rin

rin vah hai, jo kisi se maaainga ya liya jaata hai; saamaanyat: yeh li gayi sampatti ko vyakt karta hai, lekin yeh shabd dhan ki aavashyakta ke pare naitik daayitv evam anya paarasparik kriyaaon ko bhi vyakt karta hai. parisampattiyon ke maamale mein, rin kul jod arjit hone ke poorv vartamaan mein bhavishya ki kraya shakti ke prayog ka maadhyam hai. kuchh companiyaan evam nigam rin ka prayog apni sampoorn sangathit (corporate) vitteeya yojanaaon ke bhaag ke roop mein karte hain.[tathya vaanchhit]

rin tab srujit hota hai jab ek rinadaata ek rin praaptakarta ya rini ko kuchh parisanpatti pradaan karta hai. aadhunik samaaj mein, saamaanyat: rin ko apekshit punarbhugataan ke saath pradaan kiya jaata hai; jyaadaatar maamalon mein, byaaj sahit. aitihaasik roop se, rin anubandhit naukar ke srujan hetu jimmedaar tha.

anukram

shabd utpatti itihaas

is shabd ki utpatti French shabd dette evam antat: laitin shabd de habere (rakhana) se nikle shabd debere (maangana) se hui hai. Debt (rin) shabd mein bi akshar ka prayog 17veen shataabdi mein sanbhavat: saimual jaunsan dvaara 1755 ke apne shabdakosh mein pun: prayukt kiya gaya tha - kuchh anya shabd jo bi akshar ke bina astitv mein the, unamein usi samay ke aaspaas bi akshar sammilit kiya gaya.

bhugataan

rin ke poorv, rinadaata tatha rin praaptakarta ko rin ke punarbhugataan tareeke par sahamat hona chaahiye, jise ki bilanbit bhugataan ke maanak ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. yeh bhugataan saamaanyat: mudra ki ikaai mein tay dhanaraashi ke roop mein hota hai lekin yeh bhi kabhi-kabhi vastu ya saamagri ke roop mein bhi ho sakta hai. samay ke saath-saath bhugataan niyamit kiston ke roop mein athva rin anubandh ki samaapti par ek saath kiya ja sakta hai.

rin ke prakaar

koi bhi company apne kaaryakalaapon ko vitteeya sahaayata pradaan karne ke liye kai tarah ke rinon ka prayog karti hai. vibhinn prakaar ke rinon ko nimnalikhit shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai - 1) surakshit evam asurakshit rin 2) niji evam saarvajanik rin 3) sangheeya evam dwipaksheeya rin, evam 4) anya prakaar ke rin jo uparokt varnit rinon ke ek ya adhik lakshanon ko vyakt karta hai.[1]

rin daayitv ko surakshit maana jaata hai yadi rinadaata ko company ki parisampattiyon ko bechne ka maalikaana hak ho ya anyatha company ke viruddh saamaanya daavon se aage ho. asurakshit rin mein vitteeya daayitv shaamil hain, jahaaain rinadaata ko uske daavon ko poora karne ke liye rinapraaptakarta ki parisanpatti par adhikaar na ho.

niji rin mein bank rin prakaar ke daayitv shaamil hain, chaahe varishth hon ya beech ke. saarvajanik rin ek saamaanya paribhaasha hai jismein sabhi vitteeya adhikaar shaamil hain jo ki ek saarvajanik exchange (baajaar) ya patal par mukt roop se vyaapaar yogya hote hain, yadi koi pratibandh ho.

rin ka sangheekaran ek jokhim prabandhan tareeka hai jo agrani bankon ko apne jokhim ko kam karne evam rin pradaan kshamata ko mukt karne ke liye rin ko adholikhit karne ki anumati deta hai.

aadhaarbhoot rin sabse saral tareeke ka rin hai. ismein ek anubandh ke dvaara ek niyat samay mein punarbhugataan ke liye rakam pradaan karna sammilit hota hai. vaanijyik rinon mein, rin ki mukhya raashi par prativrsh pratishat ke roop mein kiye gaye byaaj ka bhi us tithi tak bhugataan karna hota hai.

kuchh rinon mein, rin praaptakarta ko vaastavik roop se di gayi raashi uske dvaara vaapas ki jaane waali raashi se kam hoti hai; atirikt mukhya raashi ka uchch byaaj dar (dekhein bindu (bandhak raashi)) ki tarah hi aarthik prabhaav hota hai evam ise kabhi-kabhi banker ka darjan sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, "bainkars dajn" par ek naatak - maange gaye baarah (ek darjan) par gyaarah ka rin praapt hota hai (ek banker ka darjan). not karein ki prabhaavi byaaj dar chhoot ke baraabar naheen hai : yadi koi $10 praapt karta evam $11 punarbhugataan karta hai, tab yeh ($11 - $10)/ $10 = 10% byaaj hai; haalaaki, yadi koi $9 praapt karta evam $10 punarbhugataan karta hai, tab yeh ($10 - $9)/ $9 = 11 1/0% byaaj hai.[2]

ek sangheeya rin kisi company ko diye jaane wala vah rin hai jismein vah company utani dhanaraashi chaahati hai jise koi rinadaata ekal rin ke roop mein jokhim lene ko taiyaar na ho, saamaanyat: yeh raashi kai million dollar hoti hai. aise maamalon mein, bankon ka sangh mukhya dhanaraashi ke ek ansh ko pradaan karne hetu sahamati pradaan karta hai.

rin ki suraksha hetu nishchit sansthaanon jaise ki companiyon evam sarkaaron dvaara baand jaari kiye jaate hain. baand ke dvaara rin praaptakarta ko mukhya raashi ko byaaj sahit vaapas karne ki baadhyata hoti hai. dhan praapti ke ichhuk sansthaan dvaara bhi baajaar mein niveshakon ko baand jaari kiye jaate hain. baand ki ek nishchit avadhi hoti hai, saamaanyat: kuchh varsh ; deerghaavidhi baand sahit, jo 30 varsh tak chalte hain, saamaanyat: kam prachalit hain. baand ki avadhi ki samaapti par poori dhanaraashi vaapas karni chaahiye. antim bhugataan ke samay byaaj ko bhi jodna chaahiye ya ise baand ki jeevanaavadhi mein niyamit kiston (koopan ke roop mein prachalit) dvaara bhugataan kiya ja sakta hai. baand ka baand baajaar mein vyavasaaya kiya ja sakta hai evam ise ikviti ki tulana mein surakshit nivesh ke roop mein vistrut roop se prayog kiya jaata hai.

rin sangheekaran

inhein bhi dekhein: Syndicated loan

nidhi aadhaar

nakad saakh

yeh praathamik tareeka hai jismein bank saamagriyon evam rin ki pratibhooti ke viruddh dhanaraashi pradaan karte hain. yeh ek chaaloo khaate ki tarah sanchaalit hota hai basharte ki is khaate se aaharit ki ja sakane waali dhanaraashi is khaate mein jama kiye gaye dhan tak hi seemit naheen hai. iske sthaan par, khaata dhaarak ko "limit (seema)", "jama suvidha" kahi jaane waali ek nishchit dhanaraashi ko aaharit karne ki anumati hoti hai, jo ki khaate mein saakh raashi se adhik hoti hai. nakad saakh, siddhaantat:, maange jaane par bhugataan yogya hain. ataev, ye bank ki maang jamaaon ke pratiroop hain.

kaaryasheel poonji:

farmon ko unki rojamarra ki gatividhiyon hetu bhugataan ke liye nakad ki aavashyakta hoti hai. unhein vetan, kachchi saamagri, bilon va kai anya madon hetu bhugataan karna hota hai. in kaaryon hetu upalabdh dhanaraashi ko farm ki kaaryasheel poonji kaha jaata hai. kaaryasheel poonji ka mukhya strot vartamaan parisanpattiyaaain hain kyonki ye alpaavadhi parisanpattiyaaain hain jinka prayog farm nakadi ke srujan hetu kar sakta hai. haalaaki, farm ke vartamaan uttaradaayitv bhi hote hain, ataev farm ki maujood kaaryasheel poonji ki ganana karte samay in par bhi dhyaan diya jaana chaahiye.

ataev kaaryasheel poonji:- kaaryasheel poonji = vartamaan parisanpatti || bhandaar + rinadaata + nakad - vartamaan uttaradaayitv is prakaar kaaryasheel poonji hi sakal vartamaan parisampattiyon ki tarah hai evam yeh farm ke tulan patra (bailens sheet) ke sheershaaddh ka mahattvapoorn bhaag hai. ek vyaapaar ke liye yeh atyaavashyak hai ki vah apni samast aavashyakataaon ki poorti hetu paryaapt kaaryasheel poonji rakhe. kai vyaapaar sirf iseeliye naheen doob gaye kyonki ve alaabhadaayak the, balki unke paas kaaryasheel poonji ka abhaav tha. kaaryasheel poonji chakr

bank over draft (jama dhan se adhik raashi aaharan)

ovaradraaft shabd se taatparya hai kisi bank khaate se adhik dhan ka aaharan. anya shabdon mein, koi khaata dhaarak bank khaate se jama dhan ki tulana mein adhik dhan aaharit karta hai. ovaradraaft tab ghatit hota hai jab bank khaate se aaharit dhan upalabdh shesh dhan se adhik ho jaata hai jo ki khaate ko rinaatmak santulan pradaan karta hai - aisi sthiti mein vyakti ko "ati aaharit" kaha ja sakta hai.

yadi khaata pradaata se ovaradraaft sanrakshan yojana hetu koi poorv anubandh hai evam atirikt aaharit raashi praadhikrut ovaradraaft seema ke antargat hai, tab sahamat dar par hi byaaj adhiropit kiya jaata hai. yadi yeh shesh raashi sahamat sharton se adhik ho jaati hai to shulk evam uchchatar byaaj dar ko adhiropit kiya ja sakta hai.

aavadhik rin

aavadhik rin bank mein niyat jama ke pratiroop hain. bank is tareeke se tab dhan pradaan karta hai, jab punarbhugataan niyat ya tay, poorv nirdhaarit kiston ke dvaara hona ho. is tarah ke rin, rin praaptakarta ko deerghaavadhi parisampattiyon ki praapti hetu pradaan kiya jaata hai, yaani aisi parisanpattiyaaain jo rin praaptakarta ko deerghaavadhi mein laabh pradaan karein (kam se kam ek varsh se adhik). is shreni mein sanyantr evam machinery ka kraya, kaarkhaane hetu imaarat ka nirmaan, nayi pariyojanaaon ki sthaapana aadi aati hain. is shreni ke antargat automobile, upabhokta saamagriyon, achal sampatti ke kraya hetu vitteeya sahaayata evam aadhaarbhoot dhaaainche ka srujan bhi aata hai.

bill mein chhoot (riyaayat):

kuchh chhote bankon mein bill riyaayat ek pramukh gatividhi hai. gatividhi mein bank rinapraaptakarta dvaara apne graahak par aaharit bill ko leta hai evam chhoot/ commission ke roop mein kuchh dhanaraashi ki katauti karke tatkaal bhugataan kar deta hai. tatpashchaat, bank is bill ko deya tithi ko rin praaptakarta ke graahak ko prastut karta hai evam kul dhanaraashi ekatr karta hai. yadi bill mein vilamb ho jaata hai to rinapraaptakarta ya usaka graahak bank ko lenaden ki sharton ke adheen poorv-nirdhaarit byaaj ka bhugataan karte hain.

pariyojana hetu vitt pradaan:

pariyojana hetu vitteeya sahaayata pradaan karna deerghaavadhi aadhaarbhoot dhaanche evam audyogik pariyojanaaon ko vitteeya sahaayata pradaan karna hota hai, jo ek jatil vitteeya dhaanche par aadhaarit hai jismein pariyojana rin evam ikviti ka prayog pariyojana ko vitteeya sahaayata pradaan karne mein kiya jaata hai, na ki pariyojana praayojakon ka tulan patra. saamaanyat:, ek pariyojana vitt dhaaainche mein praayojak ke roop mein pahachaane jaane vaale kai ikviti niveshakon ke saath-saath bankon ke sangh sammilit hote hain jo kaarya kalaapon hetu rin pradaan karte hain.

gair nidhi aadhaar

saakh patra (laitar of kredit)

len den mein saakh patra bhi bhugataan ka strot ho sakta hai, iska taatparya hai ki saakh patra ke mochan (rideem) dvaara niryaatak ko bhugataan praapt hoga. saakh patron ka prayog praathamik roop se badi keemat ke antarraashtreeya vyaapaarik lenadenon mein hota hai jahaaain yeh lenaden ek desh ke aapoortikrta evam doosare desh ke graahak ke madhya hota hai. inka prayog bhoomi vikaas prakriya mein bhi hota hai, yeh sunishchit karne ke liye ki anumodit jan suvidhaaon (galiyaan, futapaath, varsha jal taalaab ityaadi) ka nirmaan kiya jaayega. saakh patra ke paksh saamaanyat: ek laabh praaptakarta, jise dhan praapt karna ho, jaareekarta bank jiska aavedak ek graahak hai evam paraamarshak bank jiska laabhapraaptakarta ek graahak hai, hote hain. lagbhag sabhi saakh patra atal hote hain, yaani inmein laabh praaptakarta, jaareekarta bank evam vinishchaya karne vaale bank, yadi koi ho, ki poorv sahamati ke bina koi sanshodhan ya nirsteekaran naheen kiya ja sakta. lenaden karte samay saakh patra mein giroj evam yaatri chaikon ki tarah hi kaaryakalaap hote hain. saamaanyat:, bhugataan praapt karne ke liye laabh praaptakarta ko vaanijyak beejak (inabauis), maal ladaai ka bill evam parivhan mein haani ya kshati ke prati suraksha pradaan karne hetu inshyorens dastaavej ko prastut karna hota hai. haalaaki, soochi evam dastaavejon ke prakaar kalpana evam baatcheet hetu khule hain evam bheji gayi saamagri ki gunavatta va udbhav sthaan ko pramaanit karte huye nishpaksh truteeya paksh dvaara jaari dastaavejon ko prastut karne ki aavashyakta nihit ho sakti hai.

Corporate finance

Panorama clip3.jpg


Working capital

Cash conversion cycle
Return on capital
Economic value added
Just in time
Economic order quantity
Discounts and allowances
Factoring (finance)


Capital budgeting

Capital investment decisions
The investment decision
The financing decision


Sections

Managerial finance
Financial accounting
Management accounting
Mergers and acquisitions
Balance sheet analysis
Business plan
Corporate action


Societal components

Financial market
Financial market participants
Corporate finance
Personal finance
Public finance
Banks and Banking
Financial regulation
Clawback


lekhaakaran rin

raashtreeya lekhaakaran mein, riniyon ke anusaar hi rin ko joda jaata hai. gruhasthi rin vah rin hai jo gruhasthon ke oopar hota hai. raashtreeya" ya saarvajanik rin vah rin hai jo vibhinn sarkaari sansthaanon (sangheeya sarkaar, raajyon shaharon...) ke oopar hota hai. vyaapaar rin vah rin hai jo vyaapaar ke oopar hota hai. vitteeya rin vah rin hai jo vitteeya kshetr (ek vitteeya sansthaan se anya par) ke oopar hota hai. kul rin in sabhi prakaar ke rinon ka yog hota hai, sivaae vitteeya rin ke, taaki duhare lekhaakaran ko roka ja sake. in vibhinn prakaar ke rinon ki ganana rin/ GDP (GDP) anupaat mein ki ja sakti hai. ye anupaat rinagrastata mein parivrtanon ki gati evam deya rin ke aakaar ke aankalan mein sahaayak hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, you S A mein uchch upabhokta rin evam nimn saarvajanik rin hote hain, jabki poorvi Europeeya deshon mein iske vipreet hota hai.

niji evam saarvajanik abhikrtaaon hetu rin ke lekhaakaran mein antar hai. yadi ek niji abhikrta kuchh samay baad bhugataan ka vachan deta hai, to vah rin hota hai evam yeh rin saarvajanik abhikrtaaon dvaara pravartan yogya hote hain. yadi ek saarvajanik nikaaya yeh kaanoon paarit karta hai ki vah kuchh samay baad kuchh bhugataan karega, to use baad mein kaanoon mein parivartan (evam bhugataan na karne) ka adhikaar hota hai. iseeliye, udaaharanat:, sarkaar dvaara sevaanivrutti hetu dhan ke bhugataan ko saarvajanik rin aankalan mein pradarshit naheen kiya jaata, jabki niji companiyon dvaara sevaanivrutti ke samay diye jaane vaale dhan ko pradarshit kiya jaata hai.

pratibhootikran

pratibhootikran tab ghatit hota hai jab ek company parisampattiyon evam praapti yogyon ko ek samooh mein rakhati hai tatha ek trast ke maadhyam se baajaar mein ikaaiyon mein bechati hai. nakadi pravaah sahit kisi bhi parisanpatti mein pratibhootikran ho sakta hai. in praaptiyon se pravaahit hone waali nakadi ka prayog in yooniton ke dhaarakon ko bhugataan hetu kiya jaata hai. companiyaan aksar yeh kaarya in parisampattiyon ko apne tulan patron se hataane evam parisanpatti ke nakadeekaran mein karti hain. yadyapi ye parisampattiyaan tulan patra se "hata" di gayi hai evam trast ki jimmedaari maani jaati hai, isse company ki bhaageedaari samaapt naheen hoti. aksar company trast mein apni ruchi banaaye rakhati hai jise "intaraist onali strip" ya "first loss pees" kaha jaata hai. trast dvaara kiya jaane wala koi bhi bhugataan niyamit niveshakon ke liye is byaaj se poorv kiya jaana chaahiye. yeh niveshak ko kuchh had tak jokhim se bachaata hai tatha pratibhootikran ko aur aakarshak banaata hai. uparokt varnit se yeh prashn utpann hota hai ki kya ye parisanpattiyaaain vaastav mein tulan patra par naheen hoti tatha is byaaj par company ko haani pahuaincha rahi hain.

rin, mudraasfeeti evam vinimay dar

jaisaaki neeche ullikhit hai, rin ko saamaanyat: ek vishesh aarthik mudra mein ankit kiya jaata hai, evam at: us mudra ke moolyaankan mein parivartan hone se rin ka prabhaavi aakaar bhi parivrtit ho sakta hai. yeh mudraasfeeti ya mudra apasfeeti ke kaaran ho sakta hai at: yeh rin praaptakarta aur rinadaata dvaara samaan mudra ke prayog kiye jaane par bhi ho sakta hai. ataev yeh aavashyak hai ki agrim roop se aasthagit bhugataan ke maanakon par sahamati ho, taaki utaar chadhaav ki seema par bhi sveekaarayogya sahamati hogi. at: udaaharanat: "you S dollar ankit" rin par sahamati saamaanya[tathya vaanchhit] hai.

jyaadaatar audyogeekrut raashtron mein bank khaaton mein dhan ka ek bada bhaag rin ke roop mein hai (is par vichaar vimarsh hetu dhan, vistrut dhan, evam maang jamaaen dekhein). ataev, mudraasfeeti, mudra apasfeeti, dhan aapoorti evam rin ke madhya ek sambandh hota hai. audyogeekrut raashtra ki sampoorn arthavyavastha dvaara ghoshit moolya ka bhandaar evam is par kar ropan ki raajya ki kshamata videshi rin praaptakarta ke liye punarbhugataan ki guaranty ke roop mein kaarya karti hai, choonki vishvabhar mein kai jagahon par audyogik saamagriyon ki bhaari maang hai.

mudraasfeeti soochakaankit rin

khaate ki mudraasfeeti soochakaankit ikaaiyon se sambaddh rin praapti evam punarbhugataan vyavasthaayein sambhav hain evam kuchh deshon mein prayog hoti hain. udaaharan ke liye, you S sarkaar do prakaar ke mudraasfeeti soochakaankit baandon ko jaari karti hai, koshaalaya mudraasfeeti - sanrakshit pratibhootiyaaain (teeaaipeees (TIPS)) evam I - baands. ye sabse surakshit upalabdh nivesh tareekon mein se ek hain, kyonki jokhim ka ekamaatr mukhya strot - jo ki mudraasfeeti hai - ka unmoolan ho gaya hai. kai anya sarkaarein bhi isi tarah ke baandon ko jaari karti hain, evam kuchh to you S sarkaar se bhi poorv kai varshon se karti rahi hain.

lagaataar uchch mudraasfeeti vaale deshon mein, bankon ke saamaanya karj ko bhi mudraasfeeti soochakaankit kiya ja sakta hai.

rin vareeyata, jokhim tatha nirsteekaran

jokhim mukt byaaj dar

badi companiyon athva sarkaar jaisi sthir vitteeya sansthaaon ko rin dena praay: "jokhim mukt" athva "nimn jokhim" ka maana jaata hai tatha yeh "jokhim mukt byaaj dar" par diya jaata hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki rin tatha byaaj mein chook hone ki atyalp sambhaavana hoti hai. is tarah ke jokhim mukt rin ka ek achha udaaharan you S koshaalaya pratibhooti hai, yeh arthashaastr mein upalabdh nimnatam pratifl ka utpaadan karta hai, parantu niveshakon ko nishchit pratyaashaaon ka dilaasa (lagbhag poori tarah se) hota hai ki you S koshaalaya apne rin instroomeint mein chook naheen karega. jokhim mukt dar ka saamaanya roop se bhi plavamaan byaaj daron ko nirdhaarit karne mein bhi prayog hota hai, jiski saadhaaranataya jokhim mukt byaaj dar tatha rin praaptakarta ki saakh kshamata par aadhaarit rinadaata ko bonas mein jodkar ganana ki jaati hai (anya shabdon mein, uske dvaara vaapasi mein chook ka jokhim tatha rinadaata ke rin ka doobana). vaastav mein, koi bhi rin satyata mein "jokhim mukt" naheen hota, parantu "jokhim mukt" dar ke riniyon ki vaapasi mein chook bahut kam pratyaashit hoti hai.

yadyapi yadi rin ki avadhi mein mudra ki vaastavik keemat parivrtit hoti hai, tab vaapas kiye gaye dhan ki kraya shakti mein rin ke praarambh ki apeksha kaafi antar hoga. isaliye, vyaavahaarik nivesh ke drushtikon se "jokhim mukt" athva "nimn jokhim" rinon mein abhi bhi kaafi jokhim maujood hai. mudra ki vaastavik keemat mudraasfeeti ke kaaran athva videshi nivesh ke maamale mein, vinimay dar ke utaar chadhaav ke kaaran parivrtit ho sakti hai.

antarraashtreeya samjhauta bank kendreeya bankon ka ek sangathan hai jo yeh nirdhaarit karta hai, ki diye gaye rin ke viruddh bank ko kitni poonji apne paas rakhani hai.

vareeyata tatha saakh yogyata

moodeej, Fitch rating ink, A.M. best tatha stendard tatha pooars jaisi vareeyata sansthaaon dvaara sarkaaron tatha niji nigmon, donon ke dvaara udhaar liye gaye vishisht bond rinon ko vareeyata pradaan ki jaati hai. sarkaari athva swayam company ko bhi unki alag vareeyata di jaayegi. ye sansthaaain rini ke daayitvon ka sammaan karne ke liye usaki kshamata ka moolyaankan karti hain tatha uske anusaar use saakh vareeyata deti hain. moodeej eee ee A beeee beee bi seeee CA si shabdon ka prayog karti hai jismein ee-seeee vareeyata 1-3 sankhya ke yogya hota hai. Munich Re, ko udaaharan ke liye, vartamaan mein ee3 2004 tak ka darja praapt hai. esaendapi tatha anya moolyaankan sansthaayein bade akshar tatha +/- visheshakon ka prayog karte huye thodi alag pranaali apanaati hain.

