raavan

yeh lekh nirvaachit lekh banane ke liye parakhane hetu rakha gaya hai. adhik jaankaari ke liye nirvaachit lekh aavashyakataaeain dekhein.
trinkomali ke koneshvaram mandir mein raavan ki pratima

raavan raamaayan ka ek keindreeya pratichritr hai. raavan lanka ka raaja tha. vah apne das siron ke kaaran bhi jaana jaata tha, jiske kaaran usaka naam dashaanan (dash = das + aanan = mukh) bhi tha. kisi bhi kruti ke liye naayak ke saath hi sashakt khalanaayak ka hona ati aavashyak hai. raamakatha mein raavan aisa paatr hai, jo Ram ke ujjval charitra ko ubhaarane kaam karta hai. kinchit maanyataanusaar raavan mein anek gun bhi the. vah ek kushal raajaneetijnya , mahaaparaakrami , atyant balashaali , anekon shaastron ka jnyaaata prakaand vidvaan pandit evam mahaajnyaaani tha. raavan ke shaasan kaal mein lanka ka vaibhav apne charam par tha isaliye usaki lankaanagari ko sone ki lanka athva sone ki nagari bhi kaha jaata hai.

anukram

raavan ka udaya

trinkomaali mein raavan ka putala, Sri Lanka mein praacheen tamil port.

padmapuraan, shreemadbhaagavat puraan, koormapuraan, raamaayan, mahaabhaarat, aanand raamaayan, dashaavataaracharit aadi granthon mein raavan ka ullekh hua hai. raavan ke udaya ke vishay mein bhinn-bhinn granthon mein bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke ullekh milte hain.

vaalmeeki dvaara likhit raamaayan mahaakaavya ki umr mein, raavan lankaapuri ka sabse shaktishaali raaja tha.

  • vaalmeeki raamaayan ke anusaar raavan pulastya muni ka pota tha arthaat unke putr vishrava ka putr tha. vishvashrava ki varavarnini aur kaikasi naamak do patniyaan thi. varavarnini ke kuber ko janm dene par sautiya daahavash kaikasi ne kubela (ashubh samay - ku-bela) mein garbh dhaaran kiya. isi kaaran se uske garbh se raavan tatha kumbhakarn jaise kroor svabhaav vaale bhayankar raakshas utpann hue.
  • tulaseedaas ji ke raamacharitmaanas mein raavan ka janm shaap ke kaaran hua tha. ve naarad evam prataapabhaanu ki kathaaon ko raavan ke janm kaaran bataate hain.

raavan ke janm ki katha

poorvakaal mein brahma ji ne anek jal-jantu banaaye aur unase samudra ke jal ki raksha karne ke liye kaha. tab un jantuon mein se kuchh bole ki ham iska rakshan (raksha) kareinge aur kuchh ne kaha ki ham iska yakshan (pooja) kareinge. is par brahmaaji ne kaha ki jo rakshan karega vah raakshas kahalaayega aur jo yakshan karega vah yaksh kahalaayega. is prakaar ve do jaatiyon mein baint gaye. raakshason mein heti aur praheti do bhaai the. praheti tapasya karne chala gaya, parantu heti ne bhaya se vivaah kiya jisse uske vidyutkesh naamak putr utpann hua. vidyutkesh ke sukesh naamak paraakrami putr hua. sukesh ke maalyavaan, sumaali aur maali naamak teen putr hue. teenon ne brahma ji ki tapasya karke yeh varadaan praapt kar liye ki ham logon ka prem atoot ho aur hamein koi paraajit na kar sake. var paakar ve nirbhaya ho gaye aur suron, asuron ko sataane lage. unhonne vish‍aavakarma se ek atyant sundar nagar banaane ke liye kaha. is par vish‍aavakarma ne unhein lanka puri ka pata bata kar bhej diya. vahaaain ve bade aanand ke saath rahane lage. maalyavaan ke vajramushti, viroopaaksh, durmukh, suptaghn, yajnyaakop, matt aur unmatt naamak saat putr hue. sumaali ke prahastr, akampan, vikt, kaalikaamukh, dhoomraaksh, dand, supaarsh‍aav, sanhnaadi, pradhas evam bhaarakarn naam ke das putr hue. maali ke anal, anil, har aur sampaati naamak chaar putr hue. ye sab balavaan aur dusht prakruti hone ke kaaran rishi-muniyon ko kasht diya karte the. unke kashton se du:khi hokar rishi-munign jab Bhagwan vishnu ki sharan mein gaye to unhonne aash‍aavaasan diya ki he rishiyo! main in dushton ka avashya hi naash karooainga.

jab raakshason ko vishnu ke is aash‍aavaasan ki soochana mili to ve sab mantrana karke sangathit ho kar maali ke senaapatitv mein indralok par aakraman karne ke liye chal pade. samaachaar paakar Bhagwan vishnu ne apne astr-shastr sambhaale aur raakshason ka sanhaar karne lage. senaapati maali sahit bahut se raakshas maare gaye aur shesh lanka ki or bhaag gaye. jab bhaagte hue raakshason ka bhi Narayan sanhaar karne lage to maalyavaan kruddh hokar yuddhabhoomi mein laut pada. Bhagwan vishnu ke haathon ant mein vah bhi kaal ka graas bana. shesh bache huye raakshas sumaali ke netrutv mein lanka ko tyaag kar paataal mein ja base aur lanka par kuber ka raajya sthaapit hua. raakshason ke vinaash se du:khi hokar sumaali ne apni putri kaikasi se kaha ki putri! raakshas vansh ke kalyaan ke liye main chaahata hooain ki tum param paraakrami maharshi vishrava ke paas jaakar unase putr praapt karo. vahi putr ham raakshason ki devataaon se raksha kar sakta hai.

pita ki aajnyaa paakar kaikasi vishrava ke paas gayi. us samay bhayankar aaaindhi chal rahi thi. aakaash mein megh garaj rahe the. kaikasi ka abhipraaya jaanakar vishrava ne kaha ki bhadre! tum is kubela mein I ho. main tumhaari ichha to poori kar dooainga parantu isse tumhaari santaan dusht svabhaav waali aur kroorakarma hogi. muni ki baat sun kar kaikasi unke charanon mein gir padi aur boli ki bhagavan! aap brahmavaadi mahaatma hain. aapse main aisi duraachaari santaan paane ki aasha naheen karti. at: aap mujh par krupa karein. kaikasi ke vachan sun kar muni vishrava ne kaha ki achha to tumhaara sabse chhota putr sadaachaari aur dharmaatma hoga.

is prakaar kaikasi ke das mukh vaale putr ka janm hua jiska naam dashagreev (raavan) rakha gaya. uske pash‍aachaat kumbhakarn, shoorpanakha aur vibheeshan ke janm hue. dashagreev aur kumbhakarn atyant dusht the, kintu vibheeshan dharmaatma prakruti ka tha. apne bhaai vaishravan se bhi adhik paraakrami aur shak‍aatishaali banane ke liye dashagreev ne apne bhaaiyon sahit brahmaaji ki tapasya ki. brahma ke prasann hone par dashagreev ne maaainga ki main garud, naag, yaksh, daitya, daanav, raakshas tatha devataaon ke liye avadhya ho jaaooain. raavan ne 'manushya' se isaliye nahi kaha kyon ke vo manushya ko kamjor tatha balarahit samajhta tha| brahma ji ne 'tathaastu' kehkar usaki ichha poori kar di. vibheeshan ne dharm mein avichl mati ka aur chooainki kumbhakarn ki ichha indralok ko paane ki thi, is vajah se bhayabheet indr ne maaain sarasvati ko kaha ki jab kumbhakarn varadaan maang raha ho tab aap usaka dhyaan vichlit karein aur sarasvati ki maayaavash kumbhakarn indr ki jagah nindr bola jisse vah 6 maah sota tha aur 6 maah jaagata tha.

raakshas ke roop mein kyon janma raavan?

pulatsya rishi ke utkrusht kul mein janm lene ke baavajood raavan ka paraabhav aur adhogati ke anek kaaranon mein mukhya roop se daivik evam maayik kaaranon ka ullekh kiya jaata hai. daivik evam praarabdh se sambandhit kaaranon mein un shaapon ki charcha ki jaati hai jinki vajah se unhein raakshas yoni mein paida hona pada. maayik star par shaktiyon ke durupayog ne unke tapasya se arjit gyaan ko nasht kar diya tha.

braahman kul mein janm lene ke baavajood ashuddh, raakshasi aacharan ne unhein poori tarah saraabor kar diya tha aur hanumaanaji ko apne samaksh paakar bhi raavan unhein pehchaan naheen saka tha ki ye uske aaraadhya Dave Shiv ke hi avataar hain. raavan ke ahankaari svaroop se yeh shiksha milti hai ki shaktiyon ke nashe mein choor hone se vinaash ka maarg prashast hota hai. bhakt ke liye vinyasheel, ahankaararahit hona praathamik aavashyakta hai.

pauraanik sandarbhon ke anusaar pulatsya rishi brahma ke das maanasaputron mein se ek maane jaate hain. inki ginti saptarishiyon aur prajaapatiyon mein ki jaati hai. vishnu puraan ke anusaar brahma ne pulatsya rishi ko puraanon ka gyaan manushyon mein prasaarit karne ka aadesh diya tha. pulatsya ke putr vishrava rishi hue, jo havirbhoo ke garbh se utpann hue the. vishrava rishi ki ek patni ilabida se kuber aur kaikasi ke garbh se raavan, kunbhakarn, vibheeshan aur shoorpanakha paida hue the. sumaali vishrava ke shvasur va raavan ke naana the. vishrava ki ek patni maaya bhi thi, jisse khar, dooshan aur trishira paida hue the aur jinka ullekh tulasi ki raamacharitmaanas mein milta hai.

do pauraanik sandarbh raavan ki sthiti ko spasht karne ke liye jaroori hain. ek katha ke anusaar Bhagwan vishnu ke darshan hetu sanak, sanandan aadi rishi baikunth padhaare parantu Bhagwan vishnu ke dvaarapaal jaya aur vijay ne unhein pravesh dene se inkaar kar diya. rishign aprasann ho gaye aur krodh mein aakar jaya-vijay ko shaap de diya ki tum raakshas ho jaao. jaya-vijay ne praarthana ki va aparaadh ke liye kshama maaaingi. Bhagwan vishnu ne bhi rishiyon se kshama karne ko kaha. tab rishiyon ne apne shaap ki teevrata kam ki aur kaha ki teen janmon tak to tumhein raakshas yoni mein rahana padega aur uske baad tum pun: is pad par pratishthit ho sakoge. iske saath ek aur shart thi ki Bhagwan vishnu ya unke kisi avataari-svaroop ke haathon tumhaara marana anivaarya hoga.

yeh shaap raakshasaraaj, lankaapati, dashaanan raavan ke janm ki aadi gaatha hai. Bhagwan vishnu ke ye dvaarapaal pehle janm mein hirnyaaksh va hirnyakashipu raakshason ke roop mein janme. hirnyaaksh raakshas bahut shaktishaali tha aur usane pruthvi ko uthaakar paataal-lok mein pahuaincha diya tha. pruthvi ki pavitrata bahaal karne ke liye Bhagwan vishnu ko varaah avataar dhaaran karna pada tha. fir vishnu ne hirnyaaksh ka vadh kar pruthvi ko mukt karaaya tha. hirnyakashipu bhi taakatavar raakshas tha aur usane varadaan praaptakar atyaachaar karna praarambh kar diya tha. Bhagwan vishnu dvaara apne bhaai hirnyaaksh ka vadh karaneki vajah se hirnyakashipu vishnu virodhi tha aur apne vishnubhakt putr prahlaad ko maravaane ke liye bhi usane koi kasar naheen chhodi thi. fir Bhagwan vishnu ne nrusinh avataar dhaaran kar hirnyakashipu ka vadh kiya tha. khanbhe se nrusinh Bhagwan ka prakat hona ishvar ki shaashvat, sarvavyaapi upasthiti ka hi pramaan hai.

tretaayug mein ye donon bhaai raavan aur kunbhakarn ke roop mein paida hue aur teesare janm mein dvaapar yug mein jab Bhagwan vishnu ne shreekrushn ke roop mein janm liya, tab ye donon shishupaal va dantavaktr naam ke anaachaari ke roop mein paida hue the. in donon ka hi vadh Bhagwan shreekrushn ke haathon hua.

raavan ka vivaah

fir dashagreev ne lanka ke raaja kuber ko vivsh kiya ki vah lanka chhod kar apna raajya use saunp de. apne pita vishrava ke samajhaane par kuber ne lanka ka parityaag kar diya aur raavan apni sena, bhaaiyon tatha sevakon ke saath lanka mein rahane laga. lanka mein jam jaane ke baad apne bahan shoorpanakha ka vivaah kaalaka ke putr daanavaraaj vidyuvihva ke saath kar diya. usane swayam diti ke putr maya ki kanya mandodari se vivaah kiya jo Hema naamak apsara ke garbh se, prachalit janashrutiyo ke anusaar Rajasthan ke Jodhpur ke nikat mandor me utpann hui thi. virochanakumaar bali ki putri vajrajvala se kumbhakarn ka aur gandharvaraaj mahaatma shailoosh ki kanya sarama se vibheeshan ka vivaah hua. kuchh samay pash‍aachaat mandodari ne meghanaad ko janm diya, jo indr ko paraast kar sansaar mein indrajit ke naam se prasiddh hua.

raavan dvaara Bhagwan shankar ki stuti

ellora

satta ke mad mein raavan uchhrunkhal ho devataaon, rishiyon, yakshon aur gandharvon ko naana prakaar se kasht dene laga. ek baar usane kuber par chadhaai karke use yuddh mein paraajit kar diya aur apni vijay ki smruti ke roop mein kuber ke pushpak vimaan par adhikaar kar liya. us vimaan ka veg man ke samaan teevr tha. vah apne oopar baithe huye logon ki ichhaanusaar chhota ya bada roop dhaaran kar sakta tha. vimaan mein mani aur sone ki seedhiyaaain bani hui theen aur tapaaye hue sone ke aasan bane hue the. us vimaan par baith kar jab vah 'sharavan' naam se prasiddh sarakandon ke vishaal van se hokar ja raha tha to Bhagwan shankar ke paarshad nandeesh‍aavar ne use rokate hue kaha ki dashagreev! is van mein sthit parvat par Bhagwan shankar kreeda karte hain, isaliye yahaaain sabhi sur, asur, yaksh aadi ka aana nishiddh kar diya gaya hai. nandeesh‍aavar ke vachanon se kruddh hokar raavan vimaan se utar kar Bhagwan shankar ki or chala. use rokane ke liye usase thodi door par haath mein shool liye nandi doosare Shiv ki bhaaainti khade ho gaye. unka mukh vaanar jaisa tha. use dekh kar raavan thahaaka maar kar hains pada. isse kupit ho nandi bole ki dashaanan! tumane mere vaanar roop ki avhelna ki hai, isaliye tumhaare kul ka naash karne ke liye mere hi samaan paraakrami roop aur tej se sampann vaanar utpann honge. raavan ne is or tanik bhi dhyaan naheen diya aur bola ki jis parvat ne mere vimaan ki yaatra mein baadha daali hai, aaj main usi ko ukhaad feinkooainga. yeh kah kar usane parvat ke nichle bhaag mein haath daalkar use uthaane ka prayatn kiya. jab parvat hilne laga to Bhagwan shankar ne us parvat ko apne pair ke aaingoothe se daba diya. isse raavan ka haath buri tarah se dab gaya aur vah peeda se chillaane laga. jab vah kisi prakaar se haath na nikaal saka to rot-rote Shiv taandav stotr ki rachana karke Bhagwan shankar ki stuti ki aur kshama praarthana karne laga. or us din se dashagreev dashaanan ka naam raavan pad gaya. is par Bhagwan shankar ne use kshama kar diya aur uske praarthana karne par use ek chandrahaas naamak khadg bhi diya. bhaarateeya moortikla mein raavan ki isi prasiddh tapasya ka ankan ek suprasiddh panel elora gufa sankhya 29 mein Shiv-mandir mein dekha ja sakta hai|(oopar chitr)

raavan ka atyaachaar

ek din himaalaya pradesh mein bhraman karte huye raavan ne amit tejasvi brahmarshi kushadhvaj ki kanya vedavati ko tapasya karte dekha. us dekh kar vah mugdh ho gaya aur uske paas aa kar usaka parichay tatha avivaahit rahane ka kaaran poochha. vedavati ne apne parichay dene ke pash‍aachaat bataaya ki mere pita vishnu se mera vivaah karna chaahate the. isse kruddh ho kar meri kaamna karne vaale daityaraaj shambhu ne sote mein unka vadh kar diya. unke marne par meri maata bhi du:khi hokar chita mein pravisht ho gayi. tab se main apne pita ke ichha poori karne ke liye Bhagwan vishnu ki tapasya kar rahi hooain. unheen ko mainne apna pati maan liya hai.

pehle raavan ne vedavati ko baaton mein fusalaana chaaha, fir usane jabaradasti karne ke liye uske kesh pakad liye. vedavati ne ek hi jhatke mein pakade hue kesh kaat daale. fir yeh kehti hui agni mein pravisht ho gayi ki dusht! toone mera apamaan kiya hai. is samay to main yeh shareer tyaag rahi hooain, parantu tera vinaash karne ke liye fir janm looaingi. agale janm mein main ayonija kanya ke roop mein janm lekar kisi dharmaatma ki putri banooaingi. agale janm mein vah kanya kamal ke roop mein utpann hui. us sundar kaanti waali kamal kanya ko ek din raavan apne mahalon mein le gaya. use dekhkar jyotishiyon ne kaha ki raajan! yadi yeh kamal kanya aapke ghar mein rahi to aapke aur aapke kul ke vinaash ka kaaran banegi. yeh sun kar raavan ne use samudra mein feink diya. vahaaain se vah bhoomi ko praapt hokar raaja janak ke yajnyaamandap ke madhyavarti bhoobhaag mein ja pahuainchi. vahaaain raaja dvaara hal se joti jaane waali bhoomi se vah kanya fir praapt hui. vahi vedavati seeta ke roop mein Ram ki pat‍aani bani.

raaja anaranya ka raavan ko shaap

anek raaja mahaaraajaaon ko paraajit karta hua dashagreev ikshvaaku vansh ke raaja anaranya ke paas pahuaincha jo ayodhya par raajya karte the. usane unhein bhi dvand yuddh karne athva paraajaya sveekaar karne ke liye lalkaara. donon mein bheeshan yuddh hua kintu brahmaaji ke varadaan ke kaaran raavan unase paraajit na ho saka. jab anaranya ka shareer buri tarah se kshat-vikshat ho gaya to raavan ikshvaaku vansh ka apamaan aur upahaas karne laga. isse kupit hokar anaranya ne use shaap diya ki toone apne vyangapoorn shabdon se ikshvaaku vansh ka apamaan kiya hai, isaliye main tujhe shaap deta hooain ki mahaatma ikshvaaku ke isi vansh mein dasharath-nandan Ram ka janm hoga jo tera vadh kareinge. yeh kah kar raaja svarg sidhaar gaye.

baali se vivshataapoorn maitri

raavan ki uddandata mein kami naheen I. raakshas ya manushya jisko bhi vah shak‍aatishaali paata, usi ke saath jaakar yuddh karne lagta. ek baar usane suna ki kishkindha puri ka raaja baali bada balavaan aur paraakrami hai to vah uske paas yuddh karne ke liye ja pahuaincha. baali ki pat‍aani taara, taara ke pita sushen, Yuvraj angad aur uske bhaai sugreev ne use samajhaaya ki is samay baali nagar se baahar sandhyopaasana ke liye gaye huye hain. ve hi aapse yuddh kar sakte hain. aur koi vaanar itna paraakrami naheen hai jo aapke saath yuddh kar sake. isaliye aap thodi der unki prateeksha karein. fir sugreev ne kaha ki raakshasaraaj! saamane jo shankh jaise haddiyon ke dher lage hain ve baali ke saath yuddh ki ichha se aaye aap jaise veeron ke hi hain. baali ne in sabka ant kiya hai. yadi aap amrut pi kar aaye honge to bhi jis kshan baali se takkar leinge, vah kshan aapke jeevan ka antim kshan hoga. yadi aapko marne ki bahut jaldi ho to aap dakshin saagar ke tat par chale jaaiye. vaheen aapko baali ke darshan ho jaayeinge.

sugreev ke vachan sun kar raavan vimaan par savaar ho tatkaal dakshin saagar mein us sthaan par ja pahuaincha jahaan baali sandhya kar raha tha. usane socha ki main chupachaap baali par aakraman kar dooainga. baali ne raavan ko aate dekh liya parantu vah tanik bhi vichlit naheen hua aur vaidik mantron ka uchchaaran karta raha. jyonhi use pakadne ke liye raavan ne peechhe se haath badhaaya, satark baali ne use pakadkar apni kaaainkh mein daba liya aur aakaash mein ud chala. raavan baar-baar baali ko apne nakhon se kachotata raha kintu baali ne usaki koi chinta naheen ki. tab use chhudaane ke liye raavan ke mantri aur anuchar uske peechhe shor machaate hue daude parantu ve baali ke paas tak na pahuainch sake. is prakaar baali raavan ko lekar pash‍aachimi saagar ke tat par pahuaincha. vahaaain usane sandhyopaasana poori ki. fir vah dashaanan ko liye huye kishkindhaapuri lauta. apne upavan mein ek aasan par baithakar usane raavan ko apni kaaainkh se nikaal kar poochha ki ab kahiye aap kaun hain aur kisliye aaye hain?

raavan ne uttar diya ki main lanka ka raaja raavan hooain. aapke saath yuddh karne ke liye aaya tha. mainne aapka ad‍aabhut bal dekh liya. ab main agni ki saakshi dekar aapse mitrata karna chaahata hooain. fir donon ne agni ki saakshi dekar ek doosare se mitrata sthaapit ki.

raavan ke gun

raavan ka chitr

raavan me kitna hi raakshasatv kyon na ho, uske gunon vismrut naheen kiya ja sakta. aisa maana jaata hain ki raavan shankar Bhagwan ka bada bhakt tha. vah maha tejasvi, prataapi, paraakrami, roopavaan tatha vidvaan tha.

vaalmeeki uske gunon ko nishpakshata ke saath sveekaar karte huye use chaaron vedon ka vishvavikhyaat jnyaaata aur mahaan vidvaan bataate hain. ve apne raamaayan mein hanumaan ka raavan ke darbaar mein pravesh ke samay likhte hain

aho roopamaho dhairyamahotsavamaho dyuti:.
aho raakshasaraajasya sarvalakshanayuktata.

aage ve likhte hain "raavan ko dekhte hi Ram mugdh ho jaate hain aur kehte hain ki roop, saundarya, dhairya, kaanti tatha sarvalakshanayukt hone par bhi yadi is raavan mein adharm balavaan na hota to yeh devalok ka bhi svaami ban jaata."

raavan jahaaain dusht tha aur paapi tha, vaheen usamein shishtaachaar aur ooainche aadarsh waali maryaadaayein bhi theen. Ram ke viyog mein du:khi seeta se raavan ne kaha hai, "he seete! yadi tum mere prati kaam-bhaav naheen rakhati to main tujhe sparsh naheen kar sakta." shaastron ke anusaar vandhya, rajasvala, akaama aadi stri ko sparsh karne ka nishesh hai at: apne prati a-kaama seeta ko sparsh na karke raavan shaastrochit maryaada ka hi aacharan karta hai.

vaalmeeki raamaayan aur raamacharitmaanas donon hi granthon mein raavan ko bahut mahattv diya gaya hai. raakshasi maata aur rishi pita ki santaan hone ke kaaran sadaiv do paraspar virodhi tattv raavan ke ant:karan ko mathate rahate hain.


bauddhik sanpada ka sanrakshanadaata : raavan

raavan ke hi prasang mein shreekrushn juganoo ka abhimt hai- ".....lankaapati raavan par vijay ka parv aksar yeh yaad dilaata hai ki raavan ki sabha bauddhik sanpada ke sanrakshan ki kendra thi. us kaal mein jitne bhi shresh‍aathajan the, buddhijeevi aur kaushalakarta the, raavan ne unako apne aashray mein rakha tha. raavan ne seeta ke saamane apna jo parichay diya, vah uske isi vaibhav ka vivechan hai. aran‍aayakaan‍aad ka 48vaan sarg is prasang mein drash‍aatav‍aaya hai.

us kaal ka shresh‍aath shil‍aapi maya, jisne s‍aavayan ko vish‍aavakarma bhi kaha, uske darbaar mein raha. usakaal ki shresh‍aath puriyon mein raavan ki rajdhani lanka ki ganana hoti thi - yathen‍aadras‍aayaamaraavati. maya ke saath raavan ne vaivaahik sambandh bhi s‍aathaapit kiya. maya ko vimaan rachana ka bhi gyaan tha. kushal aayurvedashaas‍aatri sushen uske hi darbaar mein tha jo yuddhajan‍aaya moorch‍aachha ke upachaar mein daksh tha aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein pai jaane waali sabhi oshadhiyon ko unke gunadharm tatha upalabdhi s‍aathaan sahit jaanta tha. shishu rog nivaaran ke liye usane pukh‍aata prabandh kiya tha. s‍aavayan is vishay par granthon ka pranayan bhi kiya.

shresh‍aath vrukshaayurved shaas‍aatri uske yahaan the jo samas‍aat kaamanaaon ko poori karne waali paryaavaran ki janak vaatikaaon ka sanrakshan karte the - sarvakaafalairvrukshai: sankulodyaan bhooshita. is kaarya par s‍aavayan usane apne putr ko tainaat kiya tha. uske yahaan rat‍aan ke roop mein shresh‍aath gup‍aatachar, shresh‍aath paraamarshad aur kulash sangeetajnya bhi tainaat the. antapur mein saikadon auratein bhi vaadyon se s‍aaneh rakhati theen.

uske yahaan shresh‍aath sadak prabandhan tha aur is kaarya par daksh log tainaat the tatha haathi, ghode, rathon ke sanchaalan ko niyamit karte the. vah prathamat: bhogon, sansaadhanon ke sangrah aur unke prabandhan par dh‍aayaan deta tha. isi kaaran naravaahan kuber ko kailaas ki sharan leni padi thi. usaka push‍aapak naamak vimaan raavan ke adhikaar mein tha aur isi kaaran vah vaayu ya aakaashamaarg usaki sat‍aata mein tha : yas‍aaya tat push‍aapakan naam vimaanan kaamagan shubham. veeryaavarjitan bhadre yen ya‍ami vihaayasam.

usane jal prabandhan par poora dh‍aayaan diya, vah jahaan bhi jaata, nadiyon ke paani ko baandhane ke upakram mein laga rahata tha : nadyash‍aach stimtodaka:, bhavanti yatr tatraahan tish‍aathaami charaami ch. kailaas parvatot‍aathaan ke uske bal ke pradarshan ka parichaayak hai, vah 'mount lift' pranaali ka kadaachit pratham udaaharan hai. bhaarateeya moortikla mein usaka yeh s‍aavaroop bahut lokapriya raha hai. bas.... usaka abhimaan hi uske patan ka kaaran bana. varana neetijnya aisa ki Ram ne laksh‍aaman ko uske paas neeti grahan ke liye bheja tha, vish‍aanudharmot‍aatarapuraan mein iske sandarbh vidyamaan hain."

raavan ke avagun

Killing of Rawana Painting by Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi

vaalmeeki raavan ke adharmi hone ko usaka mukhya avagun maanate hain. unke raamaayan mein raavan ke vadh hone par mandodari vilaap karte hue kehti hai, "anek yajnyaon ka vilop karne vaale, dharm vyavasthaaon ko todne vaale, Dave-asur aur manushyon ki kanyaaon ka jahaaain tahaaain se haran karne vaale! aaj too apne in paap karmon ke kaaran hi vadh ko praapt hua hai." tulaseedaas ji keval uske ahankaar ko hi usaka mukhya avagun bataate hain. unhonne raavan ko baahari taur se Ram se shatru bhaav rakhate huye hrudaya se unka bhakt bataaya hai. tulaseedaas ke anusaar raavan sochata hai ki yadi swayam Bhagwan ne avataar liya hai to main ja kar unase hathapoorvak vair karoonga aur prabhu ke baan ke aaghaat se praan chhodkar bhav-bandhan se mukt ho jaaoonga.

raavan ke das sir

raavan ke das sir hone ki charcha raamaayan mein aati hai. vah krushnapaksh ki amaavasya ko yuddh ke liye chala tha tatha ek-ek din kramash: ek-ek sir katate hain. is tarah dasvein din arthaat shuklapaksh ki dashami ko raavan ka vadh hota hai. raamacharitmaanas mein yeh bhi varnan aata hai ki jis sir ko Ram apne baan se kaat dete hain pun: uske sthaan par doosra sir ubhar aata tha. vichaar karne ki baat hai ki kya ek ang ke kat jaane par vahaaain pun: naya ang utpann ho sakta hai? vastut: raavan ke ye sir krutrim the - aasuri maaya se bane huye. maareech ka chaaaindi ke binduon se yukt svarn mrug ban jaana, raavan ka seeta ke samaksh Ram ka kata hua sir rakhana aadi se siddh hota hai ki raakshas maayaavi the. ve anek prakaar ke indrajaal (jaadoo) jaante the. to raavan ke das sir aur bees haathon ko bhi krutrim maana ja sakta hai. kuchh vidvaan maanate hain ki raavan ke das siron ki baat prateekaatmak hai- usamein das manushyon ki jitni buddhi thi aur das aadamiyon ka bal tha!

jain mat

jain granthon ke anusaar Ram aur raavan donon jain dharm mein poorn aastha rakhate the. raamaayan ki ghatna 20vein teerthankar munisuvratanaath Bhagwan ke samay ki hain.[1] jain mat anusaar raavan raakshas naheen balki vidyaadhar tha jiske kaaran uske paas jaadui shaktiyaaain thi.[2]jain granthon ke anusaar raavan ka vadh Lakshman ne kiya tha na ki raamaji ne.[3]

sandarbh

  1. Sharma, S.R. (1940), Jainism and Karnataka Culture, Dharwar: Karnatak Historical Research Society
  2. Dalal, Roshen (2010), Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide, India: Penguin Books, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=DH0vmD8ghdMC
  3. Ramanujan, A.K. (1991), "Three hundred Rāamāayaṇaas: Five examples and Three thoughts on Translation", in Paula Richman, Many Rāamāayaṇaas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia, University of California Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-520-07589-4, http://books.google.com/books?id=XkifYfljHP4C

sandarbh granth

  • shreemadvaalmeekeeya raamaayan (pratham evam dviteeya khand), sachitr, hindi anuvaad sahit, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur
  • vaalmeekeeya raamaayan, prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi
  • aachaarya chaturasen ka upanyaas : 'vayan rakshaam:' ("Vayam Rakshamah" ) SBN-10:8121608775 / ISBN-13: 9788121608770

baahari kadiyaaain

saaaincha:shri raamacharit maanas