logon ko jagaane, bhor bheja. 24 October, 1917 (gregoriyn calendar November 6) kraantikaari sainya aayog par savaar sabhi adhikaariyon aur purushon ke liye pradarshan, "aroda sankhya" cruiser nikolev nadi pul (lieutenant shmit pul) ke liye khul jaaega. 7 November (roosi calendar 25 October) 10:00, enabeesi par "aroda sankhya" mein "roosi naagrikon pustak ko soochana" ka masauda taiyaar karne ke naam par lenin kraantikaari sainya samiti. din shaam 21:45, sarkaar aashram ki asthaayi seat golaabaari "aroda sankhya" cruiser, "October kraanti 'shuroo hota hai ki ghoshana ki. [5]

1923 mein, jahaaj abhyaas karne ke liye jahaaj. soviyt sangh ke mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh, France aur Germany leningraad hamla, jab jahaaj ke nau bandookein, hataaya shahar ke baahari ilaake mein tainaat guard Fangde ek "vishesh topakhaane svatantr baaltik bede" ka gathan kiya gaya. dhaara 10 bandookein aur topein daste commanderon aur ke khilaaf jahaaj mein rahate hain. mahatvapoorn mod ke baad, der se yuddh mein bandargaah mein doobne se "aroda sankhya" cruiser yeh bachaaya gaya tha aur 1944 mein marammat ki. November 1948 ke baad se, keindreeya sainya sangrahaalaya ke smaarakon aur sangrahaalayon ki October kraanti ke roop mein sthaayi roop se logon ki yaatra aur unke antim shraddhaanjali dene ke liye, leningraad ki shahar mein neva nadi mein moored. [5]

jahaaj 1968 mein 1927 mein laal banner, October kraanti ke padak se sammaanit kiya gaya. [5]

prushthabhoomi

February kraanti mein, kaaryakartaaon, sainikon jaar ke khilaaf mukhya bal hain, poonjeepati varg kraanti naheen ho pai. soviyt sangh: kraanti ki safalta ke baad kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ko apne swayam ke shaasi nikaaya ka aayojan kiya. soviyt sangh mein koi shakti poonjeepati. sashastr bhi soviyt kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon ke haathon mein hai. soviyt vaastavik satta mein mahaarat haasil hai, lekin un par ek adhibhaavi antarim sarkaar hai. poonjeepati anantim sarkaar aur paksh dvaara soviyt sainikon ki or do sarkaaron sthiti ki or se dikhaai diya. [6]

soviyt sadasyon, naradaleeya rusi saamyavaadi bahumat. bolshevik daman ke kaaran yuddh ke dauraan saamana karna pada, lekin us samay, bolshevik netrutv ke bahumat. [6]

log, jail aur nirvaasan mein Switzerland mein is samay lenin, staalin abhi bhi nirvaasan hain. majadooron aur kisaanon ke bahumat raajaneetik anubhav ki kami hai, soviyt netrutv mein jiske parinaamasvaroop Mensheviks tha aur samaajavaadi-kraantikaariyon ek asthaayi sarkaar sthaapit karne ki poonjeepati varg ke liye apne samarthan ki chori. kisaanon ke beech saamaajik kraantikaariyon paaramparik pratishtha adhik hai kyonki sainikon (mukhya roop se kisaanon dvaara gathit) nirvaachit soviyt sangh, samaajavaadi-kraantikaariyon (ek kshudr poonjeepati party), bahumat ke liye jimmedaar hai. ye doosari kraanti naradaleeya rusi saamyavaadi aalochak hain. ve roos burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti ke charan mein ab bhi lagta hai ki, lekin yeh bhi poonjeepati antarim sarkaar ke saath sahayog bhoomi sudhaar aur lokataantrik sudhaar ke liye baahar le jaane ke liye. is prakaar ve antarim sarkaar ka samarthan karte hain. oopari kshudr poonjeepati varg se saamaajik kraantikaariyon, ve poonjeepati asthaayi sarkaar ka paalan karte hain. bolshevik lenin bhi asthaayi sarkaar ki neeti ke god lene se pehle petrograid Mensheviks samarthan mein laut aae. shramik aur sainikon avishvaas asthaayi sarkaar, lekin unke netaaon mein vishvaas. samarthan par soviyt netaaon mein antarim sarkaar ki satta ki sthaapana par. is ghatna lenin "dohari shakti." kaha jaata tha buraai saamraajyavaadi yuddh aage badhne ke liye poonjeepati asthaai sarkaar kaam kar rahe logon ke bahumat ke vash mein rakhana jaari hai, aur sab kuchh sambhav kraantikaari lau bujhaane ke liye karte hain. [6]

prasiddh hai jo bolshevik lenin ki 17 April 1917, baithak ek bana diya "is kaarya mein sarvahaara kraanti ke siddhaant," report mein, "April shodh kare." kraanti ke bhavishya ke vikaas ki or ishaara karte hue jab burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti se line ki samaajavaadi kraanti ke liye sankraman, sthaapit bolshevik "ke roop mein April shodh kare". burjuaa lokataantrik kraanti se samaajavaadi kraanti kaaryon ke liye sankraman bana. unke aagaman bolshevik samarthan antarim sarkaar ki neeti kraanti la di hai. lenin ki pratibha vaastavikta ki chunautiyon ka saamana karne ke liye avaastavik siddhaant ko sanshodhit karne ka saahas karne mein nihit hai. roos mein February kraanti ke baad, antarim sarkaar lokataantrik kraanti ke kaarya ko poora naheen kar sakte hain. kisaanon ko antarim sarkaar ka paalan naheen, sarvahaara varg ki taanaashaahi ka samarthan karne ke liye hai, ve svatantr raajaneetik kaaryakram naheen hai. ya satta ko jabt karne aur Europe mein samaajavaadi kraanti shuroo karne ke liye sarvahaara varg hai, ya asthaayi sarkaar ki jeet, naheen, naheen, beech sadak February kraanti dafanaane ka fal hai. Mensheviks aur samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon bhi alagaavavaadi shivir ka utpaadan kiya hai, jabki unke vibhaajan na keval bolshevik neeti parivartan,. antarraashtravaadi Mensheviks aur samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon ke bhaag ving bolshevik ki shreni mein shaamil ho chhod diya. trotski ka jila bhi sabhi bolshevik gut mein shaamil ho gaye. 1 July jarman saamraajya ke liye saahasik aur ostriya, Hungary sena par poonjeepati anantim sarkaar yuddh ki kraanti ko nasht karne ki koshish mein ek aakraamak shurooaat ki. is saahasik kaarya ke hamle kaaryakartaaon sainikon ko bhaavanaatmak roop se rajdhani tak pahuainch 60,000 seemaavarti khabar haar roosi sainya nuksaan ke das dinon ke bheetar, buri tarah vifal rahe. petrograid kaaryakartaaon aur sainikon aur 16 July 1917 mein anya kraantikaari janta poorn bahaali soviyt shaasan ki maang karne pradarshanon pakade, sadkon par utar aae. antarim sarkaar ke sainikon ke khooni daman bheja, 600 se adhik kaaryakarta maare gaye ya ghaayal ho gaye. yeh prasiddh July khooni ghatna hai. logon ke narasanhaar ke aage kraantikaari hinsa counterrevolutionary hinsa ko ukhaad feinkane ki jaroorat hai pehchaan karne ke liye. 26 July, Kerensky, kaaryakartaaon ke netrutv mein ek gathabandhan sarkaar hai aur ek vyaapak khilaaf kaarravaai, safed aatank chha desh aayojit bolshevik party ki sthaapana ki. do sarkaaron ke oopar ek samay mein hona, bolshevik party bhoomigat ho gaya tha, ki or se do shaasanon paksh ke ant ki sthiti, roosi kraanti ke ek nae charan mein pravesh kar gaya hai. [7]

Tsarist

1907 ke baad se Peter Stolypin, satta mein rakharakhaav Tsarist nirankushata bharosa raajaneetik lohe ki mutthi neeti, aur udaar samaajavaadiyon ke kroor daman aaya. kuleenatantr poonjeevaad aarthik roop se aarthik vikaas ke laabh ke liye kaafi naheen tha ki janta ke neeche se, bhoomi sudhaar ke nijeekaran, roos mein uchch aarthik vruddhi haasil karne ke liye, lekin kyonki iski hinsak nijeekaran charam anyaaya ka badhaava dene ke liye neetiyon ko laagoo karne, lekin kisaanon ki niji sampatti ka kaafi hissa kshati ka saamana karna pada, jisse ki saamaajik asantosh ki degree teji se badh raha hai.

us samay ke baad se roosi mahaaraani elekjeindra 费aa奥aa多aa罗aa芙aa娜 (hesse ke grand dachi aur raain Rajkumari Alex kauks) jarman hai, yuddh ke dauraan saamane line bheja raani ke saath, samraat sangharsh viraam ki ghoshana ki ek taar ki aavashyakataaon ko bheja tha Rasputin ki kor aankada bhi drudhta se pratham vishv yuddh ke sainya paraajaya ki ek shrrunkhala mein roosi bhaageedaari ke baad Germany ke saath 1914 ke yuddh, Germany ke liye parinaamon mein roos ka virodh kiya hai, raani ke gut raani bhi kaha jaata hai, ek jarman jaasoos ghareloo paartiyon hone ka aarop lagaaya gaya tha foohad (vaastav mein donon koi nirnaayak saboot ke bina). is romaanov shaahi parivaar poori tarah se jaar "thoda pita" chhavi nasht lakshya ban jaata hai, saadhaaran roosiyon ke man mein chhavi sadiyon ke liye rakha. 29 December 1916 (roosi calendar 16 December), Rasputin, Rajkumar Yusupov, roos ke shaahi parivaar ke sadasyon damitri paavlovich romaanov grand Duke sahit hatyaaron, hatya kar di gayi shri Abramovich Pulishikai dakshinpanthi dyooma, Yusupov vishvaasapaatr sukhoi jin daavei. yeh roos ghareloo paartiyon hatya virodhaabhaas saamane aata hai.

1917 mein, Rasputin ek maheene se bhi kam samay maut ho gayi, social democratic lebar party yuddh, khel ko rokane ke liye, rajdhani mein saamraajyavaadi yuddh ke khilaaf Petrograd yojana banaai virodh aandolan ka netrutv le liya aur fir Moscow, baakoo aur anya shaharon ke liye virodhi ka upayog karne ke liye badhaaya samarthan yuddh jo. 8 March, February kraanti, romaanov vansh, roos saamraajya shaasan ke patan ke liye neeche kadam petrograid, jaar nikolas dviteeya mein baahar tod diya.

antarim sarkaar

roos ke nirankush samaaj pratikool prabhaav, udaaravaad mukt arthavyavastha October party, spasht roop se jameen khone February kraanti ki agali lahar mein progressive party aur anya sangathanon ki ek baar champion ko Stolypin sudhaaron ke nijeekaran ke baad se. ek samvaidhaanik lokatantr aandolan ke roop mein kraanti ki samvaidhaanik democratic party ke udaaravaadi vaamapanthi poorv neta, udaar raajaneetik dalon ke liye ek nishchit appeal hai vahaaain keval ek hi hota ja raha hai. iske vipreet, samay par roos ek uchch samarthan dar do pramukh vaamapanthi party samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon aur social democrat rahe hain. yuddh aur samasya ke saath, teji se vibhaajit balon ke sanyojan ko garm hai. social democratic party dheere - dheere lokalubhaavan samarthan Mensheviks mein vibhaajit hai, aur logon ki lokataantrik taanaashaahi bolshevik samarthan karte hain. saamaajik rivolyooshanari party tadanusaar prabhutv shaili aur vaamapanthiyon vibhaajit. saamaajik kraantikaariyon aur Mensheviks mukhyadhaara aam sahamati jeet tak yuddh jaari rakhane ke liye aavashyak, kuchh vaamapanthi samaajavaadi kraantikaariyon aur bolshevik fir yuddhaviraam jitni jaldi ho sake ek shaanti sandhi par hastaakshar sahamat hue.

roos ki yuddh virodhi pravrutti ke baare mein chintit samvaidhaanik democrat niyantrit naheen kar sakte, aur mitr deshon ke samooh ke saath roos ke badhte kootaneetik sambandh khatre mein pad jaaega, isliye ek saamaajik kraanti aur social democratic party dvidleeya asantosh ke kaaran dheemi gati se lokataantrik prakriya ki vakaalat. general aavashyakta dvidleeya antarim sarkaar ko jald se jald samvidhaan sabha chunaav, nirsan Stolypin krushi sudhaar, pratham vishv yuddh se baahar niklein. jo bolshevik lenin aavaaj bahut bhayankar pratinidhitv kiya. bolshevik aandolan yuddhavirodhi sainikon ke saamane line se lautane, aur sakriya naagrik samaaj vakaalat mein samvaidhaanik lokatantr ke liye baahar le. lenin ek baar bolshevik chunaav haar gaye hain, bhale hi ve logon ki pasand ka paalan karna hoga jiska matlab hai ki samvaidhaanik banaae rakhane ki thi.

1 July, 1917, antarim sarkaar das dinon ki haar ke baad, Germany ke khilaaf aakraamak yojana banaai hai. vifal raha hai hamle ki khabar ke baad, bolshevik fir se yuddh ko rokane ke liye, saamraajyavaadi yuddh ke virodh aandolan karavaaya. jald hi donon yuddh, jiske parinaamasvaroop mein daba diya aur yuddh aparihaarya hai kiya jaana hai

roosi kraanti ka sankshipt kaal-kram

  • tithiyaaain -- ghatanaaeain
  • 1855 -- jaar alekjeindar dviteeya ke shaasan ka aarambh
  • 1861 -- krushi-daason ki mukti
  • 1874-81 - sarkaar-virodhi aatankvaadi aandolan ka vikaas aur sarkaari pratikriya
  • 1881 -- kraantikaariyon dvaara alekjeindar dviteeya ki hatya aur alekjeindar truteeya dvaara uttaraadhikaar grahan
  • 1883 -- pratham roosi maarksavaadi samooh ka gathan
  • 1894 -- nikolas dviteeya ke shaasan ka aarambh
  • 1898 -- roosi saamaajik prajaataantrik majadoor dal ka pehla sammelan
  • 1900 -- samaajavaadi kraantikaari dal ki sthaapana
  • 1903 -- roosi saamaajik prajaataantrik majadoor dal ka dviteeya sammelan ; bolshevikon aur menshevikon ke madhya vibhaajan ka aarambh
  • January - seint peetarsabarg mein raktim ravivaar
  • June - kaala saagar sthit odessa par yuddhapot potemikn ki chadhaari
  • October - aam hadtaal, seint peetarsabarg soviyt ka gathan, October ghoshana patra, raashtreeya sansad (dayooma) ke chunaavon hetu shaahi samjhauta
  • 1906 -- pratham raashtreeya sansad, pradhaanamantri staalipin (Petr Stolypin), krushi sudhaaron ka aarambh
  • 1907 -- truteeya raashtreeya sansad, 1912 tak
  • 1911 -- staalipin ki hatya
  • 1912 - chaturth raashtreeya sansad, 1917 tak. bolshevik-menshevik vibhaajan poorn
  • 1914 - Germany ki roos ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana.
  • 1915 - gambhir paraajayon ka silsila, nikolas dviteeya dvaara swayam ko mukhya senaapati ghoshit karna, pragatisheel gut ka gathan
  • 1916 - anaaj aur indhan ki kami aur moolyon mein vruddhi
  • 1917 - hadtaalein, vidroh, sadkon par pradarshan tatha iske kaaran taanaashaahi ka patan

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein