rigved sanhita

rig‍aaved-sanhita rigvaidik vaangmaya ka mantr-bhaag hai. ismein 1017 sook‍aat hain. ise vish‍aav ka praacheenatam granth maana jaata hai. vidvaanon ke anusaar rig‍aaved 3500 varshon se bhi adhik praacheen hai.

anukram

parichay

chaaron vedon mein pratham sthaan rigved ko praapt hai. rigved ko vishv ka praacheenatam granth hone ka gaurav praapt hai. vaidik vaaङamaya mein rigved ko param poojaneeya maana jaata hai aur vasant pooja aadi ke avsar par sarvapratham vedapaath rigved se hi praarambh kiya jaata hai. purushasookt mein aadi purush se utpann vedamantron mein sarvapratham 'rik' ko ginaaya gaya hai.

rigved ki sanhita ko 'rikasanhita' kehte hain. vastut: 'rik' ka arth hai- 'stutiprak mantr aur 'sanhita' ka abhipraaya sankalan se hai. at: richaaon ke sankalan ka naam 'rikasanhita' hai. rik ki paribhaasha di jaati hai- richyante stooyante deva anaya iti rik ; arthaat jisse devataaon ki stuti ho use 'rik' kehte haiein. ek doosari vyaakhya ke anusaar chhandon mein bandhi rachana ko 'rik' naam diya jaata hai. braahran granthon mein rik ko brahm, vaak, praan, amrut aadi kaha gaya hai jiska taatparya yahi hai ki rigved ke mantr brahm ki praapit karaane vaale, vaak ki praapit karaane vaale, praan ya tej ki praapit karaane vaale aur amaratv ke saadhan hain. saamaanya roop se isse rigved ke mantron ki mahima ka grahan kiya jaana chaahiye.

patanyajali ke mahaabhaashya ke anusaar rigved ki kadaachit 21 shaakhaaen theen. inmein se 'charanavyooh' naamak granth mein ullakhit ye paanch shaakhaaen pramukh maani jaati hain- shaakal, vaashkal, aashvalaayani, shaankhaayani aur maandookaayani. samprati rigved ki ek shaakal shaakha ki sanhita hi praapt hoti hai. yeh sanhita kari drushtiyon se atyadhik mahattvapoorn hai.

rigved ki sanhita ka mahattv

sampoorn vaidik vaaङamaya ka praacheenatam granth hone ke kaaran is (shaakal) sanhita ko vishvasaahitya ka pratham granth hone ka gaurav praapt hai. chaaron vedon ki sanhitaaon ki tulana mein yeh sabse badi sanhita hai. ek vishaalakaaya vaidik granth ke roop mein yeh adbhut aur vividh gyaan ka srot hai. bhaav, bhaasha aur chhand ki drushit se bhi yeh atyant praacheen hai. ismein adhikaansh Dave indr, vishnu, marut aadi praakrutik tattvon ke pratinidhi hain. ye panchatattvon- agin, vaayu, aadi tatha megh, vidyut, soorya aadi ka pratinidhitv karte hain. sabhi vedon aur braahraan granthon mein rigved ya iski sanhita ka hi naam sarvapratham ginaaya jaata hai. fir anek vishyon ki vyaapak charcha karne ke kaaran is sanhita ka varnyavishyaparak mahattv bhi sveekaar kiya jaata hai.

rigved sanhita ka vibhaajan

rigved ki sanhita richaaon ka sangrah hai. rikasanhita ka vibhaajan do prakaar se kiya jaata hai- (1) ashtak-kram aur (2) mandal-kram.

ashtak kram ke antargat sampoorn sanhita aath ashtakon mein vibhaajit hai aur pratyek ashtak mein aath adhyaaya haie. adhyaaya vargon mein vibhaajit hain aur varg ke antargat richaaen hain. kul adhyaayon ki sankhya 64 aur vargon ki sankhya 2006 haiein.

mandal-kram mein sampoorn sanhita mein das mandal hain. pratyek mandal mein kari anuvaak, pratyek anuvaak mein kari sookt aur pratyek sookt mein kari mantr hain. tadanusaar rigved-sanhita mein 10 mandal, 85 anuvaak, 1028 sookt aur 10552 mantr haiein.

is prakaar rigved ki mantr-sanhita ke vibhaajan ki ek sundar aur nishicht vyavastha praapt hoti hai.

rigved-sanhita ke rishi

rigved-sanhita ke mantradrashta rishiyon par yadi dhyaan diya jaae, to ham paate hain ki doosare se saatavein mandal ke antargat samaavisht mantr kisi ek rishi ke dvaara hi saakshaatkaar kiye gaye haiein. iseeliye ye mandal vanshamandal kahalaate hain. in mandalon ko doosare mandalon ki tulana mein praacheen maana jaata hai. yadyapi kari vidvaan is mat se asahamat bhi hain. aathavein mandal mein kanv, bhrugu aadi kuchh parivaaron ke mantr sankalit hain. pehle aur dasvein mandal mein sookt-sankhya samaan hain. donon mein 191 sookt hi hain. in donon mandalon ki ullekhayogya visheshata yeh bhi hai ki ismein anek rishiyon ke dvaara saakshaatkaar kiye gaye mantron ka sankalan kiya gaya hai. pehle aur dasvein mandal mein vibhinn vishyon ke sookt hain. praaya: vidvaan in donon mandalon ko apekshaakrut arvaacheen maanate hain. navaan mandal bhi kuchh vishesh mahattv liye hue hai. ismein som devata ke samast mantron ko sankalit kiya gaya hai. iseeliye iska doosra prachalit naam hai- pavamaan mandal.

suvidha ke liye rigved ki sanhita ke mandal, sooktasankhya aur rishinaamon ka vivran nimnalikhit taalika mein diya ja raha hai-

mandal sookt sankhya rishi naam
1. 191 madhuchhanda: , medhaatithi, deerghatama:, agastya, gotam, paraashar aadi.
2. 43 grutsamad evam unke vanshaj
3. 62 vishvaamitr evam unke vanshaj
4. 58 vaamadev evam unke vanshaj
5. 87 atri evam unke vanshaj
6. 75 bharadvaaj evam unke vanshaj
7. 104 vashishth evam unke vanshaj
8. 103 kanv, bhrugu, angira evam unke vanshaj
9. 114 rishign, vishay-pavamaan som
10. 191 trit, vimd, indr, shraddha, kaamaayani indraani, shachi aadi.

in mantron ke drashta-rishiyon mein grutsamad, vishvaamitr, vaamadev, atri, bharadvaaj, vasishth, bhrugu aur angira pramukh hain. kari vaidik naariyaan bhi mantron ki drashta rahi haiein. pramukh rishikaaon ke roop mein vaak aambhruni, soorya, saavitri, saarparaajnyai, yami, vaivasvati, urvashi, lopaamudra, ghosha aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya haiein.

rigved sanhita ke chhand

rigved sanhita mein kul 20 chhandon ka prayog hua hai. inmein bhi pramukh chhand saat hain. ye hain-

  • 1. gaayatri - 24 akshar
  • 2. ushink - 28 akshar
  • 3. anushtup - 32 akshar
  • 4. bruhati - 36 akshar
  • 5. paङakit - 40 akshar
  • 6. trishtup - 44 akshar
  • 7. jagati - 48 akshar

inmein bhi in chaar chhandon ke mantron ki sankhya is sanhita mein sabse adhik paari jaati hai- trishtup, gaayatri, jagati aur anushtup.

rigved sanhita ka varnya-vishay

rigved mein tatkaaleen samaaj ki saamaajik, raajanaitik, aarthik vyavastha tatha sansthaaon ka vivran hai. ismein unke daarshanik, aadhyaatmik kalaatmak tatha vaigyaanik vichaaron ka samaavesh bhi hai. vedakaaleen rishiyon ke jeevan mein devataaon aur Dave-aaraadhana ko mahattvapoorn sthaan praapt tha. rigved ka pratyek mantr kisi na kisi devata se sambaddh hai. yathaarth mein devata se taatparya varnya vishay ka hai. tabhi chhura aur ookhal jaisi vastuen bhi devata hai. aksh aur krushi bhi devata hain.

rigved ki sanhita mein devastuti ki pradhaanata hai. agin, indr, marut, usha, som, ashivnau aadi naana devataaon ki kari-kari sookton mein stutiyaan ki gari hain. sabse adhik sookt indr devata ki stuti mein kahe gaye hain aur uske baad sankhya ki drushti se agni ke sookton ka sthaan hai. at: indr aur agin vaidik aaryon ke pradhaan devata prateet hote hain. kuchh sookton mein mitravaruna, indravaayoo, dhaavaapruthivi jaise yugal devataaon ki stutiyaan hain. anek devagan jaise aaditya, marut, rudr, vishvedeva aadi bhi mantron mein stavaneeya hain. deviyon mein usha aur aditi ka sthaan agraganya hai.

rikasanhita mein devastutiyon ke atirikt kuchh doosare vishyon par bhi sookt hain, jaise juaari ki durdasha ka chitran karne wala 'akshasookt', vaani aur gyaan ke mahattv ko pratipaadit karne wala 'jnyaaanasookt', yam aur yami ke samvaad ko prastut karne wala 'yamayami-sanvaadasookt', puroorava aur urvashi ki baatcheet par prakaash daalne wala 'purooravaaurvashi-sanvaadasookt' aadi.

vishay ki gambheerata ko darshaane vaale sookton mein daarshanik sookton ko gina ja sakta hai, jaise purushasookt, hirnyagarbhasookt, naasadeeyasookt aadi. inmein srushti-utpatti aur uske moolakaaran ko lekar goodh daarshanik vivechan kiya gaya hai. aushadhisookt mein naana prakaar ki aushadhiyon ke roop, rang aur prabhaav ka vivran hai.

rigved sanhita ke kuchh pramukh sookt

rigved-sanhita ke sookton ko varnya-vishay aur shaili ke aadhaar par praaya: is prakaar vibhaajit kiya jaata hai-

(1) devastutiprakasookt

(2) daarshanik sookt

(3) laukik sookt

(4) samvaad sookt

(5) aakhyaan sookt aadi.

kuchh pramukh sookt, jo atyadhik lokapriya aur mahattvapoorn hain, unka sankshipt parichay is sanhita ke vyaapak vishay par prakaash daalata hai.

  • (1) purush sookt - rigvedasanhita ke dasham mandal ka 90 sankhyak sookt 'purushasookt kahalaata hai kyonki iska devata purush hai. ismein purush ke viraat roop ka varnan hai aur usase hone waali srushit ki vistaar se charcha ki gayi hai. is purush ko hajaaron sir, hajaaron pairon aadi se yukt bataaya gaya hai. isi se vishv ke vivièaa ang aur chaaron vedon ki utpatti kahi gayi hai. sarvapratham chaar vano± ke naamon ka ullekh rigved ke isi sookt mein milta hai. yeh sookt udaattabhaavana, daarshanik vichaar aur roopakaatmak shaili ke liye ati prasiddh hai.
  • (2) naasadeeya sookt - rigvedasanhita ke dasham mandal ke 129vein sookt ko 'naasadeeya sookt ya 'bhaavavruttam sookt kehte hain. ismein srushit ki utpatti ki poorv avastha ka chitran hai aur yeh khojane ka yatn kiya gaya hai ki jab kuchh naheen tha tab kya tha. tab na sat tha, na asat, na raatri thi, na din tha; bas tamas se ghira hua tamas tha. fir sarvapratham us ek tattv mein 'kaam utpann hua aur usaka yahi sankalp srushit ke naana roopon mein abhivyakt ho gaya. par ant mein sandeh kiya gaya hai ki vah param vyom mein baithane wala ek aèaayaksh bhi is sabko jaanta hai ya naheen. athva yadi jaanta hai to vahi jaanta hai aur doosra kaun jaanega?
  • (3) hirnyagarbh sookt - is sanhita ke dasham mandal ke 121vein sookt ko 'hirnyagarbh sookt' kehte hain kyonki iska devata hirnyagarbh hai. nau mantron ke is sookt mein pratyek mantr mein 'kasmai devaaya havisha vidhem' kehkar yeh baat doharaari gayi hai ki aise mahaneeya hirnyagarbh ko chhodkar ham kis anya Dave ki aaraadhana kareinn? hamaare liye to yeh 'k' sanjnyaak prajaapati hi sarvaadhik poojaneeya hai. is hirnyagarbh ka svaroop, mahima aur usase hone waali utpatti ka vivran is sookt mein bade saral aur spasht shabdon mein kiya gaya hai. hirnyagarbh hi srushti ka niyaamak aur dharta hai.
  • (4) sanjnyaaan sookt - rigvedasanhita ke dasham mandal ke 191vein sankhyak sookt ko sanjnyaaan sookt kehte hain. ismein kul 8 mantr hain, par rigved ka yeh anitm mantr apne udaatt vichaaron aur saanmanasya ke sandesh ke kaaran maanaveeya samaanata ka aadarsh maana jaata hai. ham milkar chale, milkar bolein, hamaare hrudayon mein samaanata aur ekta ho-yeh kaamna kisi bhi samaaj ya sangathan ke liye ekta ka sootr hai.
  • (5) aksh sookt - rigved ke dasham mandal ke 34vein sookt ko 'aksh sookt' kehte hain. yeh ek laukik sookt hai. ismein kul 14 mantr hain. aksh kreeda ki ninda karna aur parishram ka upadesh dena- is sookt ka saar hai. ek niraash juaari ki durdasha ka maarmik chitran ismein diya gaya hai jo ghar aur patni ki durdasha ko samajhakar bhi jue ke vasheebhoot hokar apne ko uske aakarshan se rok naheen paata hai aur fir sabka apamaan sahata hai aur apna sarvanaash kar leta hai. ant mein, savita devata se use nitya parishram karne aur krushi dvaara jeevikopaarjan karne ki prerana praapt hoti hai.
  • (6) vivaah sookt - rigved sanhita ke dasham mandal ke 85vein sookt ko vivaahasookt naam se jaana jaata hai. atharvaved mein bhi vivaah ke do sookt hain. is sookt mein soorya ki putri 'soorya tatha som ke vivaah ka varnan hai. ashivni Kumar is vivaah mein sahayogi ka kaarya karte hain. yahaan stri ke kartavyon ka vistaar se varnan hai. use saas-sasur ki seva karne ka upadesh diya gaya hai. parivaar ka hit karna usaka kartavya hai. saath hi stri ko gruhasvaamini, gruhapatni aur 'saamraajnyai' kaha gaya hai. at: stri ko parivaar mein aadaraneeya bataaya gaya hai.
  • (7) kuchh mukhya aakhyaanasookt - rigvedasanhita mein kari sookton mein katha jaisi shaili milti hai aur upadesh ya rochakata usaka uddeshya prateet hota hai. kuchh pramukh sookt jinmein aakhyaan ki prateeti hoti hai is prakaar hain- shvaavaashr sookt (5-61), mandook sookt (7-103), indravrutr sookt (1-80, 2-12), vishnu ka trivikram (1-154); som soorya vivaah (10-85). vaidik aakhyaanon ke goodhaarth ki vyaakhya vidvaanon dvaara anek prakaar se ki jaati hai.
  • (8) kuchh mukhya sanvaadasookt - ve sookt, jinmein do ya do se adhik devataaon, rishiyon ya kinheen aur ke madhya vaartaalaap ki shaili mein vishay ko prastut kiya gaya hai, praaya: sanvaadasookt kahalaate hain. kuchh pramukh samvaad sookt is prakaar hain-
puroorava-urvashi-samvaad ri. 10/95
yam-yami-samvaad ri. 10/10
sarama-pani-samvaad ri. 10/108
vishvaamitr-nadi-samvaad ri. 3/33
vashishth-sudaas-samvaad ri. 7/83
agastya-lopaamudra-samvaad ri. 1/179
indr-indraani-vrushaakapi-samvaad kan. 10/86

samvaad sookton ki vyaakhya aur taatparya vaidik vidvaanon ka ek vichaaraneeya vishay raha hai; kyonki vaartaalaap karne vaalon ko maatr vyakti maanana sambhav naheen hai. in aakhyaanon aur sanvaadon mein nihit tattvon se uttarakaal mein saahitya ki katha aur naatak vidhaaon ki utpatti huri hai. iske atirikt, aapreesookt, daanastutisookt, aadi kuchh doosare sookt bhi apni shaili aur vishay ke kaaran pruthak roop se ulilkhit kiye jaate hain.

is prakaar rigved ki sanhita vaidik devataaon ki stutiyon ke atirikt darshan, laukik gyaan, paryaavaran, vigyaan, kathanopakathan aadi avaantar vishyon par bhi prakaash daalne wala praacheenatam aarsh granth hai. dhaarmik, saanskrutik, saamaajik aur daarshanik drushit se atyant saaragarbhit saamagri ko prastut karne ke saath-saath yeh saahitiyk aur kaavya-shaastreeya drushit se bhi vishisht tathyon ko upasthaapit karne wala mahaneeya grantharatn hai.

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