raashtrabhaasha

raashtrabhaasha ek desh ki sanskruti ka abhinn hissa hoti hai, jise sampoorn raashtra mein bhaasha kaaryon mein (jaise likhna, padhna aur vaartaalaap) ke liye pramukhata se prayog mein laaya jaata hai. vah bhaasha jismein raashtra ke kaam kiye jaayein. raashtra ke kaam-dhaam ya sarkaari kaamkaaj ke liye sveekrut bhaasha.

(2). vah bhaasha jise raashtra ke samagr naagrik anya bhaasha-bhaashi hote hue bhi jaante samajhte hon aur usaka vyavahaar karte hon. raashtra dvaara maanyataapraapt bhaasha.


Bhaarat ki sabhi bhaashaaeain raashtrabhaasha hai. khadi boli sanjnyaa stree0 [hin0 khadi (ya khari?) + boli (bhaasha)] vartamaan hindi ka ek roop jismein sanskrut ke shabdon ki bahulata karke vartamaan hindi bhaasha ki aur faarasi tatha arabi ke shabdon ki adhikta karke vartamaan urdoo bhaasha ki srushti ki gayi hai. vah boli jispar braj ya avadhi aadi ki chhaap na ho. theinth hindeen. aaj ki raashtrabhaasha hindi ka poorv roop. iska itihaas shataabdiyon se chala aa raha hai. parinishthit pashchimi hindi ka ek roop. vi0 de0 'hindi'. vishesha—aajis samay musalmaan is desh mein aakar bas gaye, us samay unehein yahaaain ki koi ek bhaasha grahan karne ki aava— shyakata hui. ve praaya? Delhi aur uske poorabi praanton mein hi adhikta se base the aur brajabhaash tatha avadhi bhaashaaeain, klisht hone ke kaaran apna naheen sakte the, isaliye unhonne Meerut aur uske aaspaas ki boli grahan ki aur usaka naam khadi (khari?) boli rakha. isi khadi boli mein ve dheere dheere faarasi aur arabi shabd milaate gaye jisse ant mein vartamaan urdoo bhaasha ki srushti hui. vikrami 14veen shataabdi me pehle pahal ameer khusaro ne is praanteeya boli ka prayog karna aarambh kiya aur usamein bahut kuchh kavita ki, jo saral tata saras hone ke kaaran sheegra hi prachalit ho gayi. bahut dinon tak musalmaan hi is boli ka bolachaal aur saahitya mein vyavahaar karte rahe, par peechhe hinduon mein bhi iska prachaar hone laga. 15veen aur 16 veen shataabdi mein koi koi hindi ke kavi bhi apni kavita mein kaheen kaheen iska prayog karne lage the, par unki sankhya praaya? naheen ke samaan thi. adhikaansh kavita baraabar avadhi aur vrajabhaasha mein hi hoti rahi. 18veen shataavdhi mein hindu bhi saahitya mein iska vyavahaar karne lage, par padya mein naheen, keval gadya mein; aur tabhi se maanon vartamaan hindi gadya ka janm hua, jiske aachaarya mu0 sadaasukh, lalloo ji laal aur sadal mishr maane jaate hain. jis prakaar musalmaanon ne ismein faarasi tatha arabi aadi ke shabd bharakar vartamaan urdoo bhaasha banaai, usi prakaar hinduon ne bhi usamein sanskut ke shabdon ki adhikta karke vartamaan hindi prastut ki. idhar thode dinon se kuchh log sanskrutaprachur vartamaan hindi mein bhi kavita karne lag gaye hain aur kavita ke kaam ke liye usi ko khadi boli kahato hain.