rakshaabandhan

rakshaabandhan
रक्षाबन्धन
raakhiyaaain, jinhein rakshaabandhan ke avsar par
bahanein bhaaiyon ke haath mein baaaindhati hain.
aadhikaarik naam rakshaabandhan
anya naam raakhi, saloono, shraavani
anuyaayi hindu aur lagbhag sabhi nepaali aur bhaarateeya
prakaar dhaarmik, saamaajik bhaarateeya, nepaali
uddeshya bhraatrubhaavana aur sahayog
aarambh pauraanik kaal se
tithi shraavan poornima
anushthaan pooja, prasaad
utsav raakhi baaaindhana, upahaar, bhoj
samaan parv bhaiya dooj

rakshaabandhan ek hindu tyauhaar hai jo prativrsh shraavan maas ki poornima ke din manaaya jaata hai. shraavan (saavan) mein manaaye jaane ke kaaran ise shraavani (saavani) ya saloono bhi kehte hain.[1] gregoriyn kailendar ke anusaar 2012 mein rakshaabandhan guruvaar, 2 August ko manaaya gaya.[2] rakshaabandhan mein raakhi ya rakshaasootr ka sabse adhik mahattv hai. raakhi kachche soot jaise sasti vastu se lekar rangeen kalaave, reshami dhaage, tatha sone ya chaaaindi jaisi mainhagi vastu tak ki ho sakti hai. raakhi saamaanyat: bahanein bhaai ko hi baaaindhati hain parantu braahmanon, guruon aur parivaar mein chhoti ladkiyon dvaara sammaanit sambandhiyon (jaise putri dvaara pita ko) bhi baaaindhi jaati hai. kabhi-kabhi saarvajanik roop se kisi neta ya pratishthit vyakti ko bhi raakhi baaaindhi jaati hai.

ab to prakruti sanrakshan hetu vrukshon ko raakhi baaaindhane ki parampara bhi praarambh ho gayi hai.[3] Hindustan mein raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh ke purush sadasya paraspar bhaaichaare ke liye ek doosare ko bhagava rang ki raakhi baaaindhate hain.[4] hindu dharm ke sabhi dhaarmik anushthaanon mein rakshaasootr baaaindhate samay karmakaandi pandit ya aachaarya sanskrut mein ek shlok ka uchchaaran karte hain, jismein rakshaabandhan ka sambandh raaja bali se spasht roop se drushtigochar hota hai. yeh shlok rakshaabandhan ka abheesht mantr hai.[k] is shlok ka hindi bhaavaarth hai- "jis rakshaasootr se mahaan shaktishaali daanavendr raaja bali ko baaaindha gaya tha, usi sootr se main tujhe baaaindhata hooain, too apne sankalp se kabhi bhi vichlit na ho."

anukram

anushthaan

praat: snaanaadi se nivrutt hokar ladkiyaaain aur mahilaaeain pooja ki thaali sajaati hain. thaali mein raakhi ke saath roli ya haldi, chaaval, deepak, mithaai aur kuchh paise bhi hote hain. ladke aur purush taiyaar hokar teeka karavaane ke liye pooja ya kisi upayukt sthaan par baithate hain. pehle abheesht devata ki pooja ki jaati hai, iske baad roli ya haldi se bhaai ka teeka karke chaaval ko teeke par lagaaya jaata hai aur sir par chhidka jaata hai, usaki aarti utaari jaati hai, daahini kalaai par raakhi baaaindhi jaati hai aur paison se nyauchhaavar karke unhein gareebon mein baaaint diya jaata hai. Bhaarat ke anek praanton mein bhaai ke kaan ke oopar bhojali ya bhujariyaaain lagaane ki pratha bhi hai. bhaai bahan ko upahaar ya dhan deta hai. is prakaar rakshaabandhan ke anushthaan ko poora karne ke baad hi bhojan kiya jaata hai. pratyek parv ki tarah upahaaron aur khaane-peene ke vishesh pakavaanon ka mahattv rakshaabandhan mein bhi hota hai. aamtaur par dopahar ka bhojan mahattvapoorn hota hai aur rakshaabandhan ka anushthaan poora hone tak bahanon dvaara vrat rakhane ki bhi parampara hai. purohit tatha aachaarya subah-subah yajamaanon ke ghar pahuainchakar unhein raakhi baaaindhate hain aur badle mein dhan, vastr aur bhojan aadi praapt karte hain. yeh parv bhaarateeya samaaj mein itni vyaapakata aur gaharaai se samaaya hua hai ki iska saamaajik mahattv to hai hi, dharm, puraan, itihaas, saahitya aur filmein bhi isse achhoote naheen hain.

saamaajik prasang

Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri Narendra Modi ko raakhi baaaindhate bachche.

Nepal ke pahaadi ilaakon mein braahman evam kshetreeya samudaaya mein raksha bandhan guroo aur bhaagineya ke haath se baaaindha jaata hai. lekin dakshin seema mein rahane vaale bhaarateeya mool ke nepaali bhaarateeyon ki tarah bahan se raakhi baindhavaate hain.

is din bahanein apne bhaai ke daayein haath par raakhi baaaindhakar uske maathe par tilk karti hain aur usaki deergh aayu ki kaamna karti hain. badle mein bhaai unki raksha ka vachan deta hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki raakhi ke rangabirange dhaage bhaai-bahan ke pyaar ke bandhan ko majboot karte hai. bhaai bahan ek doosare ko mithaai khilaate hain aur sukh-dukh mein saath rahane ka vishvaas dilaate hain. yeh ek aisa paavan parv hai jo bhaai-bahan ke pavitra rishte ko poora aadar aur sammaan deta hai.

sage bhaai bahan ke atirikt anek bhaavanaatmak rishte bhi is parv se baindhe hote hain jo dharm, jaati aur desh ki seemaaon se pare hain. rakshaabandhan ka parv Bhaarat ke raashtrapati aur pradhaanamantri ke nivaas par bhi manaaya jaata hai. jahaaain chhote chhote bachche jaakar unhein raakhi baaaindhate hain.[5] rakshaabandhan aatmeeyata aur sneh ke bandhan se rishton ko majbooti pradaan karne ka parv hai. yahi kaaran hai ki is avsar par na keval bahan bhaai ko hi apitu anya sambandhon mein bhi raksha (ya raakhi) baaaindhane ka prachalan hai. guru shishya ko rakshaasootr baaaindhata hai to shishya guru ko. Bhaarat mein praacheen kaal mein jab snaatak apni shiksha poorn karne ke pashchaat gurukul se vida leta tha to vah aachaarya ka aasheervaad praapt karne ke liye use rakshaasootr baaaindhata tha jabki aachaarya apne vidyaarthi ko is kaamna ke saath rakshaasootr baaaindhata tha ki usane jo gyaan praapt kiya hai vah apne bhaavi jeevan mein usaka samuchit dhang se prayog kare taaki vah apne gyaan ke saath-saath aachaarya ki garima ki raksha karne mein bhi safal ho. isi parampara ke anuroop aaj bhi kisi dhaarmik vidhi vidhaan se poorv purohit yajamaan ko rakshaasootr baaaindhata hai aur yajamaan purohit ko. is prakaar donon ek doosare ke sammaan ki raksha karne ke liye paraspar ek doosare ko apne bandhan mein baaaindhate hain.[6]

rakshaabandhan parv saamaajik aur paarivaarik ekabaddhata ya ekasootrata ka saanskrutik upaaya raha hai. vivaah ke baad bahan paraaye ghar mein chali jaati hai. is bahaane prativrsh apne sage hi naheen apitu dooradaraaj ke rishton ke bhaaiyon tak ko unke ghar jaakar raakhi baaaindhati hai aur is prakaar apne rishton ka naveeneekaran karti rahati hai. do parivaaron ka aur kulon ka paarasparik yog (milan) hota hai. samaaj ke vibhinn vargon ke beech bhi ekasootrata ke roop mein is parv ka upayog kiya jaata hai. is prakaar jo kadi toot gayi hai use fir se jaagrut kiya ja sakta hai.[7]

rakshaabandhan ke avsar par kuchh vishesh pakavaan bhi banaaye jaate hain jaise ghevar, shakarapaare, namakapaare aur ghughani. ghevar saavan ka vishesh mishthaann hai yeh keval halavaai hi banaate hain jabki shakarapaare aur namakapaare aamtaur par ghar mein hi banaaye jaate hain. ghughani banaane ke liye kaale chane ko ubaalakar chatapata chhaunka jaata hai. isko poori aur dahi ke saath khaate hain. halava aur kheer bhi is parv ke lokapriya pakavaan hain.

bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein raksha bandhan parv ki bhoomika

bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein jan jaagaran ke liye bhi is parv ka sahaara liya gaya. shri raveendranaath thaakur ne bang-bhang ka virodh karte samay rakshaabandhan tyauhaar ko Bengal nivaasiyon ke paarasparik bhaaichaare tatha ekta ka prateek banaakar is tyauhaar ka raajaneetik upayog aarambh kiya. 1905 mein unki prasiddh kavita "maatrubhoomi vandana" ka prakaashan hua jismein ve likhte hain-

"he prabhu! mere bangadesh ki dharati, nadiyaaain, vaayu, fool - sab paavan hon;
hai prabhu! mere bangadesh ke, pratyek bhaai bahan ke ur ant:sthal, avichhnn, avibhkt evam ek hon."[8]
(baangla se hindi anuvaad)

san 1905 mein Lord karjn ne bang bhang karke vande maataram ke aandolan se bhadki ek chhoti si chingaari ko sholon mein badal diya. 16 October 1905 ko bang bhang ki niyat ghoshana ke din raksha bandhan ki yojana saakaar hui aur logabaag ganga snaan karke sadkon par yeh kehte hue utar aaye-

"sapt koti loker karun krandan, sunena sunil karjn durjan;
taai nite pratishodh maner matan karil, aami svajane raakhi bandhan."[9]

dhaarmik prasang

Rajasthan mein prayukt ki jaane waali choodaaraakhi

, uttaraanchal mein ise shraavani kehte hain. is din yajurvedi dvijon ka upakarm hota hai. utsarjan, snaan-vidhi, riashi-tarpanaadi karke naveen yajnyaopaveet dhaaran kiya jaata hai. braahmanon ka yeh sarvopari tyauhaar maana jaata hai. vruttivaan braahman apne yajamaanon ko yajnyaopaveet tatha raakhi dekar dakshina lete hain.[10]

amaranaath ki ativikhyaat dhaarmik yaatra guru poornima se praarambh hokar rakshaabandhan ke din sampoorn hoti hai. kehte hain isi din yahaaain ka himaani shivling bhi apne poorn aakaar ko praapt hota hai.[11] is upalakshya mein is din amaranaath gufa mein pratyek varsh mele ka aayojan bhi hota hai.[12]

Maharashtra raajya mein yeh tyohaar naariyl poornima ya shraavani ke naam se vikhyaat hai. is din log nadi ya samudra ke tat par jaakar apne janeoo badalate hain aur samudra ki pooja karte hain.[13] is avsar par samudra ke svaami varun devata ko prasann karne ke liye naariyl arpit karne ki parampara bhi hai. yahi kaaran hai ki is ek din ke liye Mumbai ke samudra tat naariyl ke falon se bhar jaate hain.[14]

Rajasthan mein raamaraakhi aur choodaaraakhi ya loonba baaaindhane ka rivaaj hai. raamaraakhi saamaanya raakhi se bhinn hoti hai. ismein laal dore par ek peele chheenton wala fuaindana laga hota hai. yeh keval Bhagwan ko hi baaaindhi jaati hai. chooda raakhi bhaabhiyon ki choodiyon mein baaaindhi jaati hai. Jodhpur mein raakhi ke din keval raakhi hi naheen baaaindhi jaati, balki dopahar mein padmasar aur minkaanaadi par gobar[kh], mitti[g] aur bhasmi[gh] se snaan kar shareer ko shuddh kiya jaata hai. iske baad dharm tatha vedon ke pravachanakartta arundhati, ganapati, durga, gobhila tatha saptarshiyon ke darbh ke chat (poojaasthal) banaakar unki mantrochchaaran ke saath pooja ki jaati hain. unka tarpan kar pitrurian chukaaya jaata hai. dhaarmik anushthaan karne ke baad ghar aakar havan kiya jaata hai, vaheen reshami dore se raakhi banaayi jaati hai. raakhi ko kachche doodh se abhimntrit karte hain aur iske baad hi bhojan karne ka praavadhaan hai.[15]

Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra aur udeesa ke dakshin bhaarateeya braahman is parv ko avani avittam kehte hain. yajnyaopaveetadhaari braahmanon ke liye yeh din atyant mahatvapoorn hai. is din nadi ya samudra ke tat par snaan karne ke baad rishiyon ka tarpan kar naya yajnyaopaveet dhaaran kiya jaata hai. gaye varsh ke puraane paapon ko puraane yajnyaopaveet ki bhaaainti tyaag dene aur svachh naveen yajnyaopaveet ki bhaaainti naya jeevan praarambh karne ki pratijnyaa li jaati hai. is din yajurvedeeya braahman 6 maheenon ke liye ved ka adhyayan praarambh karte hain.[16] is parv ka ek naam upakraman bhi hai jiska arth hai- nayi shuruaat.[17] vraj mein hariyaali teej (shraavan shukl truteeya) se shraavani poornima tak samast mandiron evam gharon mein thaakur jhoole mein viraajamaan hote hain. rakshaabandhan vaale din jhoolan-darshan samaapt hote hain.[18]

  • uttar pradesh :shraavan maas ki poornima ke din raksha bandhan ka parv manaaya jaata hai. raksha bandhan ke avsar par bahin apna sampoorn pyaar raksha (raakhi ) ke roop mein apne bhaai ki kalaai par baandh kar udel deti hai. bhaai is avsar par kuchh upahaar dekar bhavishya mein sankat ke samay sahaayata dene ka bachan deta hai.
    Rakshabandhan Festival

pauraanik prasang

raakhi ka tyohaar kab shuroo hua yeh koi naheen jaanta. lekin bhavishya puraan mein varnan milta hai ki Dave aur daanavon mein jab yuddh shuroo hua tab daanav haavi hote nazar aane lage. Bhagwan indr ghabara kar bruhaspati ke paas gaye. vahaan baithi indr ki patni indraani sab sun rahi thi. unhonne resham ka dhaaga mantron ki shakti se pavitra karke apne pati ke haath par baaaindh diya. sanyog se vah shraavan poornima ka din tha. logon ka vishvaas hai ki indr is ladaai mein isi dhaage ki mantr shakti se hi vijayi hue the. usi din se shraavan poornima ke din yeh dhaaga baaaindhane ki pratha chali aa rahi hai. yeh dhaaga dhan, shakti, harsh aur vijay dene mein poori tarah samarth maana jaata hai.[19]

skandh puraan, padmapuraan aur shreemadbhaagavat mein vaamanaavataar naamak katha mein rakshaabandhan ka prasang milta hai. katha kuchh is prakaar hai- daanavendr raaja bali ne jab 100 yagya poorn kar svarg ka raajya chheenane ka prayatn kiya to indr aadi devataaon ne Bhagwan vishnu se praarthana ki. tab Bhagwan vaaman avataar lekar braahman ka vesh dhaaran kar raaja bali se bhiksha maaaingane pahuainche. guru ke mana karne par bhi bali ne teen pag bhoomi daan kar di. Bhagwan ne teen pag mein saara aakaash paataal aur dharati naapakar raaja bali ko rasaatal mein bhej diya. is prakaar Bhagwan vishnu dvaara bali raaja ke abhimaan ko chakanaachoor kar dene ke kaaran yeh tyohaar balev naam se bhi prasiddh hai.[13] kehte hain ek baar baali rasaatal mein chala gaya tab bali ne apni bhakti ke bal se Bhagwan ko raat-din apne saamane rahane ka vachan le liya.[ङ] Bhagwan ke ghar na lautane se pareshaan lakshmi ji ko naarad ji ne ek upaaya bataaya. us upaaya ka paalan karte hue lakshmi ji ne raaja bali ke paas jaakar use rakshaabandhan baandhakar apna bhaai banaaya aur apne pati Bhagwan bali ko apne saath le aayeen. us din shraavan maas ki poornima tithi thi. vishnu puraan ke ek prasang mein kaha gaya hai ki shraavan ki poornima ke din Bhagwan vishnu ne hayagreev ke roop mein avataar lekar vedon ko brahma ke liye fir se praapt kiya tha. hayagreev ko vidya aur buddhi ka prateek maana jaata hai.

aitihaasik prasang

rajput jab ladaai par jaate the tab mahilaaeain unako maathe par kumakum tilk lagaane ke saath saath haath mein reshami dhaaga bhi baaaindhati thi. is vishvaas ke saath ki yeh dhaaga unhe vijyashri ke saath vaapas le aayega. raakhi ke saath ek aur prasiddh kahaani judi hui hai. kehte hain, mevaad ki raani karmaavati ko bahaadurashaah dvaara mevaad par hamla karne ki poorv soochana mili. raani ladऩae mein asamarth thi at: usane mugal baadshah humaayooain ko raakhi bhej kar raksha ki yaachana ki. humaayooain ne musalmaan hote hue bhi raakhi ki laaj rakhi aur mevaad pahuainch kar bahaadurashaah ke virooddh mevaad ki or se ladte hue karmaavati va uske raajya ki raksha ki.[20] ek anya prasangaanusaar sikndar ki patni ne apne pati ke hindu shatru puroovaas ko raakhi baaaindhakar apna muainhabola bhaai banaaya aur yuddh ke samay sikndar ko na maarane ka vachan liya. puroovaas ne yuddh ke dauraan haath mein baindhi raakhi aur apni bahan ko diye hue vachan ka sammaan karte hue sikndar ko jeevan-daan diya.[20]

mahaabhaarat mein bhi is baat ka ullekh hai ki jab jyeshth paandav yudhishthir ne Bhagwan Krishna se poochha ki main sabhi sankaton ko kaise paar kar sakta hooain tab Bhagwan Krishna ne unki tatha unki sena ki raksha ke liye raakhi ka tyohaar manaane ki salaah di thi. unka kehna tha ki raakhi ke is reshami dhaage mein vah shakti hai jisse aap har aapatti se mukti pa sakte hain. is samay draupadi dvaara Krishna ko tatha kunti dvaara abhimnyu ko raakhi baaaindhane ke kai ullekh milte hain.[21] mahaabhaarat mein hi rakshaabandhan se sambandhit Krishna aur draupadi ka ek aur vruttaant bhi milta hai. jab Krishna ne sudarshan chakr se shishupaal ka vadh kiya tab unki tarjani mein chot aa gayi. draupadi ne us samay apni saadi faadkar unki uaingali par patti baaaindh di. yeh shraavan maas ki poornima ka din tha. Krishna ne is upakaar ka badla baad mein cheeraharan ke samay unki saadi ko badhaakar chukaaya. kehte hain paraspar ek doosare ki raksha aur sahayog ki bhaavana rakshaabandhan ke parv mein yaheen se praarambh hui.[22]

saahityik prasang

anek saahityik granth aise hain jinmein rakshaabandhan ke parv ka vistrut varnan milta hai. inmein sabse adhik mahatvapoorn hai harikrushn premi ka aitihaasik naatak rakshaabandhan jiska 1991 mein 18vaaain sanskaran prakaashit ho chuka hai.[23] maraathi mein shinde saamraajya ke vishay mein likhte hue raamaraav subhaanaraav barge ne bhi ek naatak ki rachana ki jiska sheershak hai raakhi oorf rakshaabandhan.[24][25] pachaas aur saath ke dashak mein rakshaabandhan hindi filmon ka lokapriya vishay bana raha. na sirf 'raakhi' naam se balki 'rakshaabandhan' naam se bhi kai filmein banaayeen gayeen. 'raakhi' naam se do baar fil‍aam bani, ek baar san 1949 mein, doosari baar san 1962 mein, san 62 mein I fil‍aam ko A. bheemasinh ne banaaya tha, kalaakaar the ashok Kumar, vaheeda Rahman, pradeep Kumar aur amita. is fil‍aam mein raajeindr krush‍aan ne sheershak geet likha tha- "raakhi dhaagon ka t‍aayauhaar". san 1972 mein S.M.saagar ne fil‍aam banaayi thi 'raakhi aur hathakadi' ismein aar.di.barman ka sangeet tha. san 1976 mein raadhaakaant sharma ne fil‍aam banaai 'raakhi aur rifle'. daara Singh ke abhinay waali yeh ek masaala fil‍aam thi. isi tarah se san 1976 mein hi shaantilaal soni ne sachin aur saarika ko lekar ek fil‍aam 'rakshaabandhan' naam ki bhi banaayi thi.[26]

sarkaari prabandh

Bhaarat sarkaar ke daak-taar vibhaag dvaara is avsar par das rupae vaale aakarshak lifaafon ki bikri ki jaati hain. lifaafe ki keemat 5 rupae aur 5 rupae daak ka shulk. ismein raakhi ke tyohaar par bahanein, bhaai ko maatr paaainch rupaye mein ek saath teen-chaar raakhiyaaain tak bhej sakti hain. daak vibhaag ki or se bahanon ko diye is tohafe ke tahat 50 gram vajan tak raakhi ka lifaafa maatr paaainch rupaye mein bheja ja sakta hai jabki saamaanya 20 gram ke lifaafe mein ek hi raakhi bheji ja sakti hai. yeh suvidha rakshaabandhan tak hi upalabdh rahati hai.[27] rakshaabandhan ke avsar par barasaat ke mausam ka dhyaan rakhate hue daak-taar vibhaag ne 2007 se baarish se khraab na hone vaale vaataraproof lifaafe bhi upalabdh karaaye hain. ye lifaafe anya lifaafon se bhinn hain. iska aakaar aur design bhi alag hai jiske kaaran raakhi ismein jyaada surakshit rahati hai. daak-taar vibhaag par rakshaabandhan ke avsar par 20 pratishat adhik kaam ka bojh padta hai. at: raakhi ko surakshit aur teji se pahuainchaane ke liye vishesh upaaya kiye jaate hain aur kaam ke hisaab se ismein sevaanivrutt daakakarmiyon ki sevaaeain bhi li jaati hai. kuchh bade shaharon ke bade daakagharon mein raakhi ke liye alag se box bhi lagaaye jaate hain. iske saath hi chuninda daakagharon mein sampark karne vaale logon ko raakhi bechne ki bhi ijaajat di jaati hai, taaki log vaheen se raakhi khareed kar nirdhaarit sthaan ko bhej sakein.[28]

raakhi aur aadhunik takaneeki maadhyam

aaj ke aadhunik takaneeki yug evam soochana sampreshan yug ka prabhaav raakhi jaise tyohaar par bhi pada hai. bahut saare bhaarateeya aajkal videsh mein rahate hain evam unke parivaar vaale (bhaai evam bahan) abhi bhi Bhaarat ya anya deshon mein hain. intaranet ke aane ke baad kai saari E-Commerce site khul gayi hain jo online aardar lekar raakhi diye gaye pate par pahuainchaati hai.[29] iske atirikt Bhaarat mein 2007 raakhi ke avsar par is parv se sambandhit ek eneemeted seedi bhi aa gayi hai jismein ek bahan dvaara bhaai ko teeka karne va raakhi baaaindhane ka chalachitr hai. yeh seedi raakhi ke avsar par anek bahanein door desh mein rahane vaale apne bhaaiyon ko bhej sakti hain.

teeka tippani

k. ^ yen baddho bali: raaja daanavendro mahaabal:.
ten tvaamabhibdhnaami rakshe ma chal ma chal.
shreeshuklayajurvedeeya maadhyandin vaajasaneyinaan bramhakarm samuchchaya prushth 295
kh. ^ gobar gaaya ke mal ko kehte hain. shareer, man aur ghar ki shuddhi ke liye bhaarateeya sanskruti mein iska bahut mahatva hai.
g. ^ mitti panch tatvon mein se ek hone ke kaaran shareer ki shuddhi ke liye mahatvapoorn maani gayi hai.
gh. ^ yagya ki bhasm ka shareer ki shuddhi ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai.
ङ. ^ rakshishye sarvatohan tvaan saanugan saparichhidm.
sada sannihitan veeran tatr maan drukshyate bhavaan.
-shreemadbhaagavat 8 skandh 23 adhyaaya 33 shlok

sandarbh

  1. "raakhi" (echateeemael). nyooyaurkayoonivrsiti.ideeyoo. http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/fes_rakhi.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  2. "parv panchaang 2012" (echateeemael). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/parva/panchang/panchang12.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  3. "a global enavaayarnameintal raakhi" (angreji mein) (echateeem). enaaaraaaiintaranet.com. http://www.nriinternet.com/Events/RAKHI/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  4. "raakhi festivl" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). kaamat.com. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/festive/rakhi.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  5. "foto daaunalod 12 August 2003" (echateeemael). Bhaarat sarkaar. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/phtgalry/pgyr2003/pg082003/pg12aug2003/120820032.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  6. "pyaara sa bandhan : rakshaabandhan" (echateeem). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/parva/alekh/2006/rakshabandhan.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  7. "saamaajik paarivaarik ekabaddhata ka upakram hai rakshaabandhan" (eesapi). amar ujaala. http://www.amarujala.com/dharam/default1.asp?foldername=20010804&sid=3. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  8. "saahitya mein raashtreeyata ka udbhav" (peeechapi). madhumati. http://www.lakesparadise.com/madhumati/show_artical.php?id=493. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  9. kraant (2006) (Hindi mein) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 1 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 186-187 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-119-4 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218
  10. "kumaaooain ke parvotsav va tyauhaar" (echateeem). uttaraanchal. http://tdil.mit.gov.in/CoilNet/IGNCA/utrn0005.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  11. "Bhagwan Shiv ke teerth sthaan" (eesapi). jaagaran. http://www.jagran.com/books/mansarovar/inner.asp?ArticleID=5. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  12. "buddha amaranaath : amaranaath yaatra ka anivaarya padaav" (echateeem). vebaduniya. http://hindi.webdunia.com/entertainment/tourism/religiousplace/0704/24/1070424009_2.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  13. a aa "bandhan dhaagon ka" (echateeem). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/parva/alekh/2002/rakshabandhan.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  14. "rakshaabandhan" (angreji mein) (echateeem). maanavata.aarg. http://www.manavata.org/Events/rakshabandhan.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  15. "shreemaali braahmanon ke reeti- rivaaj" (echateeem). kauilanet. http://tdil.mit.gov.in/CoilNet/IGNCA/rj191.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  16. "avani avittam/upakramam" (angreji mein) (echateeem). rakshaabandhan.com. http://www.raksha-bandhan.com/avani-avittam-upakramam.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  17. "rakshaabandhan" (angreji mein) (echateeem). dlshq.org. http://www.dlshq.org/religions/raksha.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  18. "shreebaankebihaari ka divya hindole mein darshan" (eesapeeeks). jaagaran. http://www6.jagran.com/religion/inner2.aspx?articleid=2569&SectionID=11. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  19. "rakshaabandhan" (angreji mein) (echateeem). hinduijm.ko.ja. http://www.hinduism.co.za/raksha.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  20. a aa "rakshaabandhan" (angreji mein). rakshaabandhan.com. http://www.raksha-bandhan.com/raksha-bandhan-in-history.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  21. "rakshaabandhan" (angreji mein). festivls of India. http://www.festivalsofindia.in/rakshabandhan. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  22. "ful moon de in the manth of shraavana" (angreji mein) (peeechapi). baalagokulam. http://www.balagokulam.org/teach/festivals/raksha.php. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  23. premi, harikrushn premi (1934/1991). rakshaabandhan. nai Delhi: hindi bhavan. 0000523363.
  24. barge, raamaraav subhaanaraav (1944). raakhi oorf rakshaabandhan. shiledaar granth-maalechein office. 0000557643.
  25. "raakhi oorf rakshaabandhan : naatyaroop shindeshaaheechein trutiya naatyapushp / lekhak, raamaraav subhaanaraav barge" (maraathi mein) (echateeemael). repository.tufs.ac.jp. http://repository.tufs.ac.jp/handle/10108/5599. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  26. "hindi filmon mein rakshaabandhan" (echateeem). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/samachar/film_ilm/2007/rakshabandhan.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  27. "daakagharon mein aakarshak lifaafe ki bikri shuroo" (echateeemael). dainik bhaaskar. http://www.bhaskar.com/2007/08/23/envelope.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  28. "raakhi ke liye vaataraproof lifaafa" (echateeem). web duniya. http://hindi.webdunia.com/news/news/regional/0707/27/1070727078_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  29. "digital ho gayi resham ki dor" (angreji mein) (echateeem). vebaduniya.com. http://hindi.webdunia.com/miscellaneous/special07/rakhi/0708/22/1070822073_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.

sandarbh granth

  • premi, harikrushn premi (1934/1991). rakshaabandhan. nai Delhi: hindi bhavan. 0000523363.
  • barge, raamaraav subhaanaraav (1944). raakhi oorf rakshaabandhan. shiledaar granth-maalechein office. 0000557643.

baahari kadiyaaain