romanthak

Britain mein jugaali kar rahi ek gaaya
kaksh darshaane ke liye kaatkar failaaya gaya romanthak pet - (a) graasanaal, (b) roomen, (c) retikyoolama​, (d) omesam, (e) aibomesam, (f) aaaint

romanthak (ruminant) ya jugaali karne vaale vah sam-ooaingali khuradaar stanadhaari pashu hote hain jo vanaspati khaakar pehle apne pet ke pratham khaane mein use naram karte hain aur fir jugaali karke use vaapas apne moonh mein laakar chabaate hain. pet ke pratham kaksh se moonh mein vaapas laaye gaye khaane ko paagur (cud) kaha jaata hai aur yeh dobaara chabaane se aur maheen ho jaata hai jis se usase hajm karte samay adhik paushtikta li ja sakti hai. vishv mein romanthakon ki lagbhag 150 jaatiyaaain gyaat hain jinmein bahut se jaane-pahachaane paaloo aur jangali jaanavar shaamil hain, masalan gaaya, bakari, bhed, jiraaf, bhains, hiran, ooaint, laama aur neelagaaya.

vivran

jahaaain gair-romanthakon (jaise ki maanav, bhediye, billiyaaain) ke peton mein ek hi kaksh hota hai vahaaain romanthakon ke pet mein chaar khaane hote hain. yeh is prakaar hain:[1]

  • roomen (rumen) - yeh pehla aur sabse bada kaksh hota hai. khaai hui vaapaspati saamagri (thook se bhi mile hue ghaas, patte, vagairaah) ismein aati hai aur yahaaain maujood baikteeriya usapar kinvan (framenteshan) karte hain.
  • retikyoolama​ (reticulum) - roomen se kinvit khaana retikyoolama​ jaata hai jahaaain aur bhi baikteeriya use parivrtit karte hain. yahaaain khaana bahut se drav se bhi mishrit kiya jaata hai. maheen khaane ke kan doobkar is khaane ke neeche baith jaate hain jabki mote kan aur tukade oopar rahate hain. maheen khaana paachan ke liye ek patali nali ke jriye seedha aibomesam (antim kaksh) mein pahuncha diya jaata hai.[2] khaane ke bade tukade jugaali ki kriya ke dvaara paagur naamak gole ke roop mein vaapas oopar munh mein pahuncha diya jaata hai, jahaaain jaanavar use chabaata hai. is paagur mein bahut se baikteeriya bhi mishrit hote hain.
  • omesam (omasum) - munh mein paagur ko achhi tarah chabaane ke baad pashu fir se use nigl leta hai aur yeh omesam (yaani pet ke teesare kaksh) mein pahuainchata hai. chabaae gaye khaane ke tukade ab kaafi chhote ho gaye hote hain aur usamein mishrit baikteeriya ke paas use kinvit karne ke liye aur satahi kshetr milta hai. omesam ki deevaarein khaane mein mile hue paani ko kaafi had tak bhi sokh leti hain. yahaaain se ab yeh kinvit khaana aibomesam (chauthe kaksh) mein jaata hai.
  • aibomesam (abomasum) - bahut se jeevavaijnyaaanik aibomesam ko hi pashu ka asli pet samajhte hain kyonki yahi ekamaatr kaksh hai jahaaain paachan ke rasaayan (jaise ki haaidroklorik aml) use hajm karte hain. aml ke kaaran khaane mein mishrit baikteeriya bhi maare jaate hain (haalaanki roomen mein lagaataar aur baikteeriya janmate rahate hain, isliye jaanavar ko inki kami naheen hoti). saral padaarthon mein parivrtit khaana ab aaainton mein jaata hai jahaaain uske shaktivrdhak aur paushtik tatv sokh liye jaate hain.[3]

yadi teenon khaanon ka aakaar milkar dekha jaae to ek gaaya mein yeh 100 liter se 240 liter tak hota hai.[2]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • sam-ooaingali khuradaar

sandarbh

  1. Biology Spm, Nalini T. Balachandran, Sia Chwee Khim & Kee Bee Suan, pp. 78, Pelangi Publishing Group Bhd, ISBN 9789830028187, ... Movement of food in the digestive system of a cow, a ruminant: Mouth Rumen -> Reticulum -> Mouth -> Omasum -> Abomasum -> Small intestine ...
  2. a aa The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals, Septimus Sisson, pp. 453, W.B. Saunders Company, 1914, ... The first three divisions are often regarded as proventriculi or oesophageal sacculations, the fourth being the stomach proper ... a direct path from the reticulum to the abomasum for finely divided food or fluid ... in large animals 40 to 60 (gallons), in small, 25 to 35 ...
  3. Life: The Science of Biology, David Sadava, H. Craig Heller, Gordon H. Orians, William K. Purves, David M. Hillis, pp. 1085, Macmillan, 2006, ISBN 9781429204590, ... The microorganisms metabolize cellulose and other nutrients to simple fatty acids, which become nutrients for their host. Enormous numbers of microorganisms leave the rumen along with the partially digested food. This mass is concentrated concentrated by water absorption in the omasum before it then enters the true stomach, the abomasum, where the microorganisms are killed by the hydrochloric acid ...