roos ka itihaas

aadhunik roos ka itihaas poorvi slaav jaati se shuroo hota hai. slaav jaati jo aaj poorvi Europe mein basati hai ka sabse puraana gadh keev tha jahaaain 9veen sadi mein sthaapit kiwi rus saamraajya aadhunik roos ki aadhaarashila ke roop mein maana jaata hai. haaainlaanki us kshetr mein isse pehle bhi saamraajya rahe the par ve doosari jaatiyon ke the aur un jaatiyon ke log aaj bhi roos mein rahate hain - khjr aur anya turk log. keevi ruson ko mangolon ke mahaabhiyaan mein 1230 ke aaspaas paraast kiya gaya lekin 1380 ke dashak mein mangolon ka patan aarambh hua aur Moscow (roosi bhaasha mein mauskava) ka udaya ek sainya rajdhani ke roop mein hua. 17veen se 19veen sadi ke madhya mein roosi saamrajya ka atyadhik vistaar hua. yeh prashaant mahaasaagar se lekar baaltik saagar aur madhya Asia tak fail gaya. pratham vishvayuddh mein roos ko khaasi aantarik kathinaaiyon ka samana karna pada aur 1917 ki bolshevik kraanti ke baad roos yuddh se alag ho gaya. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein aparaajeya lagne waali jarman sena ke khilaaf apratyaashit avarodh tatha antat: vijay pradarshit karan ke baad roos tatha vahaaain ke saamyavaadi naayak Joseph staalin ki dhaak duniya ki raajaneeti mein badhi. udyogon ki utpaadak kshamata aur desh ki aarthik sthiti mein utaar chadhaav aate rahe. 1930 ke dashake mein hi saamyavaadi ganaraajyon ke samooh soviyt roos ka janm hua tha. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad sheet yuddh ke kaal ke gujre is sangh ka vightan 1991 mein ho gaya.

anukram

praacheen kaal aur Moscow ka udaya

11veen sadi mein keevi rus saamraajya

keevi rooson ke mool ke baare mein anek mat hain. skaindinevi vaaiking logon ne stepi mein pehle se avasthit khjaar logon ko visthaapit karke keev (aadhunik Ukraine) mein apni rajdhani banaai. yaheen se roosi saamraajya ka itihaas aarambh hota hai. yeh keevi saamraajya agale 300 saalon tak astitv mein raha. is saamraajya ne uttari Europe tatha muslim abbaasi khilaafat ke beech sampark ka kaam kiya. haaainlaanki yeh khajaar logon dvaara sthaapit vyaapaar maarg ka anukaran maatr tha. khjar logon ne aathaveen sadi mein yahoodi dharm ko apna liya tha. nauveen sadi mein ruson ne islaam ko raajadharm ko laagoo karne ki baat bhi shuru ki thi. iska kaaran ye tha ki islaam mein kai patniyon ko rakhane ki ijaajat thi jisse ki tatkaaleen Rajkumar vlaadimeer bahut aakarshit hua tha. par islaam mein sharaab ki sakht manaahi ki vajah se usane islaam apnaane ka vichaar chhod diya aur san 988 mein roosi saamraajya isaaiyat mein sanskrut hua.

mangol aakraman

san 1200 ke baad mangolon ki shakti mein atyadhik vruddhi hui. mangoliya ke Khan temujin (changej Khan) ke anusaran mein mangol sena sangathit hui aur san 1230 ke dashak mein taatar aakramanon ki vajah se keev ka rusi saamraajya bikhr gaya. lekin 1380 mein maaskavi Rajkumar dimitri daunsakauya ne kulikovo ke maidaan mein taataron ke khilaaf ek nirnaayak jeet haasil ki. iske baad se roos ke itihaas mein Moscow ka naam aata hai. Moscow nae roosi saamraajya ki rajdhani bana.

roosi saamraajya ka vistaar

ivaan truteeya, jise 'mahaan' ki upaadhi se bhi sambodhit kiya jaata hai, ne roosi saamraajya ka vistaar Europe mein kiya. sabse pehle usane lithuaaniya ke shaasak ko haraaya aur antat: usaka saamraajya teen guna fail gaya. iske baad ivaan chaturth aaya jise 'ivaan bhayankar' kehkar bhi yaad karte hain. usane saamanton ke khilaaf sakhti dikhaai aur jo log uske khilaaf hote use maar bhi diya gaya. ivaan chaturth ke baad aaraajakata ka maahaul raha. uske beta santaanaheen mar gaya aur kai varshon tak satta anek haatho mein jaati rahi. iske baad mikhaail romaanov ko shaasak banaaya gaya. romaanov ke vansh ne agale 300 saalon tak roos par raajya kiya.

1613 mein romaanov ke shaasak banane ke baad satta mein sthirta to I par pashchimi Europe mein hue audyogik kraanti tatha vaigyaanik khojon ki vajah se roos fir bhi pichhda hua raha. iske baad Peter ke shaasanakaal mein ismein sudhaar aaya. Peter ne pashchimi Europe ka daura chhadmavesh mein kiya aur is tarah Europe ki pragati par nigaah daalata raha. is kram mein, kaha jaata hai ki, usane ek baar haulaind ki kisi jahaaj company mein badhi ka kaam bhi kiya. lautane ke baad Peter ne bhi roos ka aadhunikeekaran aarambh kiya. Peter ne sainya sudhaar, vesh-bhoosha sudhaar tatha calendar mein sudhaar karavaae. usane sved logon ko haraakar baaltik saagar ke pattanon par adhiptya jamaaya aur is tarah vyaapaar ke nae avsar mile. saamraajya ko jeernata se ubaarane ke liye usane 1703 mein saamraajya ki nai rajdhani ka nirmaan karaaya jise aaj seint peetarsabarg kehte hain.

Peter ki mrutyu ke 40 saal baad Cathrine ko gaddi mili jo jarman mool ki thi. usane Peter ke pote se shaadi ki thi. usane roosi saamraajya tatha itihaas mein ek naya adhyaaya joda. Cathrine ke samay ke senaadhyaksh alekjeindar suvorov ne ek bhi yuddh na haarne ka keertimaan banaaya aur 1799 mein Italy mein nepoliyn ki French sena ke saath hue mukaabile ke baad vaapas aane mein kaamayaabi dikhaai.

nepoliyn ki roos se vaapasi - is yuddh ne nepoliyn ke vijay abhiyaan par aaghaat kiya tha

parantu nepoliyn 1812 mein roos par aakraman karne dubaara aaya. usane Moscow ki gheraabandi kar roosi saamraajya par samarpan ka dabaab daala. par graameen gurilla yuddh aur is samay atyadhik thand ki vajah se fraasisi sena ko bahut kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna pada aur antat: nepoliyn ki haar hui. is yuddh ne liyo tolastoya kae vishv-prasiddh upanyaas ko janm diya jiska naam tha - yuddh aur shaanti. ahoj jak se máate ? ting tong tang ?? čaaíaanani ? :) do boje !!!

audyogeekaran aur saamyavaad

jab nikolas dviteeya satta mein aaya (1894) tab tak roos ka audyogeekaran ek nae saamaajik varg ko janm de chuka tha - majadoor sangh. udyogon ke majadooron ke sangh sangathit hone lage the. 1903 mein roosi janataantrik shramik dal ke do tukade hue - bolshevik (shaabdik arth - bahumati) aur menshevik (alpamati). ye kraanti chaahate the. 1904-5 mein desh ki poorvi sena ko Japan ke haathon karaari haar ka muainh dekhna pada tha. 1905 mein seint peetarsabarg mein aayojit ek shaatipoorn pradarshan rally par sena ne goli barasaai jismein saikadon maare gaye aur kai ghaayal ho gaye. aisi ghatnaaon se janta mein prashaasan ke khilaaf rosh aur bhi badha. inhi kaaranon se prerit hokar 1905 mein ek kraanti hui jisko us samay daba diya gaya. aandolan to dab gaya lekin jaar nikolas dviteeya ko kai sudhaar karne pade, inmein sabse mahatvapoorn tha - roosi sansad dyooma ka gathan. roosi bhaasha mein doma ka arth ghar ya sadan hota hai.

pratham vishvayuddh

pratham vishvayuddh ki shuruaat Europe mein 1914 mein hui. seint peetarsabarg ka naam badalkar petrograad kar diya gaya. kaaran ye tha ki puraana naam jarman lagta tha jabki petrograad poornaroopen roosi tha - isse deshbhakti laane ka andesha tha. lekin sainya viflataaon tatha khaadya saadhanon ki kami ki vajah se majadooron tatha sainikon mein asantosh fail gaya. February 1917 mein petrograad mein vidroh hue jiske falasvaroop jaar nikolas dviteeya ka apaharan kar liya gaya. is ghatna ke saath hi roos mein pichhle 300 saalon se chale aa rahe saamraajya ka ant hua aur saamyavaad ki neenv rakh di gayi. haaainlaanki saamyavaadiyon ko sattaadhikaar turant naheen mila. roos yuddh se alag ho chuka tha. idhar nikolas ke parivaar ko kaid kar rakha gaya aur 16-17 July 1918 ki raat ko unki hatya kar di gayi.

lagaataar niraash ho chuki roosi janta dvaara bolshevikon ko samarthan milne laga tha aur is samarthan mein uttarottar vruddhi ho rahi thi. apne neta vlaadimeer lenin ke netrutv mein bolshevikon mein 25 October ko satta par adhikaar kar liya. is ghatna ka vishv itihaas mein bahut mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. yeh vishv mein pehli baar kisi saamyavaadi shaasan ki sthaapana ka kshan tha. is ghatna ko October kraanti ke naam se jaana jaata tha. roos mein is samay tak jooliyn calendar ka istemaal hota tha jo puraana tha aur usamein soorya ki parikrama karne mein pruthvi ke dvaara lagaae gaye dinon ka anshaatmak hisaab naheen tha. Europe ke kai desh (jaise England) pehle se hi gregoriyn calendar - jo aajkal prayukt hota hai - ka prayog shuru kar chuke the. is calendar mein is dosh ka nivaaran tha: ab tak ki gayi in glatiyo ke evaj mein vartamaan tithi mein 13 din aur jod dena. isko apnaane ke baad 25 October (kraanti ka din) 7 November ko aane laga. haaainlaanki is ghatna ko October kraanti kehte hain par ise 7 November ko manaaya jaata hai. haaya aap kaise hain? ting tong taang? cheeni? :) se ladne ke!

roos ke yuddh se alag hone ke kuchh hi dinon baad bhayankar ashaanti ka maahaul fail gaya. bolshevikon ko petrograad tatha Moscow mein to bahut samarthan mila par sampoorn desh ke paridrushya mein ve raajanaitik roop se bahut achhoote the. ek vidveshapoorn aatarik yuddh si sthiti paida ho gayi. bolshevikon dvaara sthaapit laal sena tatha roos ki raajanaitik tatha sainik sansthaaon dvaara gathit shvet sena mein sangharsh chhid gaya. iske alaave hari sena tatha kaali sena naam ke bhi sangathan bane jo in donon ke khilaaf the. 1922 mein antat: laal sena ki vijay hui.

December 1917 mein bolshevikon ne apni raajanaitik shakti banaane ke liye ek nai police ka gathan kiya jiska sankshep cheka () tha.

lenin

sainikon ko pol seema par vida karte vakt sambodhit karte lenin

lenin ka janm 22 April 1870 ko simbarsk mein hua tha. apni raajanaitik gatividhiyon ke kaaran unhein college se nikaal diya gaya. haaainlaanki unhonne ek baahari vidyaarthi ke roop vidhi ki degree haasil ki. uske baad ve seint peetarsabarg chale gaye aur vahaaain par kraantikaari gatividhiyon mein shaamil hote rahe. unhonne kai upanaamon ka istemaan kiya jismein antat: 1901 mein ve lenin ka prayog karne par sthir ho gaye. unhein saaiberiya mein nirvaasan bhugatna pada. 1907 ke baad inko roos mein rahana asurakshit lagne laga aur is kaaran ve pashchimi Europe chale gaye. svitjralaind mein base lenin ko jarman madad is aasha ke saath mili ki vo roosi sainya prayaason ko kamzor karne mein madad kareinge. is ghatna ki vajah se unhein aksar ek jarman jaasoos ki nazar se bhi dekha gaya. 1918 mein unapar do aatmaghaati hamle hue. 1924 mein unki mrutyu ho gayi. iske teen din baad hi petrograad ka naam badal kar lenin graad kar diya gaya. pretrograad ko pehle (aur ab) seint peetarsabarg kehte the.

staalin

lenin ki mrutyu ke baad Joseph staalin ko satta sangharsh mein vijay mili. usane duniya bhar mein saamyavaad aur taanaashaahi ka naya aayaam pesh kiya. staalin ne apne sabhi pratidvandiyon ko ya to marava diya ya nirvaasit kar diya. staalin ka janm aaj ke jaurjiya mein 1879 mein hua tha jo uske janm ke samay roosi saamraajya ka hissa tha. vo apni kishoraavastha se kavitaaeain likhta tha par is roop mein use adhik safalta naheen mili.

satta mein aane turant baad usane roos ko ek bilkul nae prashaasanik svaroop mein le gaya. usane panchavarsheeya yojanaaon ki neenv daali jo pehle se maujood aarthik yojana ki jagah par laai gayi thi. kisaanon se unki jameen lekar unhein ek sammilit khet banaaya tatha unamein kaam karne vaale shramikon ko shram ke anusaar vetan milta. isi prakaar udyogon mein bhi utpaadan badhaane ki vyavastha ki gayi. jald hi roos ek upabhokta saamagri banaane vaale desh se ek bhaari masheenon ko banaane vaale desh ke roop mein ubhara. kala aur saahitya ko sarkaar dvaara niyantrit kiya gaya. dharm par bhi lagaam lagaai gayi aur iske tahat charchon ko ya to band kiya gaya ya toda gaya ya unka istemaal anya kaaryon mein kiya jaane laga. 1930 ke dashak mein roosi logon ke jeevan mein anushaasan abhootapoorv roop se laagoo kiya gaya. nissandeh yeh sabhi logon dvaara pasand naheen kiya gaya. udyogon mein adhik mihnat karne vaale majadooron ko puraskaar aur protsaahan mile jisse ki utpaadan kshamata mein badhotari hui. usi samay staakhaanovit naamak pad bahut lokapriya hua. yeh aleksei staakhanov naamak ek majadoor dvaara chh: ghante se kam samay mein 102 tan koyale ke khanan ka rikaard banaane ke liye prasiddh hua. is vyakti ko us saal ke time patrika par bhi jagah mili. in protsaahanon ke dvaara majadooron mein adhik utpaadan ki hod lagi. jald hi roos ek audyogik desh ke roop mein jaana jaane laga. 1934 ke aaspaas ka roosi jeevan vahaaain ki sanskruti par ek amit chhaap chhodkar gaya. sarkaar dvaara aashaavaad, aadhikya, saamyavaadi bhaavana, deshbhakti jaisi bhaavanaaon ko badhaava diya gaya.

dviteeya vishvayuddh

jise duniya dviteeya vishvayuddh ke naam se jaanti hai use roos mein mahaan deshbhakti yuddh ke naam se jaana jaata hai. roos is yuddh ke liye pehle se taiyaar naheen tha. 1939 mein Germany ke saath hue sauhaardr samjhaute ke baad 1941 mein hitlar dvaara aakraman karne se roos ko jhatka sa laga. jald hi jarman sena ne roos ke pashchimi pradeshon par kabja kar liya aur leningraad ko gher liya gaya. iske baad shuru hota hai ek apratyaashit pratirodh aur sangharsh ka kram jisne itihaas mein apna naam darj karavaaya. lagbhag 900 dinon tak ghire rahane, sainya aur shastraaston ki kami ke baavajood roosi sena ne Germany ki yooropajeta sena ke saamane samarpan naheen kiya. kathin sardi aur bhookh mein bhi roosiyon ka manobal kaayam raha aur antat: kam se kam 6 lakh 70 hajaar logon ki maut ke baavajood roosi log jarman sena ka pratirodh karte rahe. isse roosi sena ki ajeyata aur drudhta ko namoona pesh hua.

isi beech jarman December 1941 mein Moscow pahuainch gaye. rajdhani ko bachaane ke liye yuvaaon ki bharti hone lagi. apne senaapatiyon ke salaah ke khilaaf staalin ne bhaari jarman sainya jamaavade ke andeshe ke rahate hue bhi November 7 ko bolshevik kraanti ki 25veen varshagaaainth ki parade Moscow mein niklavaai. iski ghoshana aakhiri samay tak naheen ki gayi thi aur saubhaagyavash us din koi bamabaari naheen hui. isse roosi naujavaanon mein ek manobal ka sanchaar hua. sainik vaheen se morche ke liye ravaana hue.

staalingraad ki gheraabandi

volga nadi ke dakshin mein basa shahar staalingraad audyogik kraanti ki den tha. haaainlaanki iska naam badalkar ab volgograad kar diya gaya hai par us samay iska naam josef staalin ke naam par tha aur is kaaran is shahar par kabja karne ka matlab staalin ko haraana tha. isi khbt ke saath hitlar ne apni sena ko staalingraad ke kabje ke liye bheja. June 1942 mein volga nadi ke pashchimi tat par jarman sena aa pahuainchi. shahar par bamon ki varsha si hone lagi. jarman yuddhak vimaanon ne volga nadi paar kar aa rahe roosi sainikon par bhi goli baari ki. sainya saadhanon ki kami se joojh rahe roosi sainikon ne do bade karanaame kar dikhaae.

pehla kaarnaama tha - paavalov bhavan. jarman sena se chaaron or se ghir chuke ek ghar mein kaid chand sainikon ne do maheenon tak apna adda daale rakha aur jarman sena par javaabi kaarravaai karte rahe. baad mein roosi pratirodhi sena ki tukadiyon ne is bhavan ko jarmanon se bacha liya aur is tarah yaakoov paavalov ke netrutv mein bheeshan gheraabandi aur aakraman sahakar is tukadi ne roosi sena ke saamane ek preranaapradaayak sangharsh kiya. doosari ghatna thi snaaipar vasili jaaitsev ki nishaanebaaji. chhupakar maarane waali is kala mein jarman sena ne bhi apne shreshtatam snaaipar ka istemaal kiya. javaab mein madhya roos se aae is naujavaan ne koi 200 jarman sainik akele maar diye. jald hi roosi press ne is ghatna ka prachaar bhi kiya jisse roosi sena ka manobal bana raha. lagbhag 200 dinon ki gheraabandi ke baad roosi sena ki vijay hui. is yuddh mein donon or se lagbhag 15 lakh log maare gaye the. galiyon mein sainiko ke shavon ke dher lag gaye the. staalingraad mein roosiyon ki vijay vishvayuddh ke liye bhi aham saabit hui. jarmanon ki haar hone lagi. roosi sena jarmanon ke dhakelate-dhakelate 1945 mein barlin tak aa pahuainchi aur May 1945 mein Germany ki haar hui. staalin dvaara diye gaye aaainkadon mein roos mein kul 70 lakh log maare gaye the. baad ke anumaanon ke anusaar roos mein yuddh ke dauraan kul 2.6 karod log maare gaye. roos mein yuddh ka ant 9 May 1945 ko maana jaata hai jab jarman sena ne samarpan kar diya. is din ko aaj bhi vijay diwas ke roop mein Moscow ke red square mein manaaya jaata hai.

sheetayuddh

roos yuddh mein me bhaari kshati sahan kar chukane ke baavajood ek shakti ke roop mein ubhara. raajanaitik aur vaigyaanik kaaranon se roos tatha America mein shreshathata saabit karne ki pratispardh lag gayi. yuddh ke aakhiri kshanon mein roosiyon ke jarman rocket vaigyaanik faun-brown ke rocket design haasil hue jabki khud faun-brown America chale gaye. donon deshon mein rocket vigyaan ke kshetr mein nae anusandhaan aur vikaas kiye. 1949 mein naito ki sthaapana hui. staalin ki mrutyu 1953 mein ho gayi. tees saal ke shaasan ke baad roos ekdam nai sthiti mein aa gaya tha. iske baad nikita khrushchev ne satta samhaali aur unhonne vi-staaleekaran ki baat ki. khrushchev ne ek aur kadam uthaaya - roosi suraksha parishad ka gathan jise sankshep mein kejeebi («aКaГaБa») kehte hain. 1961 mein yoori gagarin antariksh jaane vaale pehle vyakti bane par 1969 mein neel aarmastraaaing ke chaaaind par sabse pehle kadam rakhane ke saath hi America ne roosiyon ko is daud mein peechhe chhod diya.

nikita khrushchev ne staalin ki upalabddhiyon ke charcha mein rahane ke baavajood apni jagah banaai. uske shaasanakaal mein khaadya sankat gahra gaya. iska upaaya usane sarvatr makke ki kheti lagaakar karne ki pahal ki jo adhik kaaragar naheen hui. khrushchev ke shaasanakaal ko sheetayuddh ka charam kaha ja sakta hai. antariksh hod, 1960 mein jameen ke upar ud rahe ameriki vimaan ko nasht karna, 1961 mein barlin ki deevaar ka khada hona, 1962 mein kyooba ka misaail sankat ityaadi jaisi tanaavapoorn aur sangharshaahoot ghatanaaeain uske shaasanakaal mein hi huin. 1964 mein unako lionid brejhnev ke haathon haar ka saamana karna pada.

brejhnev ke shaasan kaal ko ek sthirta ka kaal kaha jaata hai kyonki arthavyavastha mein pichhle teen dashakon se jo teji I thi vo vaapas nimnastar par chali gayi. 1972 mein America se sambandh sudhaaron ke prayaas to hue par 1979 mein afagaanistaan par roos ki chadhaai ke saath hi in sambandhon mein bhi daraar aa gayi. 1984 mein Moscow mein olanpik khelon ka aayojan hua jo safal raha. 1982 mein brejhnev ka nidhan ho gaya. iske baad mikhaail gorbaachov ko satta mili. gorbaachov ke shaasanakaal mein kai sudhaar hue.

soviyt sangh ka vightan

gorbaachev ke shaasanakaal mein do pad bahut hi prasiddh hue - glaasanosht aur 'perestroika'. glaasanosht ka arth hota hai - khulaapan aur perestoraika ka matlab - punarnirmaan. unhonne raajanaitik bandiyon ko riha kiya aur poorvi yorop mein hastakshep se bachane ki neeti apnaai. dheere-dheere visaamyavaadi pradarshanon ki vajah se unka sarkaarein girti gain. 1989 mein barlin ki deevaar bhi dhaha di gayi aur poorvi tatha pashchimi Germany ka ekeekaran hua. is ghatna ko aaj bhi saamyavaad ki asafalata ke aaranbhik nishaan ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. isi saal soviyt sena afgaanistaan se bhi hat gayi. ye sab baatein punarnirmaan yaani perestoraika ke liye to ek prateek bani par glaasanosht ko utani lokapriyta naheen mili. 1986 mein chernobil mein hue parmaanu urjaagruh mein hui durghatana ko sarkaari media dvaara chhupaane aur dabaane ki koshish ki gayi. glaashanosht ki vajah se soviyt sangh ke ghatak deshon mein raashtravaadi pradarshanon ko avsar aur dhyaan diya gaya. March 1990 mein gorbaachev soviyt sangh ke raashtrapati bane. 1991 mein jab gorbaachev kreemiya mein ek chhutti par the tab takhtaapalat ki koshish hui aur gorbaachev ko teen dinon tak najaraband kiya gaya. idhar Moscow mein boris yeltasin ka samarthan badh gaya tha aur unhein raashtrapati bana diya gaya. soviyt sangh ke kai deshon ne svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di. 8 December 1991 ko Belarus, Ukraine aur roos ke raashtrapatiyon ne milkar soviyt sangh ke bhanjan ka faisala kiya.

inhein bhi dekhein