raashtragaan

raashtragaan desh prem se paripoorn ek aisi sangeet rachana hai, jo us desh ke itihaas, sabhyata, sanskruti aur usaki praja ke sangharsh ki vyaakhya karti hai. yeh sangeet rachana ya to us desh ki sarkaar dvaara sveekrut hoti hai ya paramparaagat roop se praapt hoti hai.

anukram

itihaas

sabse puraana raashtragaan great Britain ka 'gaud sev di queen' hai, jise 1825 mein raashtragaan ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya tha, haalaanki 18 veen sadi ke madhya se hi yeh desh prem ke geet ke roop mein lokapriya raha tatha raajasi samaarohon mein gaaya jaata tha. 19 veen tatha 20 veen sadi ke aarambh mein adhikaansh Europeeya deshon ne Britain ka anusaran kiya, kuchh raashtragaan khaas uddeshya se likhe gaye, jabki anya ko pehle se maujood dhoonon se apnaaya gaya.

praarambhik rachanaaeain

kuchh hi raashtragaan vikhyaat kaviyon ya rachayitaaon dvaara likhe gaye hain. pratham ostriyaai raashtragaan gaud erahaalte freinj den kaisar (ishvar samraat fraanseesi ki raksha kare) iska vishisht apavaad hai. iski rachana 1797 mein jojef Hayden ne ki thi tatha baad mein (1929) paath ko badalkar sei gesanet on ende (hamesha saubhaagyashaali rahein) gaaya gaya. Hayden ki dhun ka jarman raashtragaan dyushlaind, dyushlaind oobar aile Germany, mein bhi upayog kiya gaya tha. jise 1922 mein angeekaar kiya gaya tha. iske teesare chhand iniki and resh and freehi (ekta, adhikaar aur svatantrata) se aarambh karke iska naam badalkar dyooshlaindaled ke naam se Germany ke raashtragaan ke roop mein upayog jaari hai. 1922 ke poorv Germany ka raashtragaan heel dir im seegakraanj (vijay ki maala dhaaran karne vaalon ka abhivaad) tha. yeh gaud sev the queen ki dhun par gaaya jaata tha.

Bhaarat ka raashtragaan

Bhaarat ka raashtragaan 'jan gan man' hai, jo moolat: baangla bhaasha mein gurudev raveendranaath thaakur dvaara likha gaya tha, jise Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara 24 January 1950 ko raashtragaan ke roop mein angeekrut kiya gaya. iske gaayan ki avadhi lagbhag 52 sekend nirdhaarit hai. gurudev raveendranaath thaakur vishv ke ekamaatr vyakti hain, jinki rachana ko ek se adhik deshon mein raashtragaan ka darja praapt hai. unki ek doosari kavita 'aamaar sonaar baaaingla' ko aaj bhi Bangladesh mein raashtragaan ka darja praapt hai.

raashtragaan ke prakaar

raashtragaanon ki bhaavanaaeain alag hoti hain, inmein shaasakon ke liye praarthana se lekar raashtreeya mahattv ke yuddhon ya bagaavaton ke sanket se lekar raashtrabhakti ki bhaavana ki abhivyakti hoti hai. sangeetaatmak gunon ki drushti se raashtragaan mein atyadhik bhinnata hoti hai; yeh aavashyak naheen hai ki sangeet ki tarah hi paath ya padya usi raashtra ya desh ke naagrik dvaara likha gaya ho. raajaneetik athva antarraashtreeya sambandhon mein parivartan ke kaaran aksar paath parivrtit kiya jaata hai ya nae raashtragaan ko apna liya jaata hai. udaaharanaarth, bhootapoorv soviyt sangh ne 19veen sadi ke ant mein do fraanseesi majdooron dvaara rachit evam sangeetabaddh communist international ki jagah 1944 mein gimn sovetaskogo soyun ko raashtragaan ke roop mein apnaaya.

dakshin Africa ka raashtragaan apne aap mein kuchh alag hai, jismein paaainch deshon ki gyaarah aadhikaarik bhaashaaon ka prayog kiya gaya hai. raashtragaan ka pehla pad ek alag bhaasha mein tatha shesh teen pad pratyek ke saath do bhaashaaon ke beech vibhaajit hai.

saavadhaaniyaaain

  • jab raash‍aatragaan gaaya ya bajaaya jaata hai to shrotaaon ko saavdhaan ki mudra mein khade rahana chaahiye. yadyapi jab kisi chal chitr ke bhaag ke roop mein raash‍aatragaan ko kisi samaachaar ki gatividhi ya sankship‍aat chalachitr ke dauraan bajaaya jaae to shrotaaon se apekshit naheen hai ki ve khade ho jaaeain, k‍aayonki unke khade hone se fil‍aam ke pradarshan mein baadha aaegi aur ek asantulan aur bhram paida hoga tatha raash‍aatragaan ki garima mein vruddhi naheen hogi.
  • jaisa ki raash‍aatreeya dh‍aavaj ko faharaane ke maamale mein hota hai, yeh logon ki ach‍aachhi bhaavana ke liye chhod diya gaya hai ki ve raash‍aatragaan ko gaate ya bajaate samay kisi anuchit gatividhi mein sanlag‍aan naheen hon.

baahari kadiyaaain