rasaayan vigyaan ki samayarekha

John daaltan ke "a new system of kemikl filausafi" le liya gaya chitr - yeh parmaanu siddhaant ki pratham aadhunik vyaakhya thi

is samayarekha mein un mahatvapoorn krutiyon, khojon, vichaaron evam prayogon ko soocheebaddh kiya gaya hai jinke kaaran padaarthon ki sanrachana evam unke paraspar kriyaaon se sambandhit maanav ke gyaan mein paryaapt vruddhi hui tatha jise aadhunik vigyaan mein "rasaayan vigyaan" ke naam se jaana jaata hai. yadyapi rasaayan vigyaan ki jadein gyaat itihaas ke aarambh kaal tak pahuainchi hui hain tathaapi praaya: aadhunik rasaayan ke itihaas ka aarambh aayaralaind ke rasaayanashaastri Robert bauyal se maana jaata hai.

anukram

17veen shati se poorv

jebar (Geber) (mrutyu 815) ko rasaayan vigyaan ka janak maana jaata hai
entoni laurent di laivaashiye (1743-1794) ko aadhunik rasaayan vigyaan ka janak maana jaata hai.
815 E
faaras ke alakemi gebar (Geber), ne rasaayan vigyaan ke liye pehli baar vaigyaanik vidhi viksit kiya. usane haaidroklorik aml sahit anekon aml alag kiye.
850 E
al-kindi naamak arab ke rasaayanajnya ne alakemi ki aalochna ki tatha "paaras patthar" (Philosopher's stone) ke siddhaant ko galat bataaya.
1267 E
Roger baikan (Roger Bacon) ne Opus Maius prakaashit kiya jismein 'vaigyaanik vidhi' ka praarambhik svaroop vidyamaan tha. isi mein baarood se sambandhit uske prayogon ke parinaam bhi the[1]

17vi tatha 18veen shataabdi

1648
jan baiptist vaan helmont (Jan Baptist van Helmont) ki mrutyu ke pashchaat usaki pustak Ortus medicinae prakaashit hui. kuchh vidvaanon ka vichaar hai ki is pustak ne alakemi se kemistri mein padaarpan ki neenv daali. iska Robert baayal par bhi bahut asar pada.[2]
Robert bauyal ki kruti The Sceptical Chymist ka mukhaprusht
1661
Robert bauyal (Robert Boyle) ne the skeptikl kemist" (The Sceptical Chymist) prakaashit ki. ismein alakemi aur kemistri mein bhed bataaya gaya tha.[3]
1662
Robert bauyal ne bauyal ka niyam pratipaadit kiya jismein gaison ke vyavahaar ka praayogik varnan tha[3]
1754
Joseph black kaarban daaiaaksaaid alag karne mein safal[4]
1758
Joseph black ne gupt ushma (latent heat) ke kaansept ki vyaakya ki.[5]
1766
henari kaiveindish (Henry Cavendish) ne haaidroj ki khoj ki.
1773-1774
sheele (Carl Wilhelm Scheele) aur Joseph pristale (Joseph Priestly) ne svatantr roop se aakseejan ko alag (isolate) kiya.[6][7]
1778
laivaashiye (Antoine Lavoisier) ne aakseejan ki pehchaan ki aur iska naamakaran kiya. usane jvalan mein iski bhoomika ko bhi pahachaana.[8]
1787
laivaashiye ne Méathode de nomenclature chimique, ka prakaashan kiya jo raasaayanik naamakaran ki pratham paddhati thi.[8]
1787
jaikooas Charles (Jacques Charles) ne Charles ka niyam pratipaadit kiya.[9]
1789
laivaashiye neaadhunik rasaayan vigyaan ki pehli paathyapustak Traité Éaaléaamentaire de Chimie prakaashit ki.[8][10]
1800
volta (Alessandro Volta) ne pehli raasaayanik baitari (voltaaik paail) ka aavishkaar kiya.[11]

19veen shati

John daalatan (1766-1844)
1803
John daaltan (John Dalton) ne daaltan ka niyam pratipaadit kiya.[12]
1805
gay lusaak (Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac) ne paaya ki jal aayatan ke anusaar do bhaag haaidrojan evam ek bhaag aakseejan se milkar bana hai.
1808
gay lusaak ne vaayu evam anya kai gaisein ekatr ki tatha unke bhautik evam raasaayanik gunon ki khoj ki. usane baayal ke niyam tatha Charles ke niyam ki praayogik pushti bhi ki. usane gaison ke ghanatv evam unki sanrachana ka sambandh bhi bataaya.[13]
1808
John Dalton publishes New System of Chemical Philosophy, which contains first modern scientific description of the atomic theory, and clear description of the law of multiple proportions.[12]
1808
Jöans Jakob Berzelius publishes Läarboki Kemien in which he proposes modern chemical symbols and notation, and of the concept of relative atomic weight.[14]
1811
Amedeo Avogadro proposes Avogadro's law, that equal volumes of gases under constant temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.[15]
structural formula of urea
1825
Friedrich Wöahler and Justus von Liebig perform the first confirmed discovery and explanation of isomers, earlier named by Berzelius. Working with cyanic acid and fulminic acid, they correctly deduce that isomerism was caused by differing arrangements of atoms within a molecular structure.[16]
1827
William Prout classifies biomolecules into their modern groupings: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.[17]
1828
Friedrich Wöahler synthesizes urea, thereby establishing that organic compounds could be produced from inorganic starting materials, disproving the theory of vitalism.[16]
1832
Friedrich Wöahler and Justus von Liebig discover and explain functional groups and radicals in relation to organic chemistry.[16]
1840
Germain Hess proposes Hess's Law, an early statement of the Law of conservation of energy, which establishes that energy changes in a chemical process depend only on the states of the starting and product materials and not on the specific pathway taken between the two states.[18]
1847
Hermann Kolbe obtains acetic acid from completely inorganic sources, further disproving vitalism.[19]
1848
Lord Kelvin establishes concept of absolute zero, the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases.[20]
1849
Louis Pasteur discovers that the racemic form of tartaric acid is a mixture of the levorotatory and dextrotatory forms, thus clarifying the nature of optical rotation and advancing the field of stereochemistry.[21]
1852
August Beer proposes Beer's law, which explains the relationship between the composition of a mixture and the amount of light it will absorb. Based partly on earlier work by Pierre Bouguer and Johann Heinrich Lambert, it establishes the analytical technique known as spectrophotometry.[22]
1855
Benjamin Silliman, Jr. pioneers methods of petroleum cracking, which makes the entire modern petrochemical industry possible.[23]
1856
William Henry Perkin synthesizes Perkin's mauve, the first synthetic dye. Created as an accidental byproduct of an attempt to create quinine from coal tar. This discovery is the foundation of the dye synthesis industry, one of the earliest successful chemical industries.[24]
1857
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz proposes that carbon is tetravalent, or forms exactly four chemical bonds.[25]
1859-1860
Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen lay the foundations of spectroscopy as a means of chemical analysis, which lead them to the discovery of caesium and rubidium. Other workers soon used the same technique to discover indium, thalium, and helium.[26]
1860
Stanislao Cannizzaro, resurrecting Avogadro's ideas regarding diatomic molecules, compiles a table of atomic weights and presents it at the 1860 Karlsruhe Congress, ending decades of conflicting atomic weights and molecular formulas, and leading to Mendeleev's discovery of the periodic law.[27]
1862
Alexander Parkes exhibits Parkesine, one of the earliest synthetic polymers, at the International Exhibition in London. This discovery formed the foundation of the modern plastics industry.[28]
1862
Alexandre-Éaamile Béaguyer de Chancourtois publishes the telluric helix, an early, three-dimensional version of the Periodic Table of the Elements.[29]
1864
John Newlands proposes the law of octaves, a precursor to the Periodic Law.[29]
1864
Lothar Meyer develops an early version of the periodic table, with 28 elements organized by valence.[30]
1864
Cato Maximilian Guldberg and Peter Waage, building on Claude Louis Berthollet's ideas, proposed the Law of Mass Action.[31][32][33]
1865
Johann Josef Loschmidt determines exact number of molecules in a mole, later named Avogadro's Number.[34]
1865
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz, based partially on the work of Loschmidt and others, establishes structure of benzene as a six carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds.[25]
1865
Adolf von Baeyer begins work on indigo dye, a milestone in modern industrial organic chemistry which revolutionizes the dye industry.[35]
Mendeleev's 1869 Periodic Table.
1869
Dmitri Mendeleev publishes the first modern periodic table, with the 66 known elements organized by atomic weights. The strength of his table was its ability to accurately predict the properties of as-yet unknown elements.[29][30]
1873
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff and Joseph Achille Le Bel, working independently, develop a model of chemical bonding that explains the chirality experiments of Pasteur and provides a physical cause for optical activity in chiral compounds.[36]
1876
Josiah Willard Gibbs publishes On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, a compilation of his work on thermodynamics and physical chemistry which lays out the concept of free energy to explain the physical basis of chemical equilibria.[37]
1877
Ludwig Boltzmann establishes statistical derivations of many important physical and chemical concepts, including entropy, and distributions of molecular velocities in the gas phase.[38]
1883
Svante Arrhenius develops ion theory to explain conductivity in electrolytes.[39]
1884
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff publishes Éaatudes de Dynamique chimique, a seminal study on chemical kinetics.[40]
1884
Hermann Emil Fischer proposes structure of purine, a key structure in many biomolecules, which he later synthesized in 1898. Also begins work on the chemistry of glucose and related sugars.[41]
1884
Henry Louis Le Chatelier develops Le Chatelier's principle, which explains the response of dynamic chemical equilibria to external stresses.[42]
1885
Eugene Goldstein names the cathode ray, later discovered to be composed of electrons, and the canal ray, later discovered to be positive hydrogen ions that had been stripped of their electrons in a cathode ray tube. These would later be named protons.[43]
1893
Alfred Werner discovers the octahedral structure of cobalt complexes, thus establishing the field of coordination chemistry.[44]
1894-1898
William Ramsay discovers the noble gases, which fill a large and unexpected gap in the periodic table and led to models of chemical bonding.[45]
1897
J. J. Thomson discovers the electron using the cathode ray tube.[46]
1898
Wilhelm Wien demonstrates that canal rays (streams of positive ions) can be deflected by magnetic fields, and that the amount of deflection is proportional to the mass-to-charge ratio. This discovery would lead to the analytical technique known as mass spectrometry.[47]
1898
Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie isolate radium and polonium from pitchblende.[48]
c. 1900
Ernest Rutherford discovers the source of radioactivity as decaying atoms; coins terms for various types of radiation.[49]

20veen shataabdi

1905
fritj haibar (Fritz Haber) aur kaarl baush (Carl Bosch) ne amoniya nirmaan ke liye haibar prakram (Haber process) ka vikaas kiya.[50]
1907
lio hendrik baikeend (Leo Hendrik Baekeland) ne baikelaait (bakelite) ki khoj ki[51]
1909
arnest radaraford, hans geegar (Hans Geiger) aur arnest maarsaden (Ernest Marsden) ne svarn panni wala prayog kiya jisne parmaanu ke naabhikeeya model ko siddh kiya.[49]
tel booaind sambandhi prayog karne vaale milikaun
1913
neels bor (Niels Bohr) ne parmaanu sanrachana mein kvaantam yaantriki ke kaansept ka sahaara liya.[52]
1932
James chaidavik ne nyootraun ki khoj ki.[53]
1938
auto haan (Otto Hahn) ne Uranium evam thoriym mein naabhikeeya fishn (nuclear fission) ki khoj ki. ]][54]
1953
Watson (James D. Watson) aur krik (Francis Crick) ne DNA (DNA) ka ka model prastut kiya. jisse aanavik jeevavijnyaaan ke dwaar khul gaye.[55]

sandarbh

  1. O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2003). "Roger Bacon". MacTutor. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Bacon.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  2. "Johann Baptista van Helmont". History of Gas Chemistry. Center for Microscale Gas Chemistry, Creighton University. 2005-09-25. http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/vanHelmont.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-23.
  3. a aa "Robert Boyle". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/forerunners/boyle.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  4. Cooper, Alan (1999). "Joseph Black". History of Glasgow University Chemistry Department. University of Glasgow Department of Chemistry. http://www.chem.gla.ac.uk/dept/black.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-23.
  5. Partington, J.R. (1989). A Short History of Chemistry. Dover Publications, Inc. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-486-65977-1.
  6. "Joseph Priestley". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/forerunners/priestley.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  7. "Carl Wilhelm Scheele". History of Gas Chemistry. Center for Microscale Gas Chemistry, Creighton University. 2005-09-11. http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Scheele.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-23.
  8. a aa i Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Lavoisier, Antoine (1743-1794)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Lavoisier.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-23.
  9. "Jacques Alexandre Céasar Charles". Centennial of Flight. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. 2001. http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/Charles/DI16.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-23.
  10. Burns, Ralph A. (1999). Fundamentals of Chemistry. Prentice Hall. pa॰ 32. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0023173513.
  11. "Inventor Alessandro Volta Biography". The Great Idea Finder. The Great Idea Finder. 2005. http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/volta.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-23.
  12. a aa "John Dalton". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/periodic/dalton.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  13. "December 6 Births". Today in Science History. Today in Science History. 2007. http://www.todayinsci.com/12/12_06.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  14. "Jöans Jakob Berzelius". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/electrochem/berzelius.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  15. "Michael Faraday". Famous Physicists and Astronomers. http://www.phy.hr/~dpaar/fizicari/xfaraday.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  16. a aa i "Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöahler". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/liebig-wohler.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  17. "William Prout". http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/P/Prout/1.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  18. "Hess, Germain Henri". http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/H/Hess/1.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  19. "Kolbe, Adolph Wilhelm Hermann". 100 Distinguished European Chemists. European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. 2005. http://www.euchems.org/Distinguished/19thCentury/kolbeadolph.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  20. Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Kelvin, Lord William Thomson (1824-1907)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Kelvin.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  21. "History of Chirality". Stheno Corporation. 2006. http://www.sthenocorp.com/history.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  22. "Lambert-Beer Law". Sigrist-Photometer AG. 2007-03-07. http://www.photometer.com/en/abc/abc_061.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  23. "Benjamin Silliman, Jr. (1816-1885)". Picture History. Picture History LLC. 2003. http://www.picturehistory.com/find/p/17879/mcms.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  24. "William Henry Perkin". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/perkin.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  25. a aa "Archibald Scott Couper and August Kekulé von Stradonitz". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/couper-kekule.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  26. O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E.F. (2002). "Gustav Robert Kirchhoff". MacTutor. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Kirchhoff.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  27. Eric R. Scerri, The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006.
  28. "Alexander Parkes (1813 - 1890)". People & Polymers. Plastics Historical Society. http://www.plastiquarian.com/parkes.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  29. a aa i "The Periodic Table". The Third Millennium Online. http://www.3rd1000.com/history/periodic.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  30. a aa "Julius Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/periodic/meyer-mendeleev.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  31. C.M. Guldberg and P. Waage,"Studies Concerning Affinity" C. M. Forhandlinger: Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiana (1864), 35
  32. P. Waage, "Experiments for Determining the Affinity Law", Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiania, (1864) 92.
  33. C.M. Guldberg, "Concerning the Laws of Chemical Affinity", C. M. Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiania (1864) 111
  34. "Johann Josef Loschmidt". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 2003. No. 1858. Transcript. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  35. "Adolf von Baeyer: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1905/baeyer-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-28.
  36. "Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/vanthoff.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  37. O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E.F. (1997). "Josiah Willard Gibbs". MacTutor. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Gibbs.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  38. Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844-1906)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Boltzmann.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  39. "Svante August Arrhenius". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/electrochem/arrhenius.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  40. "Jacobus H. van 't Hoff: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1901/hoff-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-28.
  41. "Emil Fischer: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1902/fischer-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-28.
  42. "Henry Louis Le Châatelier". World of Scientific Discovery. Thomson Gale. 2005. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/henry-louis-le-chatelier-wsd/. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  43. "History of Chemistry". Intensive General Chemistry. Columbia University Department of Chemistry Undergraduate Program. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/chemistry/chem-c2507/navbar/chemhist.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  44. "Alfred Werner: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1913/werner-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  45. "William Ramsay: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1904/ramsay-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-20.
  46. "Joseph John Thomson". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/atomic/thomson.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  47. "Alfred Werner: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1967. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1911/wien-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-24.
  48. "Marie Sklodowska Curie". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/atomic/curie.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  49. a aa "Ernest Rutherford: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/rutherford-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-28.
  50. "Fritz Haber". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/gases/haber.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  51. "Leo Hendrik Baekeland". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/plastics/baekeland.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-22.
  52. "Niels Bohr: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1922-1941. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1922/bohr-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-25.
  53. "James Chadwick: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1965. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1935/chadwick-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-28.
  54. "Otto Hahn: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1942-1962. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1964. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1944/hahn-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-07.
  55. "The Nobel Prize in Medicine 1962". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-28.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain