raamamanohar lohiya

dau॰ raamamanohar lohiya

dau॰ raamamanohar lohiya (janm - March 23, i.s. 1910 - mrutyu - 12 October, i.s. 1967) Bhaarat ke svatantrata sangraam ke senaani, prakhar chintak tatha samaajavaadi raajaneta the.

anukram

jeevanavrutt

aarambhik jeevan evam shiksha

dau॰ raamamanohar lohiya ka janm 23 March 1910 ko uttar pradesh ke faijaabaad janapad mein (vartamaan-ambedakar nagar janapad) akabarapur naamak sthaan mein hua tha. unke pitaaji shri heeraalaal peshe se adhyaapak va hrudaya se sachche raashtrabhakt the. dhaai varsh ki aