robautiks

balb pakade huai robauti 'shaido hand'

robautiks robaut ki abhiklpana, nirmaan aur abhiprayog ke vigyaan aur takaneekon ko kehte hain.[1] is kshetr mein kaarya karne ke liye ilektrauniki, yaantriki aur software ke sivaaya kai anya kshetron mein vyaavahaarik gyaan ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[2] haalaaainki robaut ke svaroop aur kshamataaon mein kaafi vividhta hain par in sabhi mein kai samaanataaeain bhi hain. udaaharan ke liye yaantrik chalanasheel dhaaaincha aur svaniyantran sabhi mein hota hai. robaut ke dhaaainche ki upama maanav asthipanjar hai aur use shuddh-gati maala kaha ja sakta hai. yeh maala hai iski haddiyaaain, pravartak iski maaains peshiyaaain aur jod, jo ise ek ya ek se adhik svaatantrya parimaan dete hain. adhikaansh robaut kramik maala roopi hote hain, jismein ek kadi doosari se judti hai - inhein kramik robaut kehte hain aur ye maanav haath ke samaan hain. anya robaut saamaanaantar shuddh-gati maalaaon ka prayog karte hain. jeev-yaantriki ke antargat maanav ya anya jeevon ki nakal kar dhaachon ko banaane par anusandhaan chal raha hai. maala ki antim kadi kisi tarah ki pravartak ho sakti hai, jaise ek yaantrik haath ya velding machine.

anukram

itihaas

robautiks shabd ka prayog kisi bhi prakaashan mein sabse pehle aaisek esimov ne apni laghu vigyaan katha ranaaraaund mein kiya tha, jo 1942 mein prakaashit hui thi. unhe is baat ka andesha nahi tha ki vigyaan katha lekhak kaarel kaapaik, robaut shabd ko pehle hi gadh chuke the.[3] is naam ke gadhne se pehle bhi is kshetr mein sadiyon se ruchi rahi hai. iliyaad mein sone ki sundariyon ko banaane ka jikr hai.[4] robauti kabootaron ki kalpana isa se 400 saal pehle ki gayi thi.[5] robauton ka aaj odyogik, sainik, anveshan, dhareloo, aadhyaatmik aur anusandhaanik kshetron mein upayog kiya ja raha hai.[6]

robauton ke ghatak

pravartak

ek robauti pair, jo havaai-daab-peshi se chale

pravartak robaut ke peshiyon samaan hoti hain, jo chaalan kshamata pradaan karti hain. aam taur par vidyut motor ka prayog hota hai, par anya sanchaalan shaktiyon ka prayog kiya ja raha hai.

  • disht dhaara motor: adhiktam robauton mein disht dhaara, ya deesi, motaron ka prayog hota hai. in motaron ki khaasiyat yeh hai ki ye badi aasaani se mil jaateen hain, inka prayog aasaan hai, dono disha mein chalti hain aur kaafi jaldi teji pakadateen hain.
  • charanash: motor: disht dhaara motaron ki tulana mein charanash: (steppar) motor svatantrataapoorvak na chalakar, kadamon mein dhoomati hain. iska faayda yeh hai ki niyantran sookshm aur poorvaanumeya hota hai; sanket ki zaroorat nahi padti koneeya sthiti ko jaanane ke liye. isaliye inka prayog anek robauton aur seeenasi masheenon mein hota hai.
  • peejo motor: in motaron ko paarasvanik motor bhi kehte hain. inka chaalan kshan mein hajaaron baar peejovidyut sookshm "pairon" ke kanpan se hota hai. ye motor seedhe ya golaakaar disha mein chal sakti hain.[7] inki khaasiyat hai ki ye nainomeetar star par niyantran, gati aur apne maap ke liye atyant shaktishaali hotein hain.[8] in motaron ka prayog ho raha hai aur vaanijyik star par nirmaan bhi chal raha hai.[9][10]
  • makkibn krutrim peshi: hava ke dabaav se yeh saral, kintu sashakt, yantr, khinchane aur failaane ki kriyaaon se robaut ki astiyon ko chalaane ka kaam karta hai. choonki yeh jeevon ke peshiyon se bahut samaroop vyavahaar ko darshaata hai, inka prayog robaut banaane mein kiya ja raha hai.[11] udaaharan ke liye, shaido robaut ke haath mein 40 havaai peshiyaan uske 24 jodon ko chalaateen hain.
  • vidyut-sakriya bahulak: vidyut shakti ke lagaane se plastic ke kuchh varn apne aakaar ko badalne ki pravruti rakhate hain.[12] haalaanki inmein kshamata hai mudane, khachane aur sukudane ki, ye na to kaaryaksham hain na hi pusht - isaliye inka prayog nahi ho pa raha hai.[13] is padaarth se bane robauton ke saath bhuja kushti mein 17 saal ki ladki ne vijay paayi![14] ummeed hai ki bhavishya mein sooshm robauti anuprayogon mein inka istamaal hoga.[15]
  • nainonali par anusandhaan praathamik star par hai. inke lacheelepan ka raaj inke takareeban truti rahit rahana. inse bani peshiyaaain inasaani peshiyon se adhik sashakt hongi.[16]

dakshaprayog

vyaavahaarik kaarya sakshamta ke liye robauton ko vastuon ko uthaane, unhe sudhaarane ya nasht karne ke liye 'haathon' ki jaroorat padti hai. ye haath aksar aakhri kadi hoteen hain, jinhein ant parivrtak (end effectors) kaha jaata hai[17], robauti baajuon par lagti hain.[18] adhikaansh taur par ye robauti haath pruthakaanukool hoti hain taaki kaaryaanusaar inhe badla ja sake.

  • pakad: robauton mein pakad (gripper) ka prayog saamaanya taur par hota hai. sabse saral svaroop mein isame sirf do ungaliyaaain hoti hain, jiska prayog chhaute vastuon ko uthaane ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • nirvaat-pakad: bade vastuon ko uthaane ke liye, jab tak ki unki satah chikni ho (jaise ki car ka havaarodhi sheesha), nirvaat-pakadon ka prayog kiya jaata hai.
  • saamaanya prayojan pakad: kuchh aadhoonik robauton ne takareeban insaani haath ki dakshata pa li hai, jaise ki 'shaido hand' (Shadow Hand) aur 'shank hand' (Schunk hand).[19] inki khaasiyat yeh hai ki inmein 20 tak svaatantrya parimaan aur saikadon sparsh-sanketak hote hain[20], jinka niyantran atyant kathin hota hai kyonki computer ko atyaadhik vikalpon se sahi vikalp dhoondhana hota hai.[21].

chalanasheelata

robauton ki chalanasheelata ke liye pahiyon vaale aur pairon vaale robauto ka nirmaan hua hai.

(ek kalaakaar ke dvaara maars rovar ka chitran. (shreya: Maas Digital LLC)

pahiyedaar robaut

najoya ke robaut sangrahaalaya mein saigve
  • chaar ya usase adhik pahiye: naasa ne behatareen udaaharan dikhaaya duniya ko mangal par bheje maars rovar ke roop mein.
  • dopahiya robaut: haalaanki saigve ek robaut nahi hai, kai robauton mein iske gatik santulan kalanavidhi ka prayog hua hai. saigve ka naasa nein robonaut mein prayog kiya hai.[22]
  • baulabaut: kaarnegi mailan vishvavidhyaalaya ke anusandhaan karataaon ne robauton ke chaalan ke liye pahiyon ki jagah ek geind ka prayog kiya hai. inki khaasiyat yeh hai ki chhote seemit jagahon mein bhi inhe ghuma sakte hain.[23]
  • patariyaaain: naasa ka robaut, arabi, jo patariyon par chalta hai.[24]

chalte robaut

chalana kramaadeshikran me sabse kathin aur gatyaatmak samasya

paaraspar maanaveeya vyavahaar

kismet robaut jo mukh bhaav dikha sakta hai

robauton ka prabhaavi prayog gharelu aur audhyogik paripradesh me hone ke liye yeh jaroori hai ki ve insaanon se prabhaavakaari roop mein ant:sanchaar kar sakein. ve log jo in robauton ke saath kaam kareinge, unhe is baat se aasaani hogi ki ye robaut unki bhaasha mein bole, unki pareshaaniyon ko chehara dekhkar samajh sakein. vigyaan saahitya mein robaut bhaasha, mukh bhaav ko badi sahajata se prastut karatein hain, par vaastavikta yeh hai ki in kshetron mein abhi bahut door jaana baaki hai.

  • vaak abhigyaan: kisi manushya ke vachanon ki dhaara ko sadya anukriya samajh paana kmpyootar ke liye atyaadhik kathin hai, kyonki ismein kai tarah ke ghatabadh dekhe jaate hain, jaise ki arthavatata, shabd ka uchchaaran, dhvani ki prabalata, paas pados ke dhvanikta, vakta ka mijaaj ya tabiyat (sardi to nahi lagi), ityaadi.[25] aaj, Davis, biddulf aur baalaashek ke 1952 mein banaayi vaak abhigyaan pranaali, jismein 1 se 10 tak ki boli ko 100% parishuddhata se pahachaanane ki kshamata thi, ki tulana mein duniya kaafi aage ja chuki hai.[26] sarvottam pranaaliyon mein 160 shabd prati minute se adhik ki parishuddhata ko paaya gaya hai.[27]
  • bhaav sanket: agar kisi robauti police afsar se raasta poochha jaaye, to shabdon ki bajaay haathon ke sanket se jyaada aasaani se raasta bataaya ja sakta hai.[28] aisi kai pranaaliyon ka vikaas kiya ja chuka hai.[29]
  • mukh bhaav: mukh bhaav ka insaani sampark mein mahatvapoorn hai aur ise robauti sampark ke liye bhi viksit kiya ja raha hai. ek taraf robaut ka apanein chehare par manobhaavon ko vyakt karna (jaise ki kismet[30]), doosari taraf insaanon ke manobhaavon ko samajhna, donon hi upyogi hain.
  • vyaktitv: vigyaan saahitya mein kai robauton ko maanavik taur par vyaktitv ke pradarshan karte huai dikhaaya jaata hai. ye aur baat hai ki aise robauton ki vaanchhaneeyata par vivaad hai.[31] fir bhi, aise robauton par anusandhaan chal raha hai.[32][33] pliyo, jo ek robauti khilauna hai, kai tarah ke manobhaavon ko pratarshit kar sakta hai.[34]

niyantran

robaut ke yaantrik dhaanche ko chalaanein ke liye teen pruthak vibhaagon par dhyaan diya jaata hai - pratyaksh gyaan, prakraman aur kriya. sanketon ki sahaayata se robaut apne aas-paas ki jaankaari aur apne hi jodon ki sthiti ko haasil karta hai. niyantran neeti ke kaaryaneetiyon ke prayog se, ab pravartakon ko sahi disha mein ghumaaya jaata hai. robaut ke angon ko ghumaane ke liye path niyojan, pratiroop abhigyaan, baadha parivrjan jaisi takaneekon ka prayog hota hai. aur bhi jatil aur anukoolanasheel niyantran ko krutrim buddhi kaha ja sakta hai.


baahya kadiyaaain

ullekh

  1. "robautiks ki paribhaasha - mariym-vebastar onalaain shabdakosh". http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Robotics. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-26.
  2. "monstar kairiyr salaah mein robautiks par praudhyogik poorv-bhoomika". http://content.monster.com/articles/3472/18567/1/industry/12/home.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-26.
  3. aisimov, aaisek (2003). Gold. Eos.
  4. Deborah Levine Gera. "praacheen grees mein boli, bhaasha aur sanskruti par vichaar". http://books.google.com/books?id=h5tKJvApybsC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=hephaestus+handmaidens&source=web&ots=AmE4CYagER&sig=qoE-R-FGa3CRe9fKPjBKCdk24C4. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-31.
  5. "BBC samaachaar". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/sci_tech/2001/artificial_intelligence/1531432.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-26.
  6. "robautiks mela". http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/robotics/universal/index.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-26.
  7. "Piezo LEGS® - Technology". Piezomotor. http://www.piezomotor.se/pages/PLtechnology.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-26.
  8. "skvigl motor: bhoomika". http://www.newscaletech.com/squiggle_overview.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-08.
  9. Nishibori et al. (2003). "ungaliyon ke saath robauti haath jo ultra sonik motor se chalti hain". Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics. abhigman tithi:
  10. Yamano and Maeno (2005). "paaainch ungaliyon wala robauti haath jo ultra sonik motor aur ilaastik ghatakon se bana hai" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. abhigman tithi:
  11. "shaido robaut company: havaai peshi". http://www.shadowrobot.com/airmuscles/overview.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-15.
  12. "ElectroActive Polymers - EAPs". Azom.com The A-Z of Materials. http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=885. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-15.
  13. Yoseph Bar-Cohen (2002). "vidyut-sakriya bahulak: vartamaan kshamata aur chunautiyaaain" (PDF). Proceedings of the SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Symposium. abhigman tithi:
  14. Graham-Rowe, Duncan (2002-03-08). robauton ke saath bhuja kushti mein 17 saal ki ladki ne vijay paayi. New Scientist. http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/dn7113. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-15.
  15. Otake et al. (2001). "vidyut-sakriya bahulakon se bane jail robaut" (PDF). abhigman tithi:
  16. John D. Madden, 2007, chalit robautein: motor chunautiyaaain aur padaarthon se upaaya, Science 16 November 2007:Vol. 318. no. 5853, pp. 1094 - 1097, DOI: 10.1126/science.1146351
  17. "robauti ant parivrtak kya hain?". ATI Industrial Automation. 2007. http://www.ati-ia.com/. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-16.
  18. Crane, Carl D.; Joseph Duffy (1998-03). robauti baajuon ka shuddh-gati vishleshan. Cambridge University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521570638. http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521570638. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-16.
  19. Allcock, Andrew (2006-09). "robauti haath jo takareeban insaani haath ke samaan hai.". Machinery. http://www.machinery.co.uk/article/7593/Anthropomorphic-hand-is-almost-human.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-17.
  20. shaido hand takaneeki vinirdesh
  21. G.J. Monkman, S. Hesse, R. Steinmann & H. Schunk – Robot Grippers - Wiley, Berlin 2007
  22. "robonaut report". NASA. 2004-02. http://robonaut.jsc.nasa.gov/status/Feb_Robonaut_Status_04.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-20.
  23. Carnegie Mellon (2006-08-09). kaarnegi mailan vishvavidhyaalaya ke anusandhaan karataaon ne robauton ke chaalan ke liye pahiyon ki jagah ek geind ka prayog kiya. press release. http://www.cmu.edu/PR/releases06/060809_ballbot.html.
  24. http://www-robotics.jpl.nasa.gov/systems/system.cfm?System=4#urbie
  25. bhaashaayi takaneekon mein vaak abhigyaan par charcha
  26. forniyr, raindaulf Scott aur bi June shmit: "dhvani nivesh takaneekein: paathan shailiyaaain aur unki or ravaiya" Delta Pi Epsilon Journal 37 (1995): 1_12.
  27. "vaak aur dhvani abhigyaan ka itihaas aur pratilekhan sauftavair". Dragon Naturally Speaking. http://www.dragon-medical-transcription.com/history_speech_recognition.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-27.
  28. Waldherr, Romero & Thrun (2000). "saanketik antaraafalak manooshya-robauti anyonyakriya" (PDF). Kluwer Academic Publishers. abhigman tithi:
  29. Markus Kohler. "drushti aadhaarit haath sanket abhigyaan pranaali". University of Dortmund. http://ls7-www.cs.uni-dortmund.de/research/gesture/vbgr-table.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-28.
  30. "M I ti ke krutrim buddhi prayogashaala mein kismet". Sam Ogden. http://www.samogden.com/Kismet.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-28.
  31. (Park et al. 2005) Synthetic Personality in Robots and its Effect on Human-Robot Relationship
  32. N pi aar: robauti svaagati disha aur tevar dikhaaye
  33. new saayentist: achhe robaut ko vyaktitv chaahiye, naaki sundarata
  34. ugobe: pliyo se parichit hon