vareeyata mein parivartan company par atyadhik prabhaav daalata hai, choonki uske punarvitt ki laagat usaki saakh yogyata par nirbhar karti hai. beeee/BBB (moodeej/esaendapi (S&P)) se neeche ke bond bekaar- athva atyadhik jokhim baund kahalaate hain. unamein chook hone ke atyadhik jokhim (beee ke liye lagbhag 1.6 %) ki kshatipoorti uchchatar byaaj bhugataanon se ki jaati hai. bura karj vah rin hota hai jo rini dvaara vaapas (aanshik athva poorn roop se) naheen kiya ja sakta. rini ko uske karj ke liye doshi kaha jaata hai. is tarah ke rinon ko baaranbaar pun: package kiya jaata hai tatha ankit moolya (face vailyu) se neeche becha jaata hai. bekaar baundon ko khareedna jokhim bhara maana jaata hai parantu nivesh ka kaafi laabhaprad svarup hai.

nirsteekaran

deevaaliyaapan ke bina yeh virle hi hota hai ki rin ko poori tarah se athva aanshik roop se chhod diya jaaye. kuchh sanskrutiyon mein parampara ki yeh maang hoti hai ki samaaj ke samoohon ke madhya pranaaleegat asamaanataaon ki rokathaam ke liye ise niyamit aadhaar par (praay: vaarshik) kiya jaaye ya koi bhi jo rin ko rakhane mein evam jabaradasti punarbhugataan mein visheshagya ban raha ho - dekhein, rin raahat. iska ek udaaharan book of levitiks mein varnit biblikl jubili varsh hai.

angreji kaanoon ke antargat jab rinadaata ko rin ko tyaagane ke liye dhokha diya jaata hai, to yeh aparaadh hai- thept act 1978 dekhein.

antarraashtreeya truteeya vishv ka rin aise paimaane par pahunch gaya hai ki kai arthashaastri is baat se santusht hai ki vikaasasheel raashtron ke sambandh mein vaishvik ikviti ko bahaal karne ke liye rin raddeekaran hi ek maatr upaaya hai.

rin ke prabhaav

rin vyaktiyon tatha sangathanon ko vah sab karne ki anumati dete hain jo ve anyatha karne mein asamarth hote hai athva unhein anumati naheen hoti. saadhaaranat: audyogeekrut raashtron mein vyakti iska prayog makaan, kaarein tatha kai anya vastuain khareedne mein karte hain jo adhik manhagi hone ke kaaran upalabdh nakad paise se naheen khareed paate. companiyaan bhi rin ka prayog kai tarah se apni parismpatti mein nivesh ko prabhaavi karne ke liye karti hain jisse unki ikviti ki vaapasi prabhaavi ho. yeh prabhaav, ikviti ke liye rin ka anupaat, nivesh ke jokhim ko nirdhaarit karne ke liye mahatvapoorn samjha jaata hai; pratyek ikviti par jitna rin hoga, utana adhik yeh jokhim bhara hoga. companiyon tatha vyaktiyon donon ke liye yeh badha hua jokhim kamjor parinaam ka kaaran ban sakta hai, kyonki rin ki dekhbhaal ki laagat baahari ghatnaaon (aay ki kami) athva aantarik kathinaaiyon (sansaadhanon ka kamjor prabandhan) ke kaaran bhugataan ki kshamata se adhik badh sakti hai.

rin sanchayan ki adhikta ko aarthik samasyaaon ko badatar banaane hetu doshi thaharaaya gaya hai.[3] udaaharan ke liye atyadhik avanaman rin ke praarambh se poorv/GDP (GDP) anupaat bahut adhik tha. aarthik agent bhaari rini the. bhavishya ki vaapasiyon par atyadhik pratyaasha ke samakaksh, yeh atyadhik rin, share baajaar mein parismpatti bulabulon ke saath raha. jab pratyaasha mein sudhaar kiya gaya, mudra apasfeeti tatha saakh charamaraahat praarambh hui. mudra apasfeeti ne prabhaavi roop se rin ko adhik manhaga kar diya tatha, jaisa ki fishr ne spasht kiya hai, isse mudra apasfeeti pun: prabhaavi hui kyonki apne rin star ko kam karne ke liye, aarthik ejenton ne unke upabhog tatha nivesh ko kam kar diya. maang ki kami ne vyaapaar gatividhiyon ko kam kar diya evam aur berojgaari paida ki. adhik pratyaksh arthon mein mudra apasfeeti ke kaaran badhi hui rin laagat tatha ghati hui maang, donon ke kaaran adhik divaaliyaapan bhi paida hua.

kuchh sangathanon ke liye udhaari tatha punarbhugataan vyavasthaaon ke vaikalpik prakaaron mein pravesh karna sambhav hota hai jisse divaaliyaapan naheen hoga. udaaharan ke liye companiyaan kai baar rinon ko unke dvaara udhaar li gayi ikviti mein badal deti hai. is maamale mein, rinadaata ko rin ke samakaksh kuchh tatha rini ke divideind evam kaipitl gen ke roop mein byaaj ko praapt karne ki aasha rahati hai. "punarbhugataan", ataev, rini dvaara ki gayi aay ke aanupaatik hota hai evam isaliye apne aap mein deevaaliyaapan ka kaaran naheen banta. is tarah se ek baar rin ke parivartan ho jaane ke baad ise rin naheen kaha jaayega.

rin ke viruddh tark

kuchh vyakti vyaktigat, paarivaarik, saamaajik, kaarporet tatha shaasakeeya star par rin ke viruddh ek instroomeint tatha sanstha ke roop mein tark karte hain. islaam mein byaaj ke saath udhaar dena aaj bhi varjit hai jabki Catholic church ne ise 1882 ke baad se hi anumati di hai, tatha tora ne kaha hai ki sabhi rinon ko pratyek saat saalon tatha pratyek pachaas saalon (jubali varsh mein, jaisa ki book of leveetiks mein likha gaya hai) mein mita dena chaahiye.

yadi samay ke saath rin ka punarbhugataan naheen kiya gaya to byaaj ke saath yeh badhta jaayega. is prabhaav ko soodakhori kaha jaata hai, jabki anya sandarbho mein soodakhori shabd ko sveekrut jokhim ke liye vaajib laabh ki adhikta mein, keval byaaj ki atyadhik dar ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

antarraashtreeya kaanooni vichaar mein, ghrunit rin vah rin hota hai jo shaasan tantr dvaara un uddeshyon ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai jo raajya hit mein na ho. is tarah ke rinon ko is siddhaant ke dvaara us shaasanatantr dvaara liye gaye vyaktigat rinon ke roop mein samjha jaata hai tatha na ki raajya ke rin ke roop mein.

uchch byaaj daron ke saath kisi arth vyavastha mein, ikviti nivesh par adhik lacheele dividend ki tulana mein kisi vyaapaar ke liye adhik manhage honge. kisi sangharsharat vyaapaar ke liye ikviti nivesh ke maadhyam se vitt pradaan karna adhik aasaan hota hai kyonki kathin paristhiti mein dividend ka bhugataan rokana sambhav hota hai.

star tatha bahaav

vaishvik rin khareed saal dar saal 4.3 % badhi hai jo 2004 ke dauraan $ 5.19 trileeyan tak pahunchi hai. yeh apeksha ki jaati hai ki aane vaale varsho mein yeh aur badhegi yadi vishvavyaapi laakhon logon mein kharch karne ki aadat aisi hi bani rahi, jaisi aaj hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

  • vyutpann (vitt)
  • rin bandhan
  • rin praaptakarta ka jail
  • vitteeya baajaar
  • vitteeya vishyon ki soochi
  • gair-vitteeya rin
  • ghrunit rin
  • baadhyakaari rin
  • parikraami khaata
  • bachat
  • ikviti
  • paise ka samay moolya
  • thaumasan vitteeya league tebals

sandarbh

  1. Joseph svaanasan aur Peter maarshal, haulihaan loki va leendan norale, kirkalaind aur Alice antarraashtreeya elaelapi (LLP) (2008). a prekatishnar'za guide too koraporet reestrakacharing prushth 5. city end fineinshial pableeshing, pehla sanskaran aaiesabeeen (ISBN): 9781905121311
  2. aupachaarik roop se, di % ki chhoot ka parinaam hai, ka prabhaavi byaaj.
  3. 5 Ways to Get Out of Debt Faster. Kiplinger. 2007. http://www.webcastr.com/videos/informational/5-ways-to-get-out-of-debt-faster.html.

baahari kadiyaaain