rasaayan shaastr

Chemicals in flasks.jpg

rasaayanashaastr vigyaan ki vah shaakha hai jismein padaarthon ke sanghatan, sanrachana, gunon aur raasaayanik pratikriya ke dauraan inmein hue parivrtanon[1] ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. iska shaabdik vinyaas ras+ayan hai jiska shaabdik arth rason (dravon) ka adhyayan hai. yeh ek bhautik vigyaan hai jismein padaarthon ke paramaanuon, anuon, kristalon (ravon) aur raasaayanik prakriya ke dauraan mukt hue ya prayukt hue oorja ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

sankshep mein rasaayan vigyaan raasaayanik padaarthon[2] ka vaigyaanik adhyayan hai. padaarthon ka sanghatan parmaanu ya up-paramaanvik kanon jaise ilektraun, protaun aur nyootraun[3] se hua hai. rasaayan vigyaan ko keindreeya vigyaan ya aadhaarbhoot vigyaan bhi kaha jaata hai kyonki yeh doosare vijnyaaanon jaise, khagolavijnyaaan, bhautiki, padaarth vigyaan, jeevavijnyaaan aur bhoovijnyaaan ko jodta hai.[4][5]

anukram

das sarvaadhit prayukt rasaayan

raasaayanik padaarth utpaadon ki sankhya maatra (tanon mein)
paani 26,509 2,355,650
taaiteniym daaiaaksaaid 4,463 61,790
jaaileen (Xylene) 4,271 28,568
2-Methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one 2,953 39
aaisopropenaul 2,881 18,116
byootil eseetet 2,700 14,186
1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one 2,661 98
ausat eromatik vilaayak neptha 2,439 16,307
ethanaul (Ethanol) 2,368 443,912
5-Chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one 2,300 32

kemistri ki shabdotpatti - bhaasha vaigyaanik drushti

  • bhaasha vigyaan ki drushti mein kemistri ki mool dhaatu Chemy ki vyutpatti yoonaani bhaasha ke kheemiya (Khymeia) se hui hai jiska taatparya hai - 'dhaatu nirmaan ki yoonaani takaneek'.
  • anya maanyataanusaar kemi ka arth - paraspar ek doosare mein milaana.
  • kemistri ki mool dhaatu Chemy ki samaanata cheeni shabd Kim se hai, arthaat dhaatuon ke roopaantar ki kala. iska ek roop chin (Chin) hai.
  • arabi aur greek mein Chemy shabd vastut: cheeni bhaasha ke Kim ke roopaantar hai. cheeni (meindaarin bhaasha) mein Chimmi shabd ka arth 'sona galaana' hai.
  • kemistri ke antargat mote taur par tatv aur yaugik ke roopaantaran, nirmaan aur unke gunadharmo ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.
  • anya maanyataanusaar kemistri Spanish bhaasha ke alakemi (Alchemy) se aaya maana jaata hai jo arabi ke al-keemiya (al-kimia) se bana hai jiska shaabdik arth - roopaantaran hai.
  • yadyapi kemi shabd ki utpatti ke vibhinn mat hai, parantu iske baad bhi yeh nishchit hai ki is shabd ka moolaadhaar ek hi hai. isse milte-julate shabd poorv madhya Asia aur Europe ki bhaashaaon mein milte hain at: is tathya ki pushti hoti hai.
  • iske atirikt aayurved mein bhi 'rasaayan' shabd ka bahutaayat se prayog hua hai. aayurved mein paara ko 'rasaraaj' yaani rason ka raaja tatha paare se nirmit aushadhiyaaain 'rasaayan' kahalaati theen. rasaayan se 'rasashaastr' bana hai.
  • rasaayan vigyaan, rasaayanon ke rahasyon ko samajhne ki kala hai. is vigyaan se vidit hota hai ki padaarth kin-kin cheejon se bane hain, unke kya-kya gun hain aur unamein kya-kya parivartan hote hain.
  • sabhi padaarth tatvon se bane hue hain. bhaarateeya vidvaan daarshanikon ne udghoshit kiya ki padaarth ki rachana panch mahaabhooton, yatha- aakaash, vaayu, jal, tej tatha pruthvi se hui hai. vaheen yoonaani vichaarakon ke anusaar padaartho ki rachana chaar prakaar ke tatvon, yatha - pruthvi, vaayu, jal tatha agni se hui hai.
  • Europe mein rasaayan vigyaan ka praarambh 12veen shataabdi mein thiyofils se hua.
  • 15veen-16veen shataabdi mein pairaaselas (1493-1541 E.) ne aushadhi rasaayan ke kshetr mein kaarya kiya.
  • 16veen-17veen shataabdi mein Francis baikan (1561-1636 E.) ne aadhunik rasaayan vigyaan ki aadhaarashila rakhi.
  • Bhaarat mein rasaayan vigyaan ka itihaas atyant praacheen hai. bhaarateeyon ko hadppa-poorv kaal (4000 isaapoorv) se hi rasaayan vigyaan aur rasaayan praudyogiki ka gyaan tha. itihaas mein bhaarateeya ispaat ki shreshthata ke kai ullekh milte hai. Delhi ka lauhastanbh tatha Bihar ke Bhaagalpur jile mein sthit buddh ki taamr pratima iske jvanlat udaaharan hai.

rasaayan vigyaan ke kshetr

rasaayan vigyaan ki bhi kai shaakhaaen hain jinhein padaarthon ke adhyayan ke dauraan baanta gaya hai. rasaayan vigyaan ki shaakhaaon mein kaarbanik rasaayan, akaarbanik rasaayan, jaiv rasaayan, bhautik rasaayan, vishleshanaatmak rasaayan aadi pramukh hain.

kaarbanik rasaayan mein kaarbanik padaarthon, akaarbanik rasaayan mein akaarbanik padaarthon, jaiv rasaayan mein sukshm jeevon mein upasthit padaarthon, bhautik rasaayan mein padaarth ki banaavat, sanghatan aur usamein sannihit oorja, vishleshanaatmak rasaayan mein namoone ke vishleshan ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai taaki usaki banaavat aur sancharana ka pata chale. haal ke dinon mein nyooro-rasaayan jaisi rasaayan ki kuchh aur shaakhaaon ka udaya hua hai.

rasaayan vigyaan ka kshetr bahut vyaapak hai tatha doosare vijnyaaanon ke samanvaya se pratidin vistrut hota ja raha hai. falat: aaj ham bhautik evam rasaayanabhautiki, jeev rasaayan, shareer-kriya-rasaayan, saamaanya rasaayan, krushi rasaayan, aadi anek naveen upaangon mein rasaayan vigyaan ka adhyayan dekhte hain.

adhyayan ki suvidha ke liye ham rasaayan vigyaan kai shaakhaaon mein vargeekrut karte hain-

1. akaarbanik rasaayan
2. kaarbanik rasaayan
3. bhautik rasaayan
3. vaishleshik rasaayan
4. jeev rasaayan
5. audyogik rasaayan
6. aushadheeya rasaayan
7. naabhikeeya rasaayan
8. krushi rasaayan (Green Chemistry)
9. paryaavaraneeya rasaayan (Environmental Chemistry)
10. harit rasaayan (Green Chemistry)

inke alaava bhoorasaayan, khagolarasaayan, bahulak rasaayan, klastar rasaayan, vidyut rasaayan, paryaavaran rasaayan, aahaar rasaayan, saamaanya rasaayan, naino rasaayan, thos avastha rasaayan, ooshmaarasaayan aadi anya shaakhaayein hain.


rasaayan vigyaan aur hamaara jeevan

maanav jeevan ko samunnat karne mein rasaayan vigyaan ka akshunn yogadaan hai. maanav jaati ke bhavishya ko surakshit karne ke liye rasaayan vigyaan ka vikaas anivaarya hai. yeh tabhi sambhav hoga jab aamajan is vigyaan ke prati aakarshit hoga. is vigyaan ka vivekapoorn upayog karna hi samay ki maang hai.

  • sampoorn brahmaand rasaayanon ka vishd bhandaar hai. jidhr bhi hamaari drushti jaati hai, hamein vividh aakaar-prakaar ki vastuen najar aati hain. samoocha sansaar hi rasaayan vigyaan ki prayogashaala hai. yeh vigyaan anekon aashcharyachakit rasaayanon se paripoorn hai. brahmaand mein raasaayanik abhikriyaaon ke dvaara hi taaron ki utpatti, grahon ka praadoorbhaav tatha grahon par jeevan sambhav hua hain.
  • rasaayan vigyaan ko jeevanopayogi vigyaan ki sanjnyaa bhi di gayi hai, kyonki hamaare shareer ki aantarik gatividhiyon mein is vigyaan ki mahati bhoomika hain.
  • pruthvi par samast oorja ka ekamev srot soorya hai jo vigat lagbhag 5 arab varsho se roshani tatha ooshma de raha hai, ped-paudhe ug rahe hain, jeev-jantu chal fir rahe hain, baadal ghumad ped-paudhe ug rahe hain, jeev-jantu chal fir rahe hain, baadal ghumad rahe hain, kaheen aakaasheeya vidyut ki chamak tatha kadk hai, kaheen aaaindhi to kaheen toofaan apni upasthiti darj kara rahe hain, kaheen bhookamp to kaheen sunaami ki ghatnaaen ghatit ho rahi hain.
  • in sabhi ghatnaaon mein rasaayan hi apna karatab dikha rahe hain.
  • ye sabhi kisi na kisi padaarth se nirmit hain, jo thos, drav ya gas roop mein hote hain parantu hain ye bhi rasaayan.
  • hamaare jeevan ka koi bhi paksh rasaayanon se achhoota naheen hai.
  • vaigyaaniko ne hamaare jeevan ko bhi raasaayanik kriya ki sanjnyaa di hai.
  • jeevan ke samast lakshan raasaayanik prakriyaaon ki anugoonj hain.
  • sajeevon mein poshan, vruddhi, paachan, utsarjan, prajanan ki prakriyaaen raasaayanik abhikriyaaen hi hai.
  • maanav ke samvedi anubhavon jaise, shabd sparsh, roop, ras tatha gandh, in sabhi ke peechhe raasaayanik kriyaaen uttaradaayi hain.
  • vastut: rasaayan vigyaan ka sambandh hamaare dainik jeevan se hai.
  • shuruaat ham subah ki chai se karte hain jo ki doodh, cheeni, chai-patti ke saath ubala hua jaleeya ghol hai.
  • roti, kapda aur makaan jaisi buniyaadi aavashyakataaen poori karne mein rasaayanon ki bhoomika hai.
  • ham jahaaain kaheen bhi dekhte hain, rasaayanein ke najaare hi dikhte hain.
  • dainandin upayog ki cheejein, jaise - saabun, tel, brash, manjan, kanghi, sheesha, kaagaj, kalam, syaahi, davaaiyaan, plastic aadi rasaayan vigyaan ki hi den hain.
  • dharm-karm, pooja-paath, snaan, dhoop-deep, naivedya, agarabatti, roli, raksha tatha karpoor ityaadi sab mein rasaayan vyaapt hain.
  • utsavon tatha teej tyauhaaron mein deeye, mombatti tatha pataakhon ke peechhe bhi rasaayan vyaapt hain.
  • yaataayaat, doorasanchaar, parivhan tatha oorja ke vividh srot jaise - koyala, petrol, diesel, mitti ka tel, naiptha evam

bhojan pakaane ki gas bhi vividh raasaayanik yaugikon ke udaaharan hain.

  • maanav jeevan ko aaraamadaayak banaane mein rasaayan vigyaan ne apratim bhoomika nibhaai hai.
  • hamaare dainik jeevan mein prayog hone vaale aujaar, upakaran tatha yuktiyaaain jaise - kursi, mej, ti.vi. frij, ghadi, kukar, istari, miksar, A.si., choolha, bartan, rang-rogan (peints), kapde, varnak (pigmeints) tatha ranjak (daaij) apamaarjak (ditrjeints), keetanaashak, vividh saundarya prasaadhan apamaarjak (ditrjeints), keetanaashak, vividh saundarya prasaadhan saamagriyaan aadi sabhi mein rasaayan vigyaan ka hi avadaan hain.
  • vastut: rasaayanon ka sambandh pratyek gas, drav ya thos padaarth se hai. jis vaataavaran mein ham rahate hain tatha saans lete hain vah vividh rasaayanon se hi nirmit hai. vaayumandal mein naaitrojan, okseejan, kaarban daaioksaaid, aargan aadi gaisein vidyamaan rahati hain.

rogopachaar mein rasaayan vigyaan

chikitsa vigyaan ki pragati rasaayan vigyaan ki hi den hai. vartamaan mein 75 pratishat aushadhiyon ka sanshleshan raasaayanik padaartho se hua hai. aaj lagbhag 4000 gyaat aushadhiyaaain hain parantu rogon ki sankhya 30,000 ke lagbhag hai. at: bhavishya mein rogashaman hetu rasaayan vigyaan ka praadhaanya hai.

aushadhiyon ka vargeekaran

  • 1. sirdard evam anya vedanaanaashak
  • 2. jalne ki davaaen
  • 3. jukaam khaaainsi rodhak
  • 4. nirjaneekaarak
  • 5. mruduvirechak (Laxatives)
  • 6. moorchhaakaari, sanvedanahaari aushadhiyaan
  • 7. uttejak (Stimulants)

sirdard : aispirin (C9H8O4) - alicylic Acid ka aiseetik estar

jalne ki davaaen - tvacha jalan jale bhaag par tainik aml tatha barnol

jukaam khaaainsi - desh ke 75 pratishat log grasit

kulliya - thaaimaal, meinthaal
tikiya - aiseetaneelaaid
naak se lene waali - meinthaal, karpoor, propileen glaaikaal ki fuhaar
nirjarmeekaarak (Antiseptic) - detaul, marakyoorokrom, borik aml
mrudurechak - epsam lavan, feenaapthaileen strikneen
yaatana nivaarak - nishchetak - ithar, ethileen, naaitras oksaaid

sammohak ya nidraakaari - feenobaarbitl

enteebaayotik - dau॰ alekjedar fleming ne 1928 mein penisiliym kavakon se penisileen praapt ki - streptomaaiseen, tetraamaaisin, baayomaaisin, erithromaaisin - enteebaayotik shrunkhala ka sanshleshan

gihiniyon ke liye tatha khaadya padaartho mein rasaayan

  • stenales steel ke bartan - lohe mein 14% naaikrom (kromiym aur nikil ki mishr dhaatu) ka mishran
  • braas ke bartan - (kaupar aur jink mishr dhaatu) se bane bartan
  • braunj ke bartan - (keemati mishr dhaatu jo 88% kaupar, 10% tin tatha 2 pratishat jink) ; khelon mein gold, silver evam braunj maidal
  • rabad - petrolium ke hydrocarbon aur byootaadaain staaiteen
  • eluminiym ke bartan - bauksaait (Al2O3)
  • silver ke bartan - mulaayam dhaatu ismein kaupar ya nikal mila diya jaata hai.
  • plastic ki tashtariyaan, pyaale aadi - ye baikelaait ke bane hote hain, jo feenaul aur faarmeladihaaid se banaaya jaata hai.
  • rabad - petrolium ke hydrocarbon aur byootaadaain staaiteen ke yaugik ko anya raasaayanik padaartho ke saath milaane par bane naye padaarth ko 'krutrim rabad' kehte hai.
  • bhaari vaahanon ke tyre - kloropron rabad
  • vaayuyaan ke tyre - suchaalak bahulak
  • khaadyon mein bhara rasaayan - aahaar ke 6 mukhya raasaayanik ghatak - kaarbohaaidret, proteen, lipid, vitaamin, khanij, jal
  • gharon mein tarah-tarah ke rasaayanon ka prayog
  • pet ki shikaayat - sirka - eseetik esid lavan evam jal.
  • khaane ka soda - sodiym baaikaarbonet
  • khaane ka namak - NaCl
  • seindha namak - KCl
  • fitkari - K2SO4, Al2(SO4)3, 24H2O
  • baitariyon mein - H2SO4
  • bujha choona - Ca(OH)2
  • ailkohaulik peya padaartho mein ithenaul
  • foolon ki sugandh - flevons tatha flevonaaid.
  • raaspaberi ki gandh - aayonin
  • kele ki gandh - aaisoemaail eseetet
  • neenboo ki taajagi - limonin yaugik khattaapan - sitrik aml
  • amlata (esiditi) hone par etaansid davaaiyaan - Mg(OH)2. isse aamaashaya MgCl2 tatha paani banaata hai jisse amlata mein kami aati hai.
  • toothapest ka mukhya ghatak Al2O3
  • maauthavaush mein aayodeen ke yaugik - keetaanurodhi
  • rasaayan vigyaan ke dvaara khaadya padaartho, yatha - doodh, deshi ghi, sarason ke tel, hari sabji, daal, aata, chai tatha masaalon mein milaavat ki bhi saral vidhiyon dvaara ghar par hi jaaainch ki ja sakti hai.
  • rang-rogan tatha vaarnish mein taaiteniym oksaaid tatha pauliyooreethen ka prayog kiya jaata hai. makaanon mein prayog

kiye jaane vaale peint ka aadhaar ekreelik laiteks hota hai.

kaanch ke nirmaan mein rasaayan

  • kaanch vishv ka pehla sanshlisht tharmoplaastik hai. ise kisi bhi roop mein dhaala ja sakta hai. ret (SiO2), choone ka patthar (CaO), sodiym oksaaid (Na2O) aur anya khanij tatha dhaatuon ko paraspar pighlaakar kaanch banaaya jaata hai tatha iske vibhinn bartan aadi banaaye jaate hai. aajkal kaanch ka kai prakaar se upayog hota hai.
  • rangeen kaanch banaane hetu ismein vibhinn prakaar ke raasaayanik lavan milaae jaate hain -
peela neela ya hara - Fe2O3
peela - Fe(OH)3
halka peela - led
gulaabi ya halka peela gulaabi - seliniym
neela - kaupar
hara - adhik maatra mein kaupar
laal - kaupar oksaaid

plastic ke saath kaanch

  • kaanch ke faaibar jab plastic ke saath sanyog karte hai to atyadhik majaboot padaarth banta hai jise prabalit plastic (Reinforced plastic) kehte hain inka chhat, nauka, khel ke saamaan, sootakes tatha automobile ki baudi banaane mein upayog kiya jaata hai.
  • glaas vul - theele glaas faaibar ka bandal, achha ooshmaarodhi, iska upayog - frij, avan, kukar tatha garam paani ki botalon mein hota hai.

saabun aur apamaarjak

  • saaf-safaai ke liye saabun ka istemaal lagbhag 2800 E.poorv ka hai. doosari sadi me yoonaani chikitsak gaalen ne kshaareeya ghol se saabun nirmaan ka ullekh kiya hai.
  • saabun vasa aml ka sodiym lavan hai. steeerik esid, paamitik esid, olik esid tatha linoleik esid ka sodiym ya potaishiym lavan.
  • sodiym vaale saabun thos va kathor hote hain jabki potaishiym vaale mrudu tatha drav. saabun ka sootr : C17H35COONa
  • shaimpoo bhi ailkohal mishrit saabun. ismein tel ko gandhak ke aml se abhikrut karke jalavileya banaaya jaata hai.
  • ganjepan door karne hetu nirjarmeekaarak- risanrsinaal
  • apamaarjak (ditrjet) par paani ki prakruti ka prabhaav nahi padta. at: aghik lokapriya hai.

steshanari

  • raasaayanik prakriya se hi lakdi se kaagaj ki praapti hoti hai. kaagaj ki praapti mein sainkadon liter paani ke saath raasaayanik upachaar kiya jaata hai. peinsil, katar, shaarpanar, irejar, hvaaitanar, syaahi aadi sabhi rasaayan hai.

fotograafi

  • rasaayan vigyaan par aadhaarit fotograafi prakriya. nigetiv se positive chitr sodiym thaayosalfet se lepit kaagaj

keetaanunaashak davaaiyaan

  • detaul - prachalit keetaanunaashak - gharon me prayog (klorojaaileenaul)
  • finaail - adhik prachalit
  • ghaav tatha shalya kriya mein jeevaanunaashak rasaayan (ailkohaul) 60-90 pratishat tatha borik esid- sarvatosulabh
  • chot ki marahamapatti ke liye poorv mein H2O2 se safaai; aayodeen ke tinchar ka bhi prayog
  • feenaul ya kaarbolik esid - jeevaanunaashak - surgeon dvaara shalya kriya ke poorv haathon ki safaai
  • bleenchig paaudar (CaOCl2) ka prayog jal sroton va naaliyon, paranaalon, ki safaai mein prayukt.

saundarya prasaadhanon mein chhipe rasaayan

  • kreem ya koldakreem - jaitoon ka koi khanij tel, mom, paani aur boreks ke mishran se chehare ki kreem banti hai. sugandh hetu itr, elkohaul, eldihaaid, keeton, feenaul.
  • paaudar - khadiya, tailakam, jink oksaaid, chikni mitti ka choorn, staarch, rangane ka padaarth sugandh
  • lipistik - mom tatha taarakol se nirmit rang saamagri. mishran mein chiknaai hetu koi tel milaaya jaata hai.
  • sheving kreem - stiyrik aml, tel, grees tatha potaishiym haaidroksaaid
  • nelapaulish - jaldi sookhane wala ek prakaar ka rogan jismein rang laane ke liye taaiteniym oksaaid (TiO2) milaaya jaata hai. aajkal naaitroselyuloj, eseeton, emaail aiseetet aadi. rang mitaane hetu ethil eseetet, aiseeton tatha jaitun ka tel.

krushi rasaayan

  • raasaayanik keetanaashak (Pesticides), kavakanaashak (Fingicides), viksit
  • mitteeviheen krushi - jal krushi (Hydrophonics)
  • raasaayanik urvarak - yooriya, myooret of potaash, salfet of potaash, di.A.pi., si.A.N. aadi.


udyogon mein prayukt rasaayan

  • rasaayan vigyaan ki bhoomika ke bina udyog sambhav nahi. plastic, kapda, urvarak, kaanch, dhaatu, kaagaj, chamada, koyala, dhaatu, kaagaj, chamada, koyala, gas, petrorasaayan, gandhak evam kloreen se praapt rasaayan, choone se praapt rasaayan aadi.
  • visfotak padaarth : (Khan khodane, imaarat giraane, tel aur gas ke kune khodane mein prayukt) anek naaitret yatha- selyuloj naaitret tatha naaitroglisreen, potaishiym naaitret aadi visfotak hai.

naabhikeeya rasaayan vigyaan

  • is rasaayan vigyaan ki shaakha ke antargat rediyodharmita, tatha naabhikeeya prakramon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

harit rasaayan

  • yeh naveenatam shaakha hai jise 'tikaaoo rasaayan vigyaan' (Green and sustainable Chemistry) bhi kehte hai. green ya harit rasaayan ka taatparya aise raasaayanik utpaadon ya raasaayanik prakriyaaon ke design se hai jo haanikaarak apashisht ke utpaadan ya istemaal ko kam ya samaapt karta hai.
  • draaikleening mein parakloroitheelin (kainsarakaarak) ki jagah dravit kaarbanadaai oksaaid ka prayog.
  • aaibooprofin naamak dava - peeda va jvaranaashak ka nirmaan 10 se 6 charanon mein sambhav, pradooshan mein 30 pratishat kami.
  • pepar milon mein selulos viranjit karne hetu kloreen ke sthaan par surakshit vikalp viksit.
  • ret ke kanon par grefaait oksaaid ki nainon parat chadhaakar paani chhaanane ka ek atyant saral va prabhaavakaari filtar viksit.
  • udyogon mein harit enjaaimon ka prayog.
  • krushi sambandhi rasaayan, plastic faaibar aadi jaiv-utprerakon ke dvaara kam laagat par upalabdh.
  • udyogon mein harit enjaaimon ka prayog.
  • kaarbanik rasaayan vigyaan, jaiv kaarbanik rasaayan vigyaan tatha jaiv rasaayan vigyaan ke mel se aushadhi kshetr mein apratyaashit laabh - harit rasaayan vigyaan ki hi den.
  • paulilaiktik esid jo jaiv-susangat faaibera, jaiv apaghataneeya seevan aur paikejing mein upayeg.
  • Bhaarat mein I.I.ti. Guwahati, Kanpur va Delhi mein harit utprerak vidhi viksit. aushadhi udyog mein kaaragar.
  • kaarn sirp ka khaadya udyog mein upayog


vibhinn rahasyon mein chhupe rasaayan

  • aatishbaaji mein rasaayanon ka karishma - aatishbaaji ke nirmaan tatha upayog ki takaneek - paayarotaikneek ya agnikreeda. prayukt rasaayan deksatrin, chaarakol, redagam, eluminiym, potaishiym parakloret tatha amoniym parakloret.
  • jaise hi aatishbaajiyon mein kavach par aag lagaai jaati hai, indhan va okseekaarak 2200 se 36000 se taapamaan ke beech kriya karte hain, jisse aavaaj utpann hoti hai.
  • aatishbaajiyon ko rangeen banaane mein SrCO3, naaitret tatha kloret se hara rang aatishbaaji mein prayukt kaagaj touch pepar ko KnO3 mein bhigone par aatishbaaji-jvalanasheel.

meinhadi ke rang mein rasaayan

  • lauson, jo nefthaakyoonon varg ka rasaayan hai, haathon ki tvacha mein vidyamaan proteen ki jhaal se haathon ki tvacha mein vidyamaan proteen ki jhaal se kriya karke laal rang deta hai.
  • girgit ke rang badalne ka kaaran : girgit ki vishesh ranjak koshikaaen mailenofor - taap badhne tatha ghatne ke saath-saath sikudti hai. ye koshikaaen, inke shareer mein sraavit hone vaale haaramonon - intaramedin, eseetilkoleen aadi se uttejit hokar rang badalti hai.
  • foolon ka rang bhagaana - hare, peele, neele va laal foolon ki pankhudiyon ko jab salfar daai oksaaid tatha kloreen se sampark karavaaya jaata hai to ye gaise foolon ka rang uda deti hain.
  • vruddhaavastha ki jhurriyaaain bhi rasaayanon ki den - jhurriyaaain chamadi ki oopari satah mein upasthit kolejan tatha ilaastin proteen faaibar mein hui kami ke kaaran.
  • kalaai ghadi ka sel - leethiym - kalaai ghadi ka sel batan aakaar ka hone se 'batan sel' kahalaata hai. ismein

leethiym rinaatmak ilektrod ka kaarya karta hai, dhanaatmak koi okseekaarak.

  • hansaane tatha roolaane waali gaisein - naaitras oksaaid gas tatha naaitril bromaaid ; ethil aayodoesitet ashru gas ke roop mein police dvaara upayog.
  • aaainsoo ki sanrachana mein rasaayan - hamaare aaainsuon ke drav mein proteen, naaitrojan, yooriya, glookoj, sodiym, potaishiym ke oksaaid, amoniya, kloreen, sodiym kloraaid, laaisojaaim enjaaim aadi vidyamaan.
  • paani mein kubadaapan evam bigde daant - manushya ke kubade hone mein paani bhi karishma dikhaata hai. adhik samay tak floraaid yukt jal ka sevan haddiyon mein tatha daaaint mein vikruti pradaan karta hai jisse kubadaapan evam daaainton mein vikrutiyaan utpann hoteen hain.
  • paani mein aag lagaane waali dhaatu - sodiym ki paani se ghanishth mitrata hai.
2Na + 2H2 -> 2NaOH + H2
  • juganoo ki chamak ka raaj : looseeferin C13H12N2S2O3 prakaash utpaadak juganoo ki dhad mein vidyamaan + Mg = prakaash.
  • vishv ka sabse meetha padaarth : taaleem proteen jo shakkar se paaainch hajaar guna meetha.
  • dhoop-chhaaainv ka chashma rasaayanon se bhara : fotokrometik chashmon mein silver aayodaaid evam silver bromaaid ke kan. dhoop mein alag evam chhaaya mein pun: yugmit.
  • khaana pakaane ki gas drav : LPG (Liquified petroleum gas) mein mukhya roop se propen evam byooten gas gandhayukt thaayoelkohal mishrit. gharon mein upayog ke liye is gas ka adhik daab par bhara gaya hota hai.
  • foolon ki sugandh - tarpeen tatha bainjeen ke vyutpann
  • kata seb badarang : kaatne ke baad safed bhaag baadaami - kaifeetenin, epikaiteechin naamak tenin - hava ke sampark se okseekaran.
  • mirch khaane se jalan mein kaipsisin ka yogadaan.
  • falon ko pakaane mein ithileen gas ki bhoomika - hare rang ke fal laal-peele rang ke ho jaate hain.
  • ojon chhidr - pruthvi se 15-50 kimi ki ooainchaai par ojon ki patali parat pruthvi ko ghere rahati hai. yeh pruthvi ko soorya ki uchch oorja waali paraabaingani kirnon se bachaati hai aur hamaari jeevan raksha karti hai. 1987 mein pehli baar antaarkatika mein is parat ko girte dekha gaya. iske chhidr banane mein klorofloro kaarban ki bhoomika.
  • naun-stick bartanon ki parat mein teflaun (paulitetraafluroithileen)
  • paan ka rang - katechoonik aml ke kaaran.
  • haaidropauniks - bina mitti se krushi.
  • syaahiyon ke raaj mein rasaayan : baul pvaanit pen ki syaahi - rangeen ranjakon ko olik aml, arandi ka tel tatha salfonaamaaid ke saath milaana.
  • cheetinyon ko raasta dikhaate rasaayan : raani, pankhayukt nar evam pankharahit maada - teen prajaatiyaan cheetinyaan lagaataar gandh feeromon ko chhodti hai jise raasta pata lagta hai.
  • stainp pad syaahi - indiyulin naamak rang ko glisreen, feenol ya kreesaul mein gholakar banaai jaati hai.
  • priting syaahi - mineral Oil, eneelon rang tatha chunaav mein prayukt syaahi mein silver saalt evam eneeleen yaugik ka prayog.
  • mahilaaon ki saheli - bagair steraayadal, gair haaramonal garbh nirodhak goli mein seintakromen (Resorcinol se sanshleshan) ka yogadaan.
  • osmiym sabse bhaari dhaatu aur gailiym, pleteenam se bhi mahangi dhaatu.

dhabbe chhudaane vaale rasaayan

  • vanaspati ke dhabbe - (ghaas, chai, sabji, kaufi, fal) garam paani, saabun tatha suhaaga.
  • jaiveeya dhabbe - khoon, thook, kaf, ande, myookakas ke daag hetu amoniya, namak, neenboo, kaarban tetraakloraaid.
  • rasaayanajanit dhabbe - loha, syaahi, vaarnish, peint hetu okselik aml evam H2O2 ka prayog, vaisaleen, tel ke dhabbon ke liye sodiym paraboret va klorofaarm.

ghaatak rasaayan

  • aaainkhon mein surama mein Sb2S3 ke badle PbS ka prayog - okh ke liye ghaatak. seesa shareer ke liye atyadhik vishaalu dhaatu.
  • saundarya prasaadhanon mein faarmeldeehaaid ka atyadhik upayog. yeh shampoo, parirkshak aadi mein prayukt hone se ghaatak.
  • elumeeniym ke bartan haanikaarak (halke, saste, jangarahit evam prachur upalabdh). elumeeniym ke bartanon mein khatti vastuen, namak va soda, dahi, chai, chatani, sirka falon ka ras, tamaatar ka ras aadi kabhi naheen rakhane chaahiye.
  • uchch elumeeniym yukt bhojan ya chai lagaataar sevan se mastishk ki koshikaaon ki kshati.

saaraansh :

sandarbh

  1. Chemistry. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
  2. What is Chemistry?
  3. Matter: Atoms from Democritus to Dalton by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.
  4. Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene Lemay, Bruce Edward Bursten, H. Lemay. Chemistry: The Central Science. Prentice Hall; 8 edition (1999). ISBN 0-13-010310-1. Pages 3-4.
  5. yeh jeevavijnyaaan aur bhautik vigyaan ke madhya ki kadi hai. rasaayan vigyaan ka janm kimiyaagaaron ke prayogon se hua jo kai sau varsh pehle vishv ke vibhinn hisson, khaaskar madhyapoorv mein kaam karte the.ref>Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Alchemy [1]

inhein bhi dekhein

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