raashtra sangh

raashtra sangh
राष्ट्र संघ का प्रतीक
raashtra sangh ka prateek
mukhyaalaya jineva, Switzerland
sadasya varg
adhikaari bhaashaaen angreji, fraanseesi, aur speni
adhyaksh mahaasachiv
jaalasthal

raashtra sangh (London) peris shaanti sammelan ke parinaamasvaroop sanyukt raashtra sangh ke poorvavarti ke roop mein gathit ek antarshaasakeeya sangathan tha. 28 sitmbar 1934 se 23 fravari 1935 tak apne sabse bade prasaar ke samay iske sadasyon ki sankhya 58 thi. iske pratijnyaa-patra mein jaisa kaha gaya hai, iske praathamik lakshyon mein saamoohik suraksha dvaara yuddh ko rokana, nirstreekaran, tatha antarraashtreeya vivaadon ka baatcheet evam madhyasthata dvaara samaadhaan karna shaamil the.[1] is tatha anya sambandhit sandhiyon mein shaamil anya lakshyon mein shram dashaaen, mool nivaasiyon ke saath nyaayapoorn vyavahaar, maanav evam davaaon ka avaidh vyaapaar, shastr vyapaar, vaishvik svaasthya, yuddhabandi tatha Europe mein alpasankhyakon ki suraksha the.[2]

sangh ke peechhe kootaneetik darshan ne poorvavarti sau saal ke vichaaron mein ek buniyaadi badlaav ka pratinidhitv kiya. choonki sangh ke paas apna koi bal naheen tha, isliye ise apne kisi sankalp ka pravartan karne, sangh dvaara aadeshit aarthik pratibandh lagaane ya aavashyakta padne par sangh ke upayog ke liye sena pradaan karne ke liye mahaashaktiyon par nirbhar rahana padta tha. haalaanki, ve aksar aisa karne ke liye anichhuk rahate the.

pratibandhon se sangh ke sadasyon ko haani ho sakti thi, at: ve unka paalan karne ke liye anichhuk rahate the. jab dvitteeya Italy-abeeseeniya yuddh ke dauraan sangh ne Italy ke sainikon par redakraus ke medical tanboo ko lakshya banaane ka aarop lagaaya tha, to benito musolini ne palat kar javaab diya tha ki “asangh tabhi tak achha hai jab goraiya chillaati hain, lekin jab cheelein jhagadti hain to sangh bilkul bhi achha naheen hai”.[3]

1920 ke dashak mein kuchh aaranbhik viflataaon tatha kai ullekhaneeya safalataaon ke baad 1930 ke dashak mein antat: sangh dhuri raashtron ke aakramaऩ ko rokane mein aksham siddh hua. May 1933 mein, ek yahoodi fraanj barnaheem ne shikaayat ki ki oopari silesiya ke jarman prashaasan dvaara ek alpasankhyak ke roop mein uske adhikaaron ka ullanghan kiya ja raha tha jisne yahoodi-virodhi kaanoonon ke pravartan ko kai varsh tak taalane ke liye jarmanon ko prerit kiya tha, jab tak ki 1937 mein sambandhit sandhi samaapt naheen ho gayi, uske baad unhonne sangh ke praadhikaar ka aage punarnaveekaran karne se inkaar kar diya aur yahoodi-virodhi utpaadn ko punarnaveekrut kar diya.[4]

hitlar ne daava kiya ki ye dhaaraaen Germany ki samprabhuta ka ullanghan karti thi. Germany sangh se hat gaya, jaldi hi kai anya aakraamak shaktiyon ne bhi usaka anusaran kiya. dvitteeya vishv yudgh ki shuruaat se pata chala ki sangh bhavishya mein yuddh na hone dene ke apne praathamik uddeshya mein asafal raha tha. yuddh ke baad sanyukt raashtra sangh ne iska sthaan liya tatha sangh dvaara sthaapit kai agencyan aur sangathan uttaraadhikaar mein praapt kiye.

anukram

sangh ke srot

 एक कार्ड जिसके केंद्र में राष्ट्रपति विल्सन की गंभीर मुद्रा में एक श्वेत-श्याम तस्वीर है जो चारों ओर किनारों पर अंकित राष्ट्र संघ के लिए उनके महत्त्व को दर्शाती है।
A commemorative card depicting President of the United States Woodrow Wilson and the "Origin of the League of Nations"

raashtron ke ek shaantipoorn samudaaya ki avadhaarana ki rooparekha to bahut pehle 1795 mein bah gayi thi, jab immaanual kaint ki parapechual pees: A filosofikl skech[5] mein ek raashtron ke sangh ke vichaar ki rooparekha rakhi thi, jo raashtron ke beech sangharshon ko niyantrit kare aur shaanti ko protsaahit kare.[6] vaheen kaint ne ek shaantipriya vishv samudaaya ki sthaapana ke liye tark diya ki yeh is arth mein naheen hoga ki koi vaishvik sarkaar bane, balki is aasha ke saath ki pratyek raashtra khud ko ek svatantr raashtra ghoshit karega, jo apne naagrikon ka sammaan kare aur videshi paryatakon ka ek tarkasangat saathi praani ke roop mein svaagat kare. yeh is yuktikran mein hai ki svatantr raashtron ka ek sangh hoga jo vaishvik roop se ek shaantipoorn samaaj ko protsaahit karega, is prakaar antararaashtreeya samudaayon ke beech ek anvarat shaanti kaayam ho sakegi.[7]

saamoohik suraksha ko badhaava dene ke liye Europe samaaroh mein utpann antarraashtreeya sahayog nepoliyn yuddhon ke baad unneesaveen shataabdi mein Europeeya raashtron ke beech yathaasthiti ko banaae rakhane aur yuddh ko taalane ke liye viksit hua.[8][9] is avadhi mein pehle jineva sammelan mein bhi yuddh ke dauraan maanaveeya sahaayata ke liye kaanoon sthaapit hone tatha 1899 aur 1907 ke antarraashtreeya Hague sammelan mein yuddh ke baare mein tatha antarraashtreeya vivaadon ke shaantipoorn hal ke liye antarraashtreeya kaanoonon ka vikaas hua.[10][11]

shaanti kaaryakartaaon William haindal kreemar aur fredrik paasi ne 1889 mein raashtra sangh ke poorvavarti antarsansadeeya sangh (aaipeeyoo (IPU)) ka gathan kiya tha. yeh sangathan vistaar mein antarraashtreeya tha jismein 24 deshon ki sansadon ke ek tihaai sadasya shaamil the, jo 1914 tak aaipeeyoo (IPU) ke sadasyon ke roop mein kaaryarat the. iska uddeshya sarkaaron ko antararaashtreeya vivaadon ko shaantipoorn tareekon aur madhyasthata ke maadhyam se hal karne ke liye protsaahit karna tha aur sarkaaron dvaara antararaashtreeya madhyasthata ki prakriya ko nikhaarane ke liye vaarshik sammelan aayojit kiye gaye. aaipeeyoo (IPU) ki sanrachana mein ek adhyaksh ki adhyakshata mein ek parishad shaamil thi jo baad mein raashtrasangh ki sanrachana mein bhi parilkshit hui.[12]

beesaveen shataabdi ki shurooaat mein Europe ki mahaashaktiyon ke beech gathabandhan ke maadhyam se do shakti kendra ubhare the. 1914 mein pratham vishvayuddh ke aarambh hone ke samay ye gathabandhan prabhaavi hue the, jiske kaaran Europe ki sabhi badi shaktiyaan is yuddh mein shaamil ho gayi thi. audyogik raashtron ke beech Europe mein yeh pehla bada yuddh tha aur yeh pehla mauka tha ki pashchimi Europe mein audyogeekaran ke parinaamon (udaaharan ke liye vyaapak star par utpaadan) ko yuddh ko samarpit kiya gaya tha. is audyogik yuddh ke parinaamasvaroop hataahaton ki sankhya abhootapoorv thi, jahan 85 lakh sashastr senaaon ke salasya maare gaye the aur anumaanat: 2 karod 10 lakh log ghaayal hue the tatha kareeb ek karod naagirk maare gaye the.[13][14]

1918 mein jab tak yudadh samaapt hua yuddh ne bahut gahre prabhaav chhode the, poore Europe mein saamaajik, raajaneetik aur aarthik tantron ko prabhaavit kiya tha tatha up mahaadveep ko manovaigyaanik aur shaareerik kshati pahunchaai thi. [15] duniya bhar mein yuddh virodhi bhaavana ubhari, pratham vishv yuddh ko “asabhi yuddhon ka ant karne wala yuddh” bataaya gaya tha.[16][17] pahachaane gaye kaaranon mein hathiyaaron ki daud, gathabandhan, gupt kootaneeti aur samprabhu raashtra ki svatantrata shaamil the jinki vajah se ve apne hit mein yuddh mein gaye the. inke upachaaron ke roop mein ek aise antarraashtreeya sangathan ki rachana ko dekha gaya jiska uddeshya nirstreekaran, khuli kootaneeti, antarraashtreeya sahayog, yuddh chhedne ke adhikaar par rok tatha aise dand jo yuddh ko raashtron ke liye anaakarshak bana de, tha.[18]

jabki pratham vishv yuddh chal raha tha fir bhi, bahut si sarkaaron aur samoohon ne pehle se hi yuddh ki punaraavrutti ko rokane ki drushti se, jis prakaar antarraashtreeya sambandh chal rahe the, unako badalne ki yojanaaen banaana shuroo kar diya tha.[16] sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati voodro Wilson aur unke salaahakaar Colonel Edward M house ne utsaah se pratham vishv yuddh mein dekhe gaye raktapaat ki punaraavrutti ko rokane ke ek maadhyam ke roop mein sangh ke vichaar ko protsaahit kiya aur sangh banaana Wilson ke chaudah sootri shaanti kaaryakram ka kendra tha.[19] vishesh roop se antim bindu mein praavadhaan thaa: "bade aur chhote raashtron ke liye samaan roop se raajaneetik svatantrata aur kshetreeya akhandata ki paraspar guaranty dene ke uddeshya se vishisht kaanoonon ke antargat raashtron ka ek mahaasangh banaaya jaana chaahiye.”[20]

apne shaanti saude ki vishesh sharton ka masauda taiyaar karne se poorv Wilson ne Europe ki bhoo-raajanaitik sthiti ka aakalan karne ke liye jo bhi jaankaari aavashyak ho use sankalit karne ke liye Colonel house ke netrutv mein ek dal ka gathan kiya. January 1918 ke aarambh mein Wilson ne house ko Washington bulaaya aur donon poorn gopaneeyata ke saath gahan mantrana mein lag gaye, 8 January 1918 ko raashtrapati dvaara anajaan Congress ko raashtra sangh par pehla bhaashan diya gaya.[21]

Wilson ki sangh ke liye antim yojanaaen dakshin afreeki pradhaanamantri yain kristiyn smats se atyadhik prabhaavit thi. 1918 mein smats ne raashtra sangh: ek vyaavahaarik sujhaav sheershak se ek lekh prakaashit kiya tha. ep S kraaford dvaara likhi smats ki aatmakatha ke anusaar Wilson ne smats ke “avichaar aur shaili donon” ko apnaaya tha.[22]

8 July 1919 ko, vudaro Wilson sanyukt raajya America laute aur unke desh ke sangh mein pravesh ke liye ameriki logon ka samarthan sunishchit karne ke liye ek deshavyaapi abhiyaan mein lag gaye. 10 July 10 ko, Wilson ne senate ko sambodhit karte hue ghoshana ki ki "ek nai bhoomika aur ek nai jimmedaari is mahaan raashtra ke saamane I hai, jisko ham aasha karte hain ki ham seva aur upalabdhi ke aur uchch star tak le jaaenge.” sakaaraatmak svaagat, khaas kar ripbliknon ki taraf se, ati durlabh.[23]

pratham vishv yuddh ke baad sthaai shaanti kaayam karne ke liye bulaae gaye peris shaanti sammelan ne 25 January 1919 ko raashtra sangh banaane ke prastaavfraanseesi: Sociéaté des Nationsjarman : Vöalkerbund ka anumodan kar diya.[24] raashtra sangh ke niyamon ka masauda ek vishesh aayog dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya tha aur varasaai ki sandhi ke bhaag. dvaara sangh ki sthaapana hui. 28 June 1919 ko [25][26] un 31 raashtron sahit jinhonne tihre ataant ki or se yuddh mein bhaag liya tha ya sangharsh ke dauraan shaamil hue the, sahit 44 raashtron ne niyamon par hastaakshar kiye. Wilson ke sangh ko sthaapit karne aur badhaava dene ke prayaason ke baavajood jiske liye unhein October 1919 mein Nobel shaanti puraskaar pradaan kiya gaya tha,[27] sanyukt raajya America sangh mein shaamil naheen hua. ameriki senate mein vipaksh, khaaskar Republican raajaneetijnyaon henari kaibo lodge aur William E boraah donon ne saath mil kar Wilson ke samjhauta karne se inkaar karne par, yeh sunishchit kiya ki America ko is kaanoon ko paarit naheen karna chaahiye.

sangh ki pehli parishad baithak varasaai sandhi ke prabhaavi hone ke chh: din baad 16 January 1920 ko peris mein hui.[28] November mein sangh ka mukhyaalaya jineva sthaanaantarit kiya gaya jahaan 15 November 1920 ko iski pehli aam sabha ki baithak hui,[29] ismein 41 raashtron ke pratinidhi upasthit the.

bhaashaaen evam chinh

raashtra sangh ki aadhikaarik bhaashaaen fraanseesi, angreji[30] aur spainish (1920 se) theen. sangh ne esperaanto ko apne kaamkaaj ki bhaasha banaane aur iske upayog ko sakriya roop se protsaahit karne ke baare mein socha tha, kintu donon mein se koi sa vikalp kabhi apnaaya naheen gaya.[31] 1921 mein Lord Robert sesil ne prastaav rakha ki sadasya deshon ke sarkaari schoolon mein esperaanto ko shuroo kiya jaae aur iski jaanch ke liye ek report adhikrut ki gayi.[32] jab do varsh baad report prastut ki gayi to ismein vidyaalayon mein esperaanto ke shikshan ki sifaarish ki gayi thi, is prastaav ko 11 pratinidhiyon ne sveekaar kar liya.[31] sarvaadhik kada virodh fraanseesi pratinidhi gaibriyl anautoo ki or se aaya, aanshik roop se fraanseesi bhaasha ko bachaane ke liye jiske liye usane tark diya ki vah pehle se hi antarraashtreeya bhaasha thi.[33] is virodh ka matlab yeh hua ki us anubhaag ko jismein schoolon mein esperaanto ko sveekaar kiya gaya tha, chhodkar report ko sveekaar kar liya gaya.[34]

raashtra sangh ka na to koi aadhikaarik jhanda tha aur na logo. ek aadhikaarik chinh apnaane ke liye prastaav 1920 mein sangh ki shuruaat mein kiye gaye the kintu sadasya raashtra kabhi sahamati par naheen pahunch sake.[35] jaroorat padne par raashtra sangh ke sangathanon ne vibhinn jhandon aur logo (ya kisi ka bhi naheen) ka apne abhiyaanon mein upayog kiya.[35] 1929 mein ek design khojane ke liye ek antararaashtreeya pratiyogita aayojit ki gayi thi, jo chinh dene mein fir se asafal rahi.[35] is vifalta ka ek kaaran yeh raha hoga ki sadasya raashtron ko yeh dar tha ki is antarraashtreeya sangathan ki shakti kaheen unki apni shakti se adhik na ho jaae.[35]

ant mein, 1939 mein, ek arddh aadhikaarik chinh ubhar kar aaya: ek neele panchabhuj ke andar do panchakoneeya sitaare.[35] ve pruthvi ke paanch mahaadveepon aur paanch naslon ke prateek the.[35] sheersh par ek dhanush tatha neeche angreji (league of neshans) tatha praanseesi (Sociéaté des Nations) mein naam darshaaya gaya tha.[35] is jhande ka upayog 1939 aur 1940 mein new yaurk vishv mele ki imaarat par kiya gaya tha.

sangh ke paas ek bahut sakriya daak vibhaag tha. badi sankhya mein mukhyaalaya se, vishesh agencyon se aur antararaashtreeya sammelanon mein daak bheji jaati thi. kai maamalon mein vishesh lifaafon ya adhimudrit daak tikton ka upayog kiya gaya.[36]

pradhaan ang

]], jineva, 1929 se iske bade safed court of international Justice tak]] aur raashtra sangh ke neta

sangh ke mukhya samvaidhaanik ang the: shram sangathan.

niyam kamobesh takaneeki charitra ke upalakshit hote the. isliye, sangh ki anek agencyan aur aayog the.

sabha

sabha mein sangh ke sabhi sadasyon ke pratinidhi shaamil the. pratyek raashtra ko teen pratinidhiyon tak anumati thi aur mataadhikaar ek tha.[37] sabha ki baithak jeneva mein hui aur 1920 mein iske praarambhik satron ke baad[38] iske satr saal mein ek baar September mein hote the.[37] ek sadasya ke anurodh par sabha ka vishesh satr bulaaya ja sakta tha, basharte sadasyon ka bahumat sahamati de deta.

sabha ke vishesh kaaryon mein nae sadasyon ka pravesh, parishad ke gair-sthaayi sadasyon ke aavadhik chunaav, sthaai nyaayaalaya ke nyaayaadheeshon ki parishad ke chunaav aur bajat ka niyantran shaamil the. vyavahaar mein sabha sangh ki gatividhiyon ki saamaanya nideshak shakti ban gayi thi.

parishad

sangh parishad sabha ke kriyaakalaapon ka nideshan karne vaale ek kaaryakaari nikaaya ke roop mein kaarya karti thi.[39] parishad chaar sthaayi sadasyon (great Britain, France, Italy aur Japan) tatha chaar asthaayi sadasyon, jo ki sabha dvaara teen saal ke liye nirvaachit kiye jaate the.[40] pehle chaar gair-sthaayi sadasya the Belgium, Brazil, grees aur Spain. sanyukt raajya America ko paanchavaan sthaai sadasya maana jaata tha lekin ameriki senate ne 19 March 1920 ko varasaai sandhi ki pushti ke virodh mein matadaan kiya, is prakaar America ko sangh mein shaamal hone se rok diya.

parishad ki sanrachana tadanantar kai baar badalti rahi thi. 22 sitmbar 1922 ko gair sthaayi sadasyon ki sankhya pehli baar chaar se badh kar chhah hui hai tatha 8 September 1926 ko badhkar nau hogai. Germany ki varnar dainkavart ne apne gruh raashtra Germany par sangh mein shaamil hone ke liye dabaav daala aur vah 1926 mein shaamil ho bhi gaya. Germany parishad ka paanchavaan sthaayi sadasya bana, parishad ke sadasyon ki kul sankhya pandrah ho gayi. baad mein, Germany aur Japan donon ke sangh ko chhod dene ke baad, asthaayi seaton ki sankhya nau se badha kar gyaarah kar di gayi.

parishad ki baithakein ausatan ek saal mein paanch baar tatha asaadhaaran satr jaroorat padne par hota tha. 1920 aur 1939 ke beech kul 107 saarvajanik satr aayojit kiye gaye the.

anya nikaaya

sangh antarraashtreeya nyaaya ke sthaai nyaayaalaya aur antararaashtreeya dabaav ki samasyaaon se nipatne ke liye banaai gayi kai anya agencyon tatha aayogon ke kaaryon ka paryavekshan karta tha. in mein shaamil the nirstreekaran aayog, svaasthya sangathan, antarraashtreeya shram sangathan, janaadesh aayog, antarraashtreeya bauddhik sahayog par aayog (yoonesko (UNESCO) ka poorvavarti), sthaayi keindreeya afeem board, sharanaarthi aayog aur daasata aayog.

in mein se kai sansthaanon ko dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad sanyukt raashtra sangh ko sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya ke liye, antarraashtreeya shram sangathan, antarraashtreeya nyaaya ka sthaayi nyaayaalaya, (antarraashtreeya nyaaya nyaayaalaya ke roop mein) aur svaasthya sangathan (sangathan svaasthya punargathan ke roop mein vishv) sabhi bane sanyukt raashtra ke sansthaan.

antararaashtreeya nyaaya ke sthaai nyaayaalaya

antararaashtreeya nyaaya ke sthaai nyaayaalaya ke liye niyam dvaara pradaan kiya gaya tha, lekin iske dvaara sthaapit naheen kiya gaya. parishad aur sabha ne apne samvidhaan ki sthaapana ki. iske nyaayaadheesh parishad aur sabha dvaara chune gaye the aur iska bajat sabha dvaara pradaan kiya jaata tha. nyaayaalaya ki sanrachana mein gyaarah nyaayaadheeshon aur chaar up-nyaayaadheeshon ko nau saal ke liye nirvaachit kiya gaya tha. sambandhit pakshon dvaara prastut kiye gaye kisi bhi antararaashtreeya vivaad ko sunane aur faisala karne mein nyaayaalaya saksham raha tha. parishad ya sabha ki or se bheje gaye kisi bhi vivaad ya prashn par yeh apna paraamarshi mat de sakta tha. court kuchh vyaapak paristhitiyon mein duniya ke sabhi deshon ke liye khula tha. tathya sambandhi prashnon ke saath hi kaanoon ke prashn bhi prastut kiye ja sakte the.

antarraashtreeya shram sangathan

antarraashtreeya shram sangathan (aaielao (ILO)) ka gathan 1919 mein varasaai sandhi ke bhaag terah ke aadhaar par kiya gaya tha aur yeh sangh ke sanchaalan ka hissa ban gaya.[41]

aaielao mein haalaanki vahi sadasya the jo sangh mein the aur sabha ke bajat niyantran ke adheen yeh apne hi shaasakeeya nikaaya, apne swayam ke aam sammelan aur apne swayam ke sachivaalaya ke saath ek svaayatt sangathan tha. iska samvidhaan sangh se alag tha, ismein na keval sarkaaron ko balki karmachaari evam shramik sangathanon ke pratinidhiyon ko pratinidhitv diya gaya tha.

iske pehle nideshak albart Thomas the.[42] aaielao ne peint mein seesa milaae jaane ko safalataapoorvak pratibandhit kiya tha[43] aur anek deshon ko aath ghante ka kaarya diwas aur adtaalees ghanye ka saarya saptaah apnaane ke liye kaayal kiya tha. isne baalashram khatm karne, kaaryasthalon par mahilaaon ke adhikaaron mein vruddhi karne tatha jahaajakarmiyon ke kaaran hone waali durghatanaaon ke liye jahaaj maalikon ko jimmedaar thaharaane ke kaam bhi kiye.[41] sangathan 1946 mein sanyukt raashtra sangh ki ek agency ban kar sangh ke samaapt hone ke baad bhi astitv mein bana raha.[44]

svaasthya sangathan

sangh ke svaasthya sangathan ke teen nikaaya the, sangh ke sthaai adhikaariyon se yukt ek svaasthya bureau, ek chikitsa visheshagyon se yukt kaaryakaari khand aam salaahakaar parishad ya sammelan aur ek svaasthya samiti. samiti ka uddeshya jaanch aayojit karna, sangh ke svaasthya kaaryon ke sanchaalan ki nigraani karna aur parishad mein prastut karne ke liye kaam taiyaar karavaana tha.[45] is nikaaya ne kushth rog, maleriya tatha peele bukhaar ko, baad vaale donon ke liye ek antarraashtreeya machhar unmoolan abhiyaan shaparoo karke, samaapt karne par dhyaan keindrit kiya. svaasthya sangathan ne sangh soviyt sarkaar ke saath bhi sannipaat ki mahaamaari ko rokane ke liye beemaari ke baare mein bada shiksha abhiyaan aayojit karke safalataapoorvak kaam kiya tha.[46]

Alt = ek darjan se adhik bachchon ki ek pankti doori mein faili hui hai.. ve lakdi ke karaghon ko pakade baithe hain jinmein se pratyek mein se do dhaage nikle hue hain. ek aadmi unke peechhe kuchh lakdi ke dhaanchon ke saamane khada hai.

bauddhik sahayog par samiti

raashtra sangh ne apne nirmaan ke baad se hi antarraashtreeya bauddhik sahayog ke savaal par gambheerta se dhyaan samarpit kiya tha. pehli sabha (1920 December) ne sifaarish ki thi ki parishad bauddhik kaarya ke antararaashtreeya sangathan ko lakshya karke kaarravaai kare. parishad ne dviteeya sabha ki paanchaveen samiti dvaara prastut report ko apnaaya aur August 1922 mein jineva mein bauddhik sahayog par ek pratishthit samiti ko aamantrit kiya.

samiti ke kaam ke kaaryakram mein shaamil the: bauddhik jeevan ki sthitiyon mein jaanch, jin deshon ka bauddhik jeevan khatre mein tha unako sahaayata, bauddhik sahayog ke liye raashtreeya samitiyon ka gathan, antarraashtreeya bauddhik sangathanon ke saath sahayog, bauddhik sanpada ki raksha, antar - vishvavidyaalaya sahayog, ke sanrakshan ke saath sahayog ke liye raashtreeya samitiyon ke nirmaan ke liye sahaayata, granthasoochi ke kaam aur prakaashanon ke antararaashtreeya vinimay ka samanvaya, puraataatvik anusandhaan ke kshetr mein aur antarraashtreeya sahayog.

sthaayi kendreeya afeem board

sangh aushadhi vyaapaar ko viniymit karna chaahata tha aur usane afeem tatha iske up-utpaadon ke utpaadan, nirmaan, vyaapaar aur khudara mein madhyasthata karne vaale doosare antarraashtreeya afeem sammelan dvaara shuroo ki gayi saankhyikeeya niyantran pranaali ki nigraani karne ke liye sthaai keindreeya afeem board ki sthaapana ki. board ne nasheeli davaaon ke vaidh antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ke liye aayaat pramaanapatr tatha niryaat praadhikran ki pranaali sthaapit ki.[47]

naanasen passport ka ek namoona

daasata aayog

das aayog ne duniya bhar mein gulaami aur gulaam vyaapaar ke unmoolan ki maang ki aur majabooran veshyaavrutti ke virooddh sangharsh kiya.[48] iski mukhya safalta vaidhaanik raashtron mein sarkaaron dvaara un deshon mein gulaami samaapt karne ke liye dabaav daala jaana tha. sangh ne san 1926 mein sadasyata ki ek shart ke roop mein ithiyopiya se ek pratibaddhata praapt ki ki vah gulaami ko samaapt karega aur laaiberiya ke saath jabaran shram aur antar-aadivaasi gulaami ko samaapt karne ke liye kaarya kiya.[48]

yeh siyera Leon mein 200,000 daaso ko mukt karne mein safal hua aur Africa mein begaar ki pratha rokane ke prayaas mein das vyaapaariyon ke khilaaf sangathit chhaape daale.[krupaya uddharan jodein] yeh tangaanyika railway nirmaan mein kaaryarat shramikon ki mrutyu dar ko 55% se 4% tak kam karne mein safal raha. gulaami, veshyaavrutti aur mahilaaon aur bachchon ki taskari par niyantran rakhane ke liye record bana kar rakha gaya.[49]

sharanaarthi aayog

fridtjof naanasein ke netrutv mein sharanaarthiyon ke liye aayog unki svadesh vaapasi ki dekharekh sahit sharanaarthiyon ke hiton ki dekharekh aur, jab aavashyak ho punarvaas ki vyavastha karta tha.[50] pratham vishv yuddh ke ant mein roos bhar mein bees se tees lakh poorv yuddh bandi faile hue the,[50] aayog ki sthaapana ke do varshon ke bheetar, san 1920 tak, isne 425,000 logon ko unke ghar lautane mein madad ki thi.[51] isne 1922 mein Turkey mein sharanaarthi sankat se nipatne ke liye shiviron ki sthaapana ki, ke saath beemaari aur bhookh ko rokane mein desh ki sahaayata ki. isne naanasein passport sthaapit kiya jo sharanaarthiyon ke liye pehchaan ka saadhan tha.[52]

mahilaaon ki kaanooni sthiti ke adhyayan ke liye samiti

mahilaaon ki kaanooni sthiti ke adhyayan ke liye gathit samiti ne poori duniya mein mahilaaon ki sthiti ki jaanch karne ki maang ki. yeh April 1938 mein banaai gayi thi aur 1939 ke shuroo mein bhang kar di gayi. samiti ke sadasyon mein shaamil the- mame. pi. bastid (France), M di ruelle (Belgium) mame. anka godjevaak (yoogoslaaviya), shri H.si. gutrij (great Britain) malle. karstan hesselgrein (sveedan),[53] sushri dorothi kenyon (sanyukt raajya America), M. paul sebastyein (Hungary) aur sachivaalaya shri hyoog maik keenan vud (great Britain).

sadasyagan

inhein bhi dekhein: League of Nations members
1920-1945 varshon mein duniya ka ek naksha, jo iske itihaas ke dauraan raashtra sangh ke sadasyon ko dikhaata hai.

sangh ke 42 sansthaapak sadasyon mein se, 23 (ya 24, svatantr France ki ginti) tab tak sangh ke sadasya bane rahe, jab tak yeh 1946 mein bhang naheen kar diya gaya tha. sthaapana varsh mein chhah anya raajya shaamil ho gaye, jinmein se keval do sangh ke astitv ke dauraan sadasya bane rahe. baad ke varshon mein atirikt 15 desh sangh mein shaamil ho gaye.

28 sitmb 1934 (jab ikvaador shaamil hua tha) aur 23 fravari 1935 (jab paraagve ne sadasyata vaapas le li) ke beech sadasya deshon ki sankhya sabse adhik 58 ho gayi thi. is samay tak, keval kosta rika (22 janavaree1925), Brazil (14 joona1926), Japan ka saamraajya (27 March 1933) aur Germany (19 sitmbar 1933) ne nyoon raajanayik shaktiyon ki vajah se nuksaan ka havaala dete hue apni sadasyata vaapas le li thi.

soviyt sangh keval 18 September 1934 ko sadasya bana,[54] kyonki vah Germany ke virodh (jisne ek varsh poorv sadasyata chhod di thi)[55] mein shaamil hua aur 14 December 1939[54] ko sangh se Finland ke khilaaf aakraamakata ke liye nishkaasit kar diya.[55] soviyt sangh nishkaasan mein, sangh ne apne swayam ke niyamon ko tod diya; parishad ke 15 mein se keval 7 sadasyon ne nishkaasan ke liye matadaan kiya (great Britain, France, Belgium, boleeviya, misr, dakshin Africa aur dominikn ganaraajya), jo ki sangh ke ghoshana patra ke anusaar voton ke liye aavashyak bahumat ke niyam ke anusaar naheen tha. inmein se teen sadasyon (dakshin Africa, boleeviya aur misr) ko parishad ke sadasyon ke roop mein matadaan ke ek din poorv chuna gaya tha.[55] yeh sangh ke antim krutyon mein se ek tha, isse pehle ki yeh vyaavahaarik roop se dviteeya vishv yuddh ke kaaran kaarya karna[56] band kar diya.[57]

misr sangh se judne wala (26 May 1937) antim raajya tha. sangh ki sthaapana ke baad sabse pehle sadasyata vaapas lene wala raajya, 22 January 1925 ko kosta rika tha; jo 16 December 1920 mein shaamil hua tha, isse yeh sangh ka sadasya banane ke baad sabse teji se sadasyata vaapas lene wala raajya ban gaya. sangh ke antim sadasya sadasya ke roop mein uske vightan se pehle 30 August 1942 ko sadasyata vaapas lene wala raajya lakjamabarg tha. Brazil sadasyata chhodne wala pehla sansthaapak sadasya tha (14 June 1926) tha aur haiti sabse antim (April 1942).

Iraq, jo ki san 1932 mein sangh mein shaamil hua, jo aisa pehla raashtra tha jiske paas sangh se judne ka janaadesh tha.[58]

janaadesh

pratham vishv yuddh ke ant mein, mitr desh Africa mein poorv Germany ke kaaloniyon aur prashaant kshetr mein aur otomaan saamraajya ke kai gair-Turkey praanton ke niptaan ke savaal ka saamana kar rahe the. shaanti sammelan ne yeh siddhaant apnaaya ki in pradeshon ko vibhinn sarkaaron dvaara sangh ki or se - antararaashtreeya paryavekshan ke adheen raashtreeya jimmedaari ki ek pranaali dvaara prashaasit kiya jaana chaahiye. is yojana ko janaadesh pranaali ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya, jise "das ki parishad" dvaara 30 January 1919 ko laagoo kar, use raashtra sangh ko preshit kiya gaya.

raashtra sangh ke janaadesh, raashtra sangh ke ghoshana patra ke anuchhed 22 ke tahat sthaapit kiye gaye the. sthaayi janaadesh aayog ne raashtra sangh ke janaadesh ki nigraani ka kaarya kiya aur vivaadit kshetron mein janamat sangrah ka kaarya karavaaya taaki us pradesh ke nivaasi is baat ka nirnaya kar sakein ki ve kis desh mein shaamil hona pasand kareinge.

A janaadesh

A janaadesh (puraane otomaan saamraajya ke kuchh hisson par laagoo the) 'nishchit samudaaya the' jo

...reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.[59]

Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations

bi janaadesh

bi janaadesh poorv jarman kaaloniyon par laagoo kiya gaya jiski jimmedaari sangh ne pratham vishv yuddh ke baad li. inko 'logon' ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya jinhein sangh ne kaha

...at such a stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League.[59]

Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations

si janaadesh

dakshin pashchim Africa aur dakshin prashaant dweep samooh ko sangh ke kuchh sadasyon dvaara si janaadesh ke tahat prashaasit kiya gaya. inko 'raajya kshetr' ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya

...which, owing to the sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population."[59]

Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations

anivaarya pauvars

kuchh pradesh anivaarya shaktiyon jaise ki, filisteen ke janaadesh ke maamale mein Britain aur dakshin pashchim Africa ke maamale mein dakshin afreeki sangh, anivaarya shaktiyon dvaara niyantrit the, jab tak un pradeshon ko svashaasan ke yogya naheen samjha gaya. chaudah janaadesh kshetr the, jo United kingadam, France, Belgium, nyoojeelaind, Australia aur Japan -chhah anivaarya shaktiyon ke madhya vibhaajit kiye gaye the. Iraqi saamraajya, jo 3 October 1932 ko sangh mein shaamil hua ek apavaad tha. ye kshetr dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad tak svatantrata praapt naheen kar sake the, ek aisi prakriya jo ki san 1990 tak samaapt naheen hui thi. sangh ke patan ke baad, shesh bache janaadeshon mein se adhiktar sanyukt raashtra ke trast pradesh bane.

janaadesh ke alaava, sangh ne swayam 15 varshon tak saar besin ke kshetr par shaasan kiya. jab tak ki ise ek janamat sangrah ke baad Germany ko lauta naheen diya gaya aur danjig ka mukt shahar (ab gadaanaask, Poland) 15 sitmbar 1939 se 1 November 1920 tak sangh shaasan ke adheen raha.

kshetreeya vivaad hal karna

pratham vishv yuddh ke baad ki paristhiti ne kai muddon ko deshon ke beech sulajhaane ke liye chhod diya, jismein deshon ke seemaaon ki vaastavik sthiti aur koi vishesh kshetr kis desh mein shaamil hoga aadi. in prashnon mein se adhikaansh vijayi mitr shaktiyon ke sambaddh Supreme parishad jaise nikaayon ke dvaara sambhaale gaye. mitr raashtra vishesh roop se mushkil maamalon ko lekar hi sangh mein jaate the. iska taatparya yeh hai ki,1920 ke pehle teen varshon ke dauraan sangh ne yuddh ke parinaamasvaroop hui uthalaputhal ko hal karne mein alp bhoomika nibhaai thi. sangh ne apne praarambhik varshon mein un prashnon par vichaar kiya jo peris shaanti sandhiyon dvaara naamit the.[60]

jaise-jaise sangh ka vikaas hota gaya, vaise-vaise iski bhoomik bhi vistrut hoti gayi aur 1920 ke dashak ke madhya tak, yeh antararaashtreeya gatividhiyon ka kendra ban gaya. yeh parivartan sangh aur gair sadasyon ke beech ke sambandhon mein dekha ja sakta tha. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America aur roos, teevr gati se sangh ke saath kaarya kar rahe the. 1920 ki doosari chhamaahi ke dauraan, France, Britain aur Germany sabhi raashtra sangh ka upayog apne raajanayik gatividhiyon par dhyaan keindrit karne ke liye kar rahe the aur unke videsh sachivon mein se pratyek ne is avadhi ke dauraan jineva mein sangh ki baithakon mein bhaag liya. unhonne sangh ki vyavastha ka upayog sambandhon ko behtar banaane aur apne matabhedon ko vyavasthit karne ke liye kiya.[61]

oopari silesiya

1921 mein oopari silesiya mein janamat sangrah se polish poster. kehta hai: "maaain mujhe yaad rakhana. Poland ke liye vote dena"

mitr deshon dvaara oopari silesiya ke kshetreeya vivaad ko hal karne mein asamarth rahane par unhonne is samasya ko sangh ko nirdisht kiya.[62] pratham vishv yuddh ke baad, Poland ne oopari silesiya, jo ki prashiya ka hissa raha tha, par apna daava kiya. varsaai ki sandhi ne oopari silesiya mein ek janamat sangrah karaane ki sifaarish ki, taaki yeh tay kiya ja sake ki kshetr ka kaun sa bhaag Germany ya Poland ka hissa hona chaahiye. jarman adhikaariyon ke rukh ke baare mein shikaayaton ne dangon ko janm diya jo antat: pehle do silesiyn vidroh (1919 aur 1920) ka kaaran bana. ek janamat sangrah 20 March 1921 ko sampann hua jismein 59.6% (500000 ke aaspaas) vote Germany mein shaamil hone ke paksh mein daale gaye, parantu Poland ne daava kiya ki uske aaspaas ki sthitiyaan uchit naheen thi. iske parinaamasvarup san 1921 mein teesara silesiyn vidroh hua.[63] 12 August 1921, ko sangh ko maamale ko sulajhaane ke liye kaha gaya, tab sangh aur parishd ne sthiti ke adhyayan ke liye Belgium, Brazil, cheen aur Spain ke pratinidhiyon ke saath ek aayog ka gathan kiya.[64] samiti ne sifaarish ki ki uchch silesiya ko janamat sangrah mein dikhaai gayi praathamiktaaon ke anusaar Poland aur Germany ke beech vibhaajit kiya jaana chaahiye aur donon pakshon ko dono kshetron ke beech baatcheet ka byaura paraspar tay karna chaahiye. udaaharan ke liye, donon kshetron ki aarthik aur audyogik antarnirbharata ko dekhte hue kya maal ko svatantrataapoorvak seema se gujarane dena chaahiye.[65] san 1921 ke November mein jeneva mein Germany aur Poland ke beech baatcheet karne ke liye ek sammelan ka aayojan kiya gaya. paanch baithakon ke pashchaat ek antim samjhauta hua, jismein adhikaansh kshetr Germany ko diye gaye the lekin polish kshetr mein khanij sansaadhanon ki bahulata aur bahut saare udyogon se yukt anubhaag the. jab yeh samjhauta san 1922 ke May mein saarvajanik kiya gaya tab Germany mein teevr asantosh ki lahar daud gayi, lekin sandhi ko tab bhi donon deshon dvaara maanyata di gayi thi. is samjhaute ne kshetr mein shaanti kaayam rakhi, jab tak ki dviteeya vishv yuddh aarambh naheen ho gaya.[64]

albaaniya

san 1919 mein hue peris shaanti sammelan ke dauraan albaaniya ki seemaaon ka nirdhaaran naheen kiya gaya tha aur iska nirnaya sangh ke karne ke liye chhod diya gaya tha, parantu san 1921 ke sitmbar tak bhi iska nirdhaaran naheen kiya gaya. yoonaani sainikon dvaara sainya abhiyaan ke naam par albaaniyaai ilaake mein baar baar ghuspaith ke kaaran asthir sthiti paida hui jabki doosari taraf desh ke sudoor uttari bhaag mein yugoslaaviyn faujein albaaniyaai aadivaasiyon ke saath sangharsh ke baad vyast theen. sangh ne kshetr ki vibhinn shaktiyon ka pratinidhitv karte hue ek aayog bheja aur san 1921 ke November mein sangh ne nirnaya liya ki albaaniya ki seemaayein, teen chhote badlaavon ke saath jo ki yoogoslaaviya ke paksh mein thi, ke baad vaisi hi raheingi jaisi ki ve san 1913 mein thi. yadyapi virodh ke tahat, yugoslaaviyn faujein kuchh saptaah baad hi peechhe hat gain.[66]

albaaniya ki seemaayein ek baar pun: antararaashtreeya sangharsh ka kaaran bani jab itaalavi general enariko tellini aur uske chaar sahaayakon ki 24 August 1923 ko ek hamle mein hatya kar di gayi, jab ve yoonaan aur albaaniya ke beech nai navanirdhaarit seema ka seemaankan karne ja rahe the. is ghatna se itaalavi neta benito musolini naaraaj ho gaya aur usane maang ki ki is ghatna ki jaanch ke liye ek aayog sthaapit kiya jaana chaahiye aur iski jaaainch ki kaaryavaahi paanch dinon ke bheetar poori ki jaani chaahiye. jaanch ke parinaam chaahe jo bhi hon, musolini ne jor dekar kaha ki yoonaan ki sarkaar ko iski kshatipoorti ke roop mein Italy ko paaainch karod leera dene chaahiyen. yoonaaniyon ne kaha ki ve jab tak yeh saabit naheen ho jaata hai ki yeh aparaadh yoonaaniyon ke dvaara kiya gaya tha tab tak ve kshatipoorti ki raashi ka naheen bhugataan naheen kareinge.[67]

musolini ne yoonaani dweep korfoo ko jeetne ke liye ek yuddhapot bheja aur itaalavi sena ne 31 August 1923 ko korfoo par kabja kar liya. yeh sangh ke ghoshana patra ki avhelna thi, at: yoonaan ne sthiti se nipatne ke liye raashtra sangh mein appeal ki. halaanki, mitr raashtra (musolini ke jidd karne par) is baat par sahamat hue ki raajadooton ka sammelan vivaad ka samaadhaan khojane ke liye jimmedaar hoga, kyonki yeh sammelan hi tha, jisne general tilaani ko niyukt kiya tha. sangh ki parishad ne vivaad ki jaanch ki, lekin apne nishkarshon ko raajadooton ki parishad ko antim nirnaya paarit karne ke liye saup diya. sammalen ne sangh ki adhikaansh sifaarishon ko sveekaar kar liya aur yoonaan par Italy ko 50 million leera ki raashi kshatipoorti ke roop mein dene ke liye davaab daala, iske vaabajood ki jinhonne aparaadh kiya tha unki khoj naheen ki ja saki.[68] musolini vijeta ke roop mein korfoo ko chhodne mein saksham tha.

aalaind dweep

aalaind sveedan aur Finland ke beech ke maarg mein kareeb 6500 ke aaspaas dveepon ka ek samooh hai. dweep mein vishesh roop se sveedish bolne vaale logon ki aabaadi hain, parantu san 1809 mein sveedan ne apne donon dweep Finland aur aalaind saamraajyavaadi roos ke haathon kho diya. san 1917 ke December mein, roosi October kraanti ki uthalaputhal ke dauraan, Finland ne svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di aur adhikaansh aalaind dweep vaasiyon ka vichaar pun: sveedan mein shaamil hone ka tha[69]. haalanki finish sarkaar ne, mahasoos kiya hai ki yeh dweep unke nae raashtra ka hissa ho sakta hain, kyonki san 1809 mein, roosiyon ne Finland ke grand dach mein aalaind ko shaamil kiya tha. san 1920 tak, vivaad aise star par pahunch gaya tha ki yuddh ka khatra mandaraane laga tha. british sarkaar ne sangh ki parishad ko samasya sthaantarit kar di, lekin Finland ne sangh ko hastakshep naheen karne diya, kyonki vah ise aantarik maamala maanata tha. sangh ne ek laghu samiti ka gathan kiya, jo is baat ka nirnaya leti ki sangh ko maamale ki jaaainch karni chaahiye ya naheen. sakaaraatmak pratikriya praapt hone par ek tatasth samiti ka gathan kiya gaya.[69] June 1921 mein, sangh ne apne nirnaya ki ghoshana ki, jiske anusaar dweep samooh Finland ke ang bane raheinge, parantu dveepavaasiyon ki suraksha ki guaranty par, jismein asainyeekaran ka shart bhi shaamil thi. sveedan ke anichhuk sahamati ke saath, sangh ke maadhyam se seedhe sampann hone wala yeh pehla Europeeya antararaashtreeya samjhauta tha.[70]

Hatay

haiti ganaraajya ek sankramanakaaleen raajaneetik ikaai thi jo ki aupachaarik roop se 7 September se 1938 se 29 June 1939 tak astitv mein thi, jo ki Syria ke French janaadesh ke tahat alekjeindriya ke sanjaak ka pradesh thi. raashtra sangh ke nireekshan ke adheen, Turkey ganaraajya ne 29 June 1939 ko is pradesh par kabja kar liya aur Turkey haiti praant (erjeen, dortyol, hassa ke jilon ko chhodkar) mein badal diya.

memal

memel ka bandargaah shahar (jo ab klaipeda ke naam se jaana jaata hain) aur aaspaas ke kshetr, jo mukhya roop se jarman janasankhya se bhari hui thi, varsaai ki sandhi ke anuchhed 99 ke anusaar mitr raashtron se sambaddh niyantran ke adheen thi. French aur polish sarkaarein memel ko ek antararaashtreeya shahar ke roop mein parivrtit karna chaahati thi jabki lithuaaniya us kshetr par adhikaar karna chaahata tha. 1923 tak, is kshetr ke niyantran ke baare mein koi nirnaya naheen liya gaya tha, jisse utsaahit hokar lithuaaniyaai balon ne January 1923 mein aakraman karke bandargaah ko apne adhikaar mein le liya. mitr raashtron dvaara lithuaaniya ke saath samjhauta karne mein asafal hone par, unhonne is vishay ko raashtra sangh ko saunp diya. December 1923 mein sangh parishad ne jaanch ke liye ek jaanch aayog ki niyukti ki. aayog ne memel ko lithuaaniya ko saunpane aur kshetr ko svaayatt adhikaar dene ka faisala kiya. is klaipediya sammalen ko sangh ki parishd dvaara 14 March 1924 ko aur fir mitr deshon aur lithuaaniya dvaara anumodit kiya gaya.[71]

mosul

sangh ne 1926 mein mosul ke poorv praant otomaan ke niyantran ko lekar Iraq saamraajya aur Turkey ganaraajya ke beech chal rahe vivaad ko hal kiya tha. british ke anusaar, jinhein 1920 mein Iraq par raashtra sangh A-janaadesh diya gaya tha aur isliye Iraq ke videsh maamalon mein usaka pratinidhitv karte the, mosul Iraq ka tha; doosari taraf naye Turkey ganaraajya ne is praant ke apna aitihaasik keindreeya skhal hone ka daava kiya. Belgium, Hungary aur sveedan ke sadasyon ke saath ek raashtra sangh jaanch aayog ko 1924 mein is kshetr ke adhyayan ke liye bheja gaya tha jisne paaya ki mosool ke log Turkey ka hissa naheen banana chaahate the aur yadi unase chunane ko kaha jaata to ve Iraq ko chunate.[72] san 1925 mein aayog ne sifaarish ki ki yeh kshetr Iraq ka hissa rahega, is shart ke saath ki kurdish aabaadi ke svaayatt adhikaar sunishchit karne ke liye agale 25 varsh tak Iraq par british ke paas janaadesh rahega. sangh parishad ne sifaarish ko sveekeer kar liya aur 16 December 1925 ko mosool Iraq ko dene ka faisala kiya. haalaanki 1923 mein loosaane ki sandhi mein Turkey ne raashtra sangh ki madhyasthata sveekaar kar li thi, isne parishad ke adhikaar par sangh dvaara prashnachihn lagaane ke faisale ko naamanjoor kar diya. maamala antarraashtreeya nyaaya ke sthaai nyaayaalaya ko bhej diya gaya, jisne nirnaya diya ki yeh parishad ka sarvasamemat faisala tha jisko svaakaar kiya jaana chaahiye. baharahaal, Britain, Iraq aur Turkey ne 5 June 1926 ko ek alag sandhi ki pushti ki, jisne sangh ke nirnaya ka adhikaanshat: paalan kiya aur mosool Iraq ko de diya. is baat par sahamati hui tathaapi, ki Iraq 25 saal ke andar fir se sangh ki sadasyata ke liye aavedan kar sakta hai aur yeh ki sadasyata sveekaar hote hi janaadesh samaapt ho jaaega.[73][74]

vilniys

pratham vishv yuddh ke baad, Poland aur lithuaaniya donon ne apni svatantrata vaapas praapt ki lekin vahaaain deshon ke beech seemaaon ke baare mein asahamati thi.[75] polish-soviyt yuddh ke dauraan lithuaaniya ne soviyt sangh ke saath shaanti sandhi par hastaakshar kiya jise lithuaaniya seemaaon se baahar rakha tha. is samjhaute ne vilniys shahar par niyantran diya (lithuaaniyaai : Vilnius, polish : Wilno), lithuaaniya ke liye usaki puraani lithuaaniyaai rajdhani, jo desh ki sarkaari seat ban gayi thi.[76] lithuaaniya aur Poland ke beech badhe hue tanaav ne dar jagaaya ki ve yuddh kareinge, tatha 7 October 1920 ko sangh ne ek chhoti baatcheet ke saath yuddhaviraam kiya.[75] yuddh ke yug ke dauraan vilniys shahar ki adhikaansh aabaadi polish the tatha 9 October 1920 ko general jeligovski ne polish sena bal ke saath shahar ka jimma liya aur daava kiya ki lithuaaniya ki kendra sarkaar ab unke adheen thi.[75]

lithuaaniya ne sangh ki sahaayata ka anurodh kiya aur badle mein sangh parishad ne kshetr se Poland ki vaapasi ka aahvaan kiya. polish sarkaar ne sanket diya ki ve sangh ki aajnyaaapaalan kareinge, lekin chhodne ki bajaaya, isne adhik polish sainikon ke saath shahar ko majaboot banaaya.[77] isne league ko yeh faisala karne ke liye ukasaaya ki vilniys ka bhavishya ek janamat sangrah mein apne nivaasiyon dvaara nirdhaarit kiya jaana chaahiye aur polish balon ko hat jaana chaahiye tatha league dvaara aayojit ek antarraashtreeya bal dvaara badla jaana chaahiye. France aur Britain sahit kai league deshon ne antararaashtreeya bal ke bhaag ke roop mein kshetron mein sainya dalon ko bhejana shuroo kiya. lithuaaniya aur Poland ke beech dushmani 1920 ke ant mein fir se badh gayi lekin 1921 ki shurooaat mein, polish sarkaar ne ek shaantipoorn niptaara talaashana shuroo kar diya. kshetr ke liye league ki yojana ka samarthan karne, polish sainya dalon ko hataane, tatha janamat sangrah ke saath sahayog karne ke liye sahamat hue. league ko haalaanki ab lithuaaniya aur soviyt sangh, jisne lithuaaniya mein kisi bhi antararaashtreeya bal ka virodh kiya tha, se virodh ka saamana karna pada. league ne March 1921 mein janamat sangrah aur antararaashtreeya bal ke liye banaayi gayi yojanaaon ko radd kiya tatha do pakshon ke beech baatcheet se masala hal karne ke liye vaapas aaya.[78] vilniys aur aaspaas ke kshetron par aupachaarik roop se March 1922 mein Poland ne kabja kiya tha aur 14 March 1923, ko sambaddh sammelan ne vilniys ko Poland ke saath chhodte hue lithuaaniya aur Poland ke beech seema tay ki.[79] lithuaaniyaai adhikaariyon ne nirnaya sveekaar karne se inkaar kar diya, tatha 1927 tak Poland ke saath aadhikaarik taur par yuddh ki avastha mein rahe.[80] jab tak 1938 mein Poland ne alteemetam naheen de diya, lithuaaniya ne Poland ke saath raajanayik sambandh punarsthaapit naheen kiye, yuddh samaapt naheen kiya tatha padausi ke saath vaastavik seemaaon ko svaakar naheen kiya.[81]

Columbia aur peroo

peroo ke hamle ka javaab deti kolanbiyaai sena

vahaaain 20veen sadi ke shurooaat mein Columbia aur peroo ke beech mein kai saare seema vivaad the, tatha 1922 mein, unki sarkaaron ne un vivaadon ko sulajhaane ke liye sauloman-lojaano sandhi par hastaakshar kiye.[82] is sandhi ke roop mein, kolambiya ko amejn nadi ka upayog karne dene ke saath, seema shahar leteeka tatha uske aaspaas ke kshetr ko peroo se kolambiya tak sattaantarit kar diya gaya.[83] 1 sitmbar 1932 ko peroovian rabar tatha cheeni udyogon ke vyaapaarik neta jo apni bhoomi kho chuke the jab kshetr ko Columbia ke havaale kar diya gaya tha jisne leteeka ka ek sashastr adhigrahan ka aayojan kiya.[84] sabse pehle, peroo sarkaar ne sainya adhigrahan ko nahi pahachaana lekin peroo ke raashtrapati Louis saanchej siro ne Columbia ke pun: kabja karne ka virodh kiya. peroo sena ne leteeka par kabja kar liya, jiske parinaamasvaroop do deshon ke beech sashastr sangharsh hua.[85] maheenon ke kootaneetik kheenchtaan ke baad, raashtra sangh dvaara ki gayi madhyasthata ko sarkaar ne sveekaar kiya, tatha unke pratinidhiyon ne sangh ki parishad se pehle apne maamalon prastut kiya. ek alpakaaleen shaanti samjhauta, jis par May 1933 mein donon pakshon dvaara hastaakshar kiya gaya aur jise vivaadit kshetr par niyantran maanate hue dwipaksheeya vaarta ki taiyaari ke saath sangh ko pradaan kiya gaya.[86] May 1934 mein, ek antim shaanti samjhaute par hastaakshar kiya gaya, jiske parinaamasvaroop leteeka ki Columbia vaapasi hui, 1932 ke aakraman ke liye peroo ki aupachaarik maafi, leteeka ke aaspaas ke kshetron ka asainyeekaran, amejn tatha putumaayo nadiyon par muft nauvahan, tatha gair-aakraamakata ki ek ek pratijnyaa.

saar

saar ek praant tha jo prashiya tatha renish peleteenet ke bhaagon se bana tha, jisko sthaapit kiya gaya tatha varseleej ki sandhiyon dvaara sangh ke kaaboo mein rakha gaya. yeh nirdhaarit karne ke liye ki kya is kshetr ko Germany ya France se sambandh rakhana chaahiye, pandrah saal ke sangh shaasan ke baad ek janamat sangrah aayojit kiya gaya tha. jab 1935 mein janamat sangrah aayojit kiya gaya tha, 90.3 pratishat vote Germany ke samarthan mein aaya[87][88]. 17 January 1935 ko sangh parishad dvaara Germany ke saath kshetron ke pun: ekeekaran ko anumodit kiya gaya.

aur shaanti suraksha

kshetreeya vivaadon ke alaava, sangh ne deshon ke beech (aur desh ke andar bhi) anya sangharshon mein hastakshep karne ki prayaas bhi kiya. iski safalataaon mein uske afeem ke antarraashtreeya vyaapaar aur yaun daasata ka mukaabala karne ke prayaas tatha sharanaarthiyon khaaskar 1926 ki avadhi mein Turkey mein, ki durdasha kam karne ke uske kaarya shaamil the. is baad vaale kshetr mein uske navaachaaron mein se ek tha 1922 mein naanasen passport shuroo karna, jo ki sharanaarthiyon ke liye pehla antarraashtreeya star par maanyata praapt card tha. sangh ki anek safalataaen iski vibhinn agencyon aur aayogon ke dvaara poorn ki gayi theen.

grees aur bulgaariya

October 1925 mein yoonaan aur bulgaariya ki seema par santariyon ke beech hui ghatna ke baad donon deshon ke beech ladaai shuroo ho gayi.[89] praarambhik ghatna ke teen din ke baad greek sainikon ne bulgaariya par aakraman kar diya. bulgeriyaai sarkaar ne sainikon ko keval saanketik pratirodh karne ka aadesh diya aur sangh par vishvaas karte hue ki vah is vivaad ko sulajhaaega, seema kshetr se das se pandrah hajaar logon ko khaali karva diya.[90] sangh ne vaastav mein yoonaani aakraman ki ninda ki aur yoonaaniyon ki vaapasi aur bulgaariya ko muaavaja dene ki maang ki. yoonaan ne paalan kiya, lekin uske saath kiye gaye vyavahaar aur korfoo ki ghatna ke baad Italy ke saath kiye gaye vyavahaar mein asamaanata ke baare mein shikaayat ki.

laaiberiya

ameriki svaamitv vaale vishaal faayaraston rabad baagaan mein jabaran majadoori ke aaropon tatha das vyaapaar ke ameriki aaropon ke baad laaiberiyaai sarkaar ne raashtra sangh se jaanch shuroo karne ko kaha.[91] jaanch ke liye gathit aayog ko sangh, sanyukt raajya America aur laaiberiya dvaara sanyukt roop se niyukt kiya gaya tha.[92] 1930 mein, sangh ki ek report mein pushti ki gayi ki das pratha tatha jabaran majadoori prachalit thi. report mein kai sarkaari adhikaariyon ko bandhuaa majadooron ki bikri mein shaamil paaya gaya tha aur sifaarish ki gayi ki unako hata kar unki jagah Europeeya ya ameriki lagaae jaaen. laaiberiyn sarkaar ne das pratha aur jabaran majadoori ko gairkaanooni ghoshit kar diya aur America ki sahaayata maangi, yeh aisa kadam tha jisne laaiberiya ke andar gussa paida kar diya jiske parinaamasvaroop raashtrapati Charles di bi King tatha unke up-raashtrapati ko tyaagapatr dena pada.[92][93] tab sangh ne dhamaki di ki jab tak sudhaaron ko laagoo naheen kiya jaata laaiberiya par ek nyaasita ki sthaapana kar di jaaegi. raashtrapati edavin baarkle ka dhyaan in sudhaaron ko laagoo karne par keindrit ho gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

mukden haadasa

18 September 1931 shenayaang mein pravesh karti Japani senaaen

mukden ka haadasa, jise "manchooriyn haadasa" ya "sudoor poorvi sankat" ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hain, sangh ki badi asafalataaon mein se ek tha, jisne sangathan se Japan ki vaapasi ke liye utprerak ke roop mein kaam kiya. ek sahamati patte ki sharton ke adheen Japani sarkaar ko yeh adhikaar praapt tha ki vah dakshini manchooriyn railway ke aas paas ke kshetron mein apni sena ko tainaat rakhe, jo ki cheeni kshetr ke manchooriya pradesh se hokar jaane wala donon deshon ke beech ek pramukh vyaapaar maarg tha.[94] san 1931 ke sitmbar mein manchooriya ke ek aakraman ke bahaane Japani kvaangatung sena[95][96] ke adhikaareeyon aur sainikon ke ek dal ne railway ke kuchh bhaag ko thoda kshatigrast kar diya.[95][97] haalaaainki, Japani sainikon ne daava kiya ki railway ka vidhvans cheen ke sainikon ne kiya hain aur iske spasht pratishodh mein (naagrik sarkaar ke aadesh[96] ke vipreet kaarya karte hue) manchooriya ke sampoorn kshetr par kabja kar liya. unhonne is kshetr ka naamakaran manchuko kiya aur 9 March 1932, ko ek kathaputali sarkaar cheen ke poorv mahaaraaja pu yi ke netrutv mein sthaapit ki.[98] antararaashtreeya star par, is naye desh ko keval Italy aur Germany ki sarkaaron dvaara hi maanyata di gayi thi, jabki duniya ke baaki desh abhi bhi manchooriya ko kaanooni taur par cheen ka hi hissa maanate the. san 1932 mein, Japan ki vaayu aur jal sena ne cheen ke Shanghai shahar par bamavarsha ki, jisne 28 January ki ghatna ko chingaari pradaan kiya.

raashtra sangh cheen ki sarkaar se anurodh karne ke liye sahamat ho gaya, parantu lambi samudri yaatra ke kaaran sangh ke sadasyon ko maamale ki jaaainch karne mein vilamb ho gaya. vahaan pahuainchane par adhikaariyon ko cheeni daavon ka saamana karna pada ki Japan dvaara kiya gaya aakraman avaidh tha, jabki jaapaaniyon ka kehna tha ki aisa unhonne kshetr mein shaanti-suvyavastha banaaye rakhane ke liye kiya hain. Japan ki sangh mein uchch pahuainch ke vaabajood, litn dvaara pesh report ne Japan ko aakraamak siddh kar diya aur maang ki ki manchooriya cheen ko vaapas lauta diya jaaye. isse pehle ki report par vidhaanasabha dvaara matadaan karaaya jaata, Japan ne cheen mein aage badhne ki apni mansha ki ghoshana kar di. san 1933 mein report vidhaanasabha mein 42-1 ke bahumat se paarit (keval Japan ne prastaav ke khilaaf vote diya) hui, parantu cheen se apni sena hataane ke bajaay, Japan ne sangh se apni sadasyata vaapas le li.

ghoshana -patra ke anusaar, raashtra sangh ko Japan par aarthik pratibandh laga kar usaka javaab dena chaahiye tha, ya sainya ekatr kar uske virooddh yuddh ki ghoshana karni chahiye thi. haalaanki inmein se koi bhi kaaryavaahi ki naheen gayi. aarthik pratibandh ka khatra lagbhag bekaar hi ho gaya tha kyonki sanyukt raajya America raashtra sangh sadasya naheen tha. kisi bhi prakaar ka aarthik pratibandh sangh apne sadasya raajyon par aaropit karta tha vah aprabhaavi ho jaata tha, kyonki jab ek sadasya raashtra ko dusare sadasya raashtra ke saath vyaapaar karne ke liye pratibandhit kiya jaata tha to vah sanyukt raajya America ke saath vyaapaarik sambandh sthaapit kar leta tha. raashtra sangh ek sena ikattha kar sakta tha, lekin Britain aur France jaise pramukh shaktiyaan bhi apne-apne maamalon mein ulajhi hui thi, jaise ki apne vyaapak saamraajya par niyantran, visheshakar pratham vishv yudgh ke uthal-puthal ke baad. isliye manchooriya ko Japan ke niyantran mein chhod diya gaya, jab tak ki soviyt sangh ki laal sena ne us kshetr par kabja naheen jama liya aur use dviteeya vishv yudgh ke baad cheen ko vaapas lauta diya.

chaako yuddh

raashtra sangh san 1932 mein boleeviya aur paraagve ke madhya dakshini America ke shushk graan chaako kshetr ko lekar hue yuddh ko rokane mein naakaam raha. haalaanki is kshetr aabaadi kam thi, yanha paraaguve nadi bahti hain jo ki do mein se ek chaaron taraf se bhoomi se ghire desh ko atalaantik mahaasaagar[99] se jodati thi aur iske sambandh mein vahaaain bhi atkalein bhi thi ki chaako petrolium samruddh pradesh hain, jo baad mein galat saabit hui.[100] san 1920 ke utaraarddh mein satat roop se seema par hone waali jhadap, antat: 1932 mein poorn yuddh ka kaaran bani, jab boleeviya ki sena ne paraagve ke pitinyaantuta jheel ke kinaare sthit fort kaarlos enteeniyo lopej par aakraman kar diya.[101] paraagve ne raashtra sangh mein appeal kiya, parantu raashtra sangh ne koi kaaryavaahi naheen ki aur iske badle pain America sammelan ne madhyasthata ki peshakash ki. yeh yuddh donon pakshon ke liye ek aapada ke samaan tha, jismein boleeviya, jiski aabaadi tees lakh ke kareeb thi, ke hataahaton ki sankhya 57,000 aur paraagve jiski aabaadi das lakh thi, ke hataahaton ki sankhya 36000 thi.[102] is yuddh ne donon deshon ko aarthik sankat ke kagaar par la khada kiya. kuchh samay baad baatcheet ke jariye 12 June 1935 ko yuddh-viraam ghoshit hua. paraagve ne adhikaansh kshetron par adhikaar kar liya tha.[103] ise 1938 ke sangharsh viraam ke dvaara maanyata praapt hui jismein paraagve ko uttari chaako ka teen-chauthaai bhaag praapt hua.

abeeseeniya par itaalavi aakraman

doosare itaalavi-abeeseeniyaai yuddh mein ladne ke liye 1935 mein itaalavi sainikon ki bharti

October 1935 mein, itaalavi taanaashaah benito musolini ne abeeseeniya (ithopiya) par aakraman karne ke liye 400000 sainikon ko bheja.[104] maarshal piyetro badogliyo ne san 1935 ke November se abhiyaan ka netrutv kiya. usane bamabaari karne, raasaayanik hathiyaaron jaise ki mastard gas ka upayog karne aur lakshya ke virooddh paani ki aapoorti ko vishaakt karne, jismein asurakshit gaavain aur chikitsa suvidhaaeain shaamil thi, ka aadesh diya.[104][105] aadhunik itaavali sena ne atyant pichhdi abeeseeniya ki sena ko aasaani se hara diya aur May 1936 mein adees abaaba par adhikaar karte hue samraat hel selaasi ko bhaagane par majaboor ka diya.[106]

raashtra sangh ne Italy ki aakraamakata ki ninda ki aur san 1935 ke November mein aarthik pratibandh lagaaye, lekin ve pratibndh kaafi had tak aprabhaavi the, kyonki ve tel ki bikri par pratibandh naheen laga sake ya svej nahar (Britain dvaara niyantrit) ko band naheen kiya gaya.[107] stenali baaldavin, british pradhaanamantri ne baad mein kaha ki koi bhi sainya roop se itna saksham naheen tha ki vah Italy ke aakraman ka mukaabala kar sake.[108] san 1935 ke October mein ameriki raashtrapati Franklin di. roojavelt ne haal hi mein paarit tatasthata adhiniyam ko laagoo kiya aur hathiyaaron aur gola - baarood ki bikri par donon pakshon par vyaapaar pratibandh laga diya, parantu vidrohi Italy ke saath usane "naitik vyaapaar pratibandh" mein thodi dheel di, jismein vyaapaar ki anya vastuyein shaamil thi. pehle 5 October aur baad mein 4 July 1936 ko sanyukt raajya America ko apne prayaason mein aashaateet safalta praapt hui aur usane tel aur anya saamagri ke niryaat ko saamaanya shaantikaal ke star tak pahuncha diya.[109] raashtra sangh ke pratibandhon ko 4 July 1936 mein utha liya gaya, lekin us samay tak Italy abeeseeniya ke shahari kshetron par niyantran praapt kar chuka tha.[110]

san 1935 ke December mein, hoare -laavel sandhi british videsh mantri saimuel hoare aur France ke pradhaanamantri piyre laavel dvaara abeeseeniya ke sangharsh ko samaapt karne ka ek prayaas tha, jismein desh ko do bhaagon mein vibhaajit karne ka prastaav tha, - ek itaalavi kshetr aur ek abeeseeniya ka kshetr. musolini is sandhi ke liye sahamat ho gaya tha, lekin lekin saude ki khabar leek ho gayi, falat: fraansisi aur british janta ne iska kada virodh kiya aur is sandhi ko abeeseeniya ke vikraya ka prastaav kaha. hoare aur laavel ko unke padon se isteefa dene ko majaboor kiya gaya aur british aur fraanseesi donon sarkaarein apne - apne sambandhit logon se alag ho gayi.[111] san 1936 ke June se pehle, haalaanki raajya ke ek pramukh vyakti ke dvaara raashtra sangh ke vidhaanasabha ko sambodhit karne kaakoi parampara naheen thi, hel silaasi, ithiyopiya ke samraat ne apne desh ki raksha karne mein sahayog ke liye sabha se madad ke liye appeal ki.[112]

yahi sthiti Japan ke saath bhi thi, abeeseeniya ke sankat se nipatne mein pramukh shaktiyon utsaah unki is dhaarana ke kaaran naheen tha ki is gareeb aur sudoor desh ka bhaagya jo ki gair Europeeya logon ka nivaas sthaan tha, unki kendreeya ruchi ka vishay naheen ho sakta hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] iske atirikt, isse yeh bhi spasht hota hai ki kaise raashtra sangh apne sadasyon ke svaarth se prabhaavit ho sakta hai;[113] pratibandh ke bahut kathor naheen hone ka kaaran musolini aur jarman taanaashaah hitlar ke sambhaavit gathabandhan banaane ko lekar Britain aur France ka bhaya bhi tha.[114]

Spain ke gruh yuddh

17 July 1936 ko, Spanish sena ne raajya-viplav shuroo kiya, jiske kaaran Spanish ripbliknon (Spain ki vaamapanthi sarkaar) aur raashtravaadiyon (roodhivaadi, kamyoonist-virodhi vidrohi jinmein Spanish sena ke adhiktar adhikaari shaamil the) ke beech ek lambi avadhi ka sashastr sangharsh shuroo hua.[115] alvaarej Dale vaayo, videshi maamalon ke Spanish mantri, ne September 1936 mein sangh se apni praadeshik akhandta aur raajaneetik svatantrata ki raksha hetu shastron ki maang ki. tathaapi, sangh ke sadasyon ne, Spanish gruh yuddh mein na to hastakshep kiya aur na hi videshi hastakshep ko roka. hitlar aur musolini ne nirantar general fraansisko frainko ke raashtravaadi vidrohiyon ko apna samarthan jaari rakha aur soviyt sangh ne Spanish ganatantravaadiyon ko samarthan diya. February 1937 mein, sangh ne antat: videshi raashtreeya svayansevakon ke hastakshep par pratibndh laga diya.

doosra cheen-Japan yuddh

sampoorn 1930 ke dashak mein kshetreeya sangharshon ko bhadkaane ke lambe rikaurd ke baad, Japan ne 7 July 1937 ko cheen par poorn dhaava bol diya. 12 September ko, cheeni pratinidhi, velingatan koo, ne sangh se ek antarraashtreeya hastakshep ki appeal ki. pashchimi raashtra Japan ke virooddh unke sangharsh mein cheen ke hamadard the, visheshakar unke Shanghai ki atal suraksha ke liye, ek shahar jahaan videshiyon ki badi sankhya thi. tathaapi, sangh ek nirnaayak vaktavya jisne cheen ko “aaatmik samarthana” diya, ke alaava kisi vyavahaarik upaaya ka prabandh karne mein aksham raha. 4 October ko, sangh sthagit ho gaya aur is vishay ko nau shakti sandhi sammelan ko hastaantarit kar diya gaya.

nirstreekaran aur dviteeya vishv yuddh ke raaste mein asafalataaen

sangh ke prasanvida ke anuchhed aath ne sangh ko kaarya diya ki “ashastreekaran ko us nimnatam bindu tak seemit rakhein jo raashtreeya suraksha ke liye jaroori ho aur antarraashtreeya daayitvon ka saamaanya kriya dvaara pravartan ho sake.”[116] sangh ki samay evam urja ka adhikaansh bhaag nirstreekaran ko samarpit tha, haalaanki kai sadasya sarkaarein anishchayi thi ki kya itna vyaapak nirstreekaran praapt kiya ja sakta hai ya yahaan tak ki yeh vaanchhaneeya tha ki naheen.[117] mitr raashtra bhi varsaaya ki sandhi se baadhya the ki nirstr karne ke liye prayaas karein evam paraajit raashtron par jo shastr pratibandh laagoo kiye gaye hain unhein vishvavyaapi nirstreekaran ki disha mein ek pratham prayaas ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya.[117] sangh prasanvida ne sangh ko pratyek raajya ke liye ek nirsreekaran yojana taiyaar karne ke liye nirdisht kiya parantu parishad ne is jimmedaari ko 1926 mein gathit vishesh aayog ko 1932-34 ke vishv nirstreekaran sammelan ki taiyaari karne ke liye saunp diya.[118] nirstreekaran ko lekar sangh ke sadasyon mein bhinn-bhinn drushitikon the. fraanseesi apne shastron ko is guaranty ke bina kam karne ke liye anichhuk the ki unapar aakraman hone par sainik sahaayata mile. polend evam chekoslovaakiya ne pashchim ki taraf se asurakshit mahasoos kiya aur chaahate the ki sangh dvaara aakraamak kaaryavaahi evam unhein nishstr karne se pehle sadasyon ko majaboot banaaya jaae.[119] is guaranty ke bina ve apne shastron ko kam naheen kareinge kyonki unhonne mahasoos kiya ki Germany se aakraman ka khatra bahut jyaada tha. pratham vishvayuddh ke baad Germany dvaara purnashakti praapt karne se aakraman ka khatra aur badh gaya, visheshakar jab hitlar ne satta praapt ki aur 1933 mein Germany ka chaansalar bana vishesh roop mein Germany dvaara varsaaya ki sandhi ko ulatane ke prayaas evam jarman sena ke purnanirmaan ke kaaran France nirstreekaran ke liye anichhuk hota gaya.[118]

vishv nirstreekaran sammelan 1932 mein jeneva mein raashtrasangh dvaara bulaaya gaya jismein 60 raashtron ke pratinidhi the. sammelan ke shuroo mein shastron ke vistaar par ek varsh ka viraam lagaane ka prastaav diya gaya, jise baad mein kuchh maheene badhaaya gaya.[120] nirstreekaran aayog ne France, Italy, Japan evam Britain se praarambhik sahamati le li ki vo apni nau senaaon ke aakaar mein katauti karein. kelaug-braayand samjhauta, jise aayog ne 1928 mein sampann karaaya, yuddh ko gair-kaanooni ghoshit karne ke apne uddeshya mein asafal ho gaya. antat:, aayog 1930 ke dashak mein Germany Italy, evam Japan ke dvaara sainik taiyaari ko rokane mein asafal raha. sangh un sabhi badi ghatnaaon par adhikaanshataya shaant raha jiske kaaran dviteeya vishvayuddh praarambh hua yatha- raainalainnd ka hitlar dvaara pun:-sainyeekaran, ostriya ke sudetanalaind evam ensakloos par kabja, jiski varsaaya sandhi ne manaahi ki thi. vaastav mein, sangh ke sadasyon ne swayam ko pun:-sainyeekrut kiya. 1933 mein Japan ne sangh ke nirnaya ko maanane ki bajaay aasaani se isse alag ho gaya, jaisa ki Germany ne 1933 mein kiya (France evam Germany ke beech mein shastr samata sthaapit karne mein samjhauta kara paane mein vishv nirstreekaran sammelan ki asafalata ko bahaana banaakar) aur Italy ne 1937 mein. denjing mein sangh commissioner shahar par jarman daave par vichaar karne mein asamarth the, jo 1939 mein dviteeya vishvayuddh ke chhidne mein mahatvapoorn kaaran bana.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sangh ka antim mahatvapoorn kaarya tha soviyt sangh ka December 1939 mein nilanban jab isne finlaind par aakraman kiya.

saamaanya kamjoriyon

pul mein antaraal board par likha hai "is raashtra sangh pul ko sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati dvaara design kiya gaya tha"

----

panch maigajeen se kaartoon, 10 December 1920, America dvaara khaali chhodi gayi jagah ka upahaas kiya jab vah raashtrasangh mein shaamil naheen hua. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke praarambh ne darshaaya ki sangh apne praarambhik uddeshya mein asafal raha, jo bhavishya mein kisi vishvayuddh ko taalata. is asafalat ke liye vividh kaarak jimmevaar the, jismein bahut saara sangathan ke bheetar ke saamaanya kamjoriyon se juda tha. atirikt roop se, America dvaara sangh mein shaamil hone ki manaahi ne sangathan ki shakti ko seemit kiya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

utpatti aur sanrachana

sangh ka ek sangathan ke roop mein udbhav pratham vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke liye kiye ja rahe shaanti prayaason ke hisse ke roop mein mitr raashtron dvaara kiya gaya aur isliye ise “avijetaaon ke sangh” ke roop mein dekha gaya.[121][122] isne sangh ko varsaaya ki sandhi se bhi baandh diya, jisse jab sandhi apratishthit evam alokapriya ho gaya, yeh raashtrasangh mein bhi pratibimbit hua.

sangh ki tathaakathit tatasthata ne ise anirnaya ke roop mein abhivyakt kiya. ise apne nau sadasyon, baad mein chalakar pandrah parishad sadasyon ka sarvasammat vote kisi adhiniyam ko paarit karne ke liye chaahiye; at: nirnayaatmak evam prabhaavi kaarya asambhav naheen to mushkil tha. yeh apne nirnayon par aane mein dheema bhi tha kyonki kuchh nirnayon mein sampoorn sabha ki sarvasammat manjoori aavashyak thi. yeh samasya mukhyataya is vaastavikta se nikli ki raashtrasangh ke mukhya sadasya is sambhaavana ko sveekaar karne ke liye taiyaar naheen ho rahe the ki unki niyti anya deshon dvaara tay ki jaaegi aur isliye iske parinaamasvaroop, sarvasammat vote ko laagoo karke apne ko veto ki shakti di.

vaishvik pratinidhitv

sangh mein pratinidhitv aksar ek samasya thi. haalaanki iska abheesht sabhi raashtron ko shaamil karna tha, kai kabhi shaamil naheen hue, ya unki sangh ke saath saajhedaari bahut chhoti thi. sarvaadhik ullekhaneeya anupasthiti America ki sangh mein bhoomika ki sanbhaavyata ko lekar thi, na keval vah vishv shaanti evam suraksha ko surakshit karta balki sangh ka vitt prabandh bhi karta. sangh ke nirmaan ke peechhe ameriki raashtrapati vudaro Wilson prerak bal the aur iske aakaar ko majabooti se prabhaavit kiya lekin ameriki sinet ne 19 November 1919 ko ismein shaamil na hone ka mat diya.[123] rooth hening ne sujhaav diya ki yadi America sangh ka sadsya hota to, isne France evam Britain ko bhi prushth-samarthan diya hota, sanbhavataya France jyaada surakshit mahasoos karta evam aisa protsaahan France evam Britain ko Germany ke sambandh mein jyaada sahayog karne deta evam isse naaji party ka udaya kam sambhav hota.[124] iske vipreet, hening sveekaar karte hain ki yadi America sangh ka sadasya hota, iska Europeeya shaktiyon ke saath yuddh mein ulajhane ki anichha evam aarthik pratibandhon ko adhiniymit karne se antarraashtreeya ghatnaaon ka saamana karne mein sangh ki kshamata ko baadhit kiya hota.[124] America mein sarkaar ki sanrachana ne bhi iski sadsyata ko samasyaapoorn banaaya hota kyonki sangh mein iske pratinidhign ameriki kaaryakaari shaakhaaon ki taraf se iski vidhaai shaakhaaon ki poorv anumati ke bina koi nirnaya naheen liya gaya hota.[125]

January 1920 mein, jab sangh shuroo hua, Germany ko shaamil hone ki anumati naheen thi kyonki ise pratham vishv yuddh mein aakraamak ke roop mein dekha gaya tha. soviyt roos bhi praarambh mein sangh se bahishkrut tha, kyonki pratham vishv yuddh ke vijetaaon ko communist vichaar pasand naheen tha. sangh tab aur kamjor ho gaya jab 1930 ke dashak mein mahatvapoorn shaktiyon ne iska saath chhod diya. japaan ne sthaayi sadasya ke roop mein parishad mein shuroo kiya, lekin 1933 mein tab hat gaya jab sangh ne iske cheen ke manchooriya kshetr par aakraman ka virodh kiya.[126] Italy ne bhi parishad ke sthaayi sadasya ke roop mein shuroo kiya lekin 1937 mein hat gaya. sangh ne Germany ko 1926 mein sadasya ke roop mein sveekaar kiya, ise “ashanti premi desha” maana, lekin edolf hitlar 1933 mein jab satta mein aaya to Germany ko isse alag kar liya.[127]

saamoohik suraksha

ek anya mahatvapoorn kamjori saamoohik suraksha ke vichaar, jo sangh ka adhaar tha evam vaiyaktik raashtron ke beech antarraashtreeya sambandhon ke beech antarvirodh se viksit hua tha.[128] saamuhik suraksha pranaali jise sangh ne prayukt kiya, ka arth tha ki raashtron ke liye aavashyak tha ki ve un raajyon ke khilaaf kaaryavaahi karein jinhein ve mitr maanate hain aur is tareeke se un raajyon ka samarthan jinke saath saamaanya ghanishthata naheen thi, unke raashtreeya hiton ko khatra ho sakta hai.[128] yeh kamjori abeeseeniya sankat ke samay spasht ho gayi jab Britain evam France ko santulit prayatn karne pade taaki Europe mein suraksha banaae rakhi ja sake, jise unhonne Europe mein “aaantarik vyavastha ke shatru ke khilaaf vyavastha banaae rakhane ke liye” apne liye banaaya tha,[129] jismein Italy ke samarthan ne pramukh bhoomika nibhaai, jismein abeeseeniya ko sangh ka sadsya banaae rakhane ki baadhyata thi.[130]

23 June 1936 ko abeeseeniya ke khilaaf Italy ke yuddh abhiyaan ko rokane mein sangh ke prayaason ke asafal hone par, british pradhaanamantri Stanley baaldavin ne house of kaumans mein kaha ki saamoohik suraksha

"failed ultimately because of the reluctance of nearly all the nations in Europe to proceed to what I might call military sanctions ... The real reason, or the main reason, was that we discovered in the process of weeks that there was no country except the aggressor country which was ready for war ... [I]f collective action is to be a reality and not merely a thing to be talked about, it means not only that every country is to be ready for war; but must be ready to go to war at once. That is a terrible thing, but it is an essential part of collective security."[108]

antat:, Britain evam France donon ne edolf hitlar ke adheen jarman sainikvaad ke badhte prabhaav ke kaaran tushtikran ke paksh mein saamoohik suraksha keeavadhaarana ko tyaag diya.[131]

amanapasandavaad aur nirstreekaran


28 July 1920, panch patrika ka kaartoon, sangh ki kamajori dekhkar vyangya kas raha hai.]] raashtra sangh ke paas apni ek sashastr sena ki kami thi aur yeh apne sankalpo ko laagoo karne ke liye mahaan shaktiyon par nirbhar thi, jiske ve bahut khilaaf the.[132] sangh ke do sabse mahatvapoorn sadasya, Britain aur France, pratibandhon ke khilaaf the tatha sangh ki or se sainya kaarravaai karne ke liye aur adhik khilaaf the. pratham vishv yuddh ke turant, donon deshon ki sarkaaron tatha aabaadi mein shaantivaad ek majboot shakti thi. british paranparaavaadi vishesh roop se sangh par utsaahaheen the tatha sarkaar mein, sangathan ki bhaageedaari ke bina samjhauta vaarta karne ke ichhuk the.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

iske alaava, sangh dvaara Britain, France aur iske anya sadasyon ke liye nirstreekaran ki vakaalat jabki usi samay saamoohik suraksha ki vakaalat ka matlab tha ki sangh apne aapko sashakt saadhanon dvaara dhokhe se vanchit kar rahi hai jiske dvaara iske adhikaar ko barkaraar rakha jaaega.


agar sangh ko antararaashtreeya kaanoonon ka paalan karne ke liye deshon ko majaboor karna tha, to ise laagoo karne ke liye royal navy tatha French sena ki aavashyakta hogi.

jab british cabinet ne pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan sangh ki avadhaarana ke baare mein charcha ki, tab kebinet sachiv, mauris heinki, ne vishay par ek gyaapan bheja.


usane yeh kehte hue shuroo kiya: "aam taur par mujhe aisa lagta hai ki aisi koi yojana hamaare liye khatarnaak hai, kyonki yeh suraksha ka bodh karaayega jo poori tarah se kaalpanik hai.[133] isne britishon ke samjhauta ki pavitrata mein yuddh poorv vishvaas par bhraantimoolak roop se hamla kiya aur daave ke saath samaapt kiya.

"It [a League of Nations] will only result in failure and the longer that failure is postponed the more certain it is that this country will have been lulled to sleep. It will put a very strong lever into the hands of the well-meaning idealists who are to be found in almost every Government, who deprecate expenditure on armaments, and, in the course of time, it will almost certainly result in this country being caught at a disadvantage".[133]

videsh kaaryaalaya mantri sar aayar kro ne bhi british cabinet ko ek gyaapan likha jismein vah daava kar rahe hain ki "ek gambhir sangh aur anubandh" bas "doosari sandhiyon ki tarah ek sandhi" maatr hogi : "aisa kya hai vahaan jo yeh sunishchit kare ki yeh doosari sandhiyon ki tarah nahi tootegi?". aakramanakaariyon ke khilaaf "aam kaarravaai ki pratijnyaa" ke prati kro ne sandeh vyakt kiya kyonki unka vishvaas tha ki alag alag raajyon ki kaarravaai abhi bhi raashtreeya hiton aur shakti santulan ke dvaara nirdhaarit ki jaayegi. unhone sangh ke aarthik pratibandhon ke prastaav ki aalochna ki kyonki yeh nishprabhaavi hoga tatha yeh "ek vaastavik sainya pramukhata ka prashn tha". kro ne chetaavani di thi ki yoonivrsal nirstreekaran ek vyaavahaarik asambhavata thi.[133]

mrutyu aur viraasat

jeneva mein raashtra sangh ka sabha bhavan

jaise ki Europe mein sthiti bigdkar yuddh mein tabadeel hui, kaanooni taur par sangh jaari rakhane tatha operation mein I mandi ko aage badhaane ki anumati dene ke liye 30 sitmbar 1938, tatha 14 December 1939 ko sadan ne paryaapt shakti mahaasachiv ko hastaantarit ki.[57] jabatak dviteeya vishv yuddh samaapt hua, sangh ke mukhyaalaya, pailes of pees, kareeb 6 saal ke liye anadhikrut rahe.[134]

1943 ke Tehran sammelan par, sangh: America ki jagah ek naya dhaaaincha banaane ke liye sambaddh shakti mein sahamati hui. kai sangh guton, jaise ki antarraashtreeya shram sangathan, ne kaarya karna jaari rakha tatha falat: America ke saath sambaddh hua.[44] America ki sanrachana ise sangh se adhik prabhaavi banaane ke iraade se hui thi.

deshon ke sangh ki antim baithak 12 April 1946 ko jeneva mein aayojit ki gayi. 34 deshon ke pratinidhiyon ne sadan mein bhaag liya.[135] yeh satr swayam sangh ke taraleekaran se sambandhit hai: 1946 mein lagbhag 22,000,000 dollar moolya ki sampatti America ko di gayi thi,[136] jismein pailes of pees tatha sangh ke abhilekhaagaar shaamil hain, aarakshit nidhi un deshon ko vaapas kar di gayi jinhone iski aapoorti ki thi tatha sangh ka rin chukaaya gaya.[135] antim sabha ke liye ek bhaashan ke dauraan bheed ke ehsaas ko Robert sesil dvaara sankshep mein bataaya jaata hai jab unhonne kaha:

Let us boldly state that aggression wherever it occurs and however it may be defended, is an international crime, that it is the duty of every peace-loving state to resent it and employ whatever force is necessary to crush it, that the machinery of the Charter, no less than the machinery of the Covenant, is sufficient for this purpose if properly used, and that every well-disposed citizen of every state should be ready to undergo any sacrifice in order to maintain peace ... I venture to impress upon my hearers that the great work of peace is resting not only on the narrow interests of our own nations, but even more on those great principles of right and wrong which nations, like individuals, depend.

The League is dead. Long live the United Nations[135]

prastaav jisne sangh ko bhang kar diya vah sarvasammati se paarit hua: "apne maamalon ke taraleekaran ke uddeshyao ko chhodkar raashtra sangh astitv banaaye rakhane ke liye samaapt ho jaayega."[137] jis din satr band kiya gaya uske agale din ko prastaav sangh ki samaapti ki taareekh ke roop mein tay karta hai. 19 April 1946 ko, sadan ke adhyaksh, norve ke kaarl J.hembro, ne ghoshana ki " 21vaan tatha raashtra sangh ki general sabha ka antim satr samaapt hua."[136] parinaamasvaroop, 20 April 1946 ko maujood hone ke liye raashtra sangh samaapt hui.[138]

professor David kenedi ne sujhaav diya ki sangh ek ek anootha pal hai jab kaanoon ke tareekon tatha raajaneeti ke roop mein pratham vishv yuddh ka virodh karne ke liye antararaashtreeya maamale "sansthaapit" kiye gaye the.[139] vishv yuddh dviteeya mein pramukh mitr raashtra (Britain, soviyt sangh, France, America, ganatantr cheen) sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad ke sthaayi sadasya bane; in nai "mahaan shaktiyon" ne, sangh parishad ko darpan banaate hue mahatvapoorn antarraashtreeya prabhaav praapt kiya. sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad ke nirnaya sanyukt raashtra ke sabhi sadasyon par baadhyakaari hain, haalaanki, sangh kaaunsil ke vipreet, sarvasammati nirnayon ki aavashyakta nahi hoti. sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad ke sthaayi sadasyon ko bhi apne mahatvapoorn hiton ko sanrakshit karne ke liye ek kavach diya jaata hai, jisne sanyukt raashtra ko kai maamalon mein nirnayaatmak dhang se kaam karne se roka hai.

isi prakaar, sanyukt raashtra ke paas usaki swayam ki sthaayitv sashastr sena nahi hai, lekin apne sadasyon ko sashastr hastakshep mein yogadaan karne ke liye bulaane mein sanyukt raashtra sangh se jyaada safal raha hai, jaise Koreai yuddh ke dauraan tatha poorv yoogoslaaviya mein shaanti banaaye rakhane vaale ke roop mein. kuchh maamalon mein aarthik pratibandh par bharosa karne ke liye sanyukt raashtra ko majaboor kiya gaya hai. duniya ke deshon se sadasyon ko aakarshit karne mein sanyukt raashtra sangh se jyaada safal raha hai, jo ise jyaada pratinidhik bana raha hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • peris shaanti sammelan
  • raashtra sangh ke anubandh ke anuchhed ex (X)
  • atalaantik chaartar
  • yuddh ke beech ki avadhi
  • laitin amareeka aur raashtra sangh
  • alpasankhyak sandhiyaan
  • 1930 ke nyootraliti ekts
  • pailes of nations, sangh ke mukhyaalaya ke roop mein banaaya gaya.
  • sangh international de la paiks

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sandarbh

aage padhein

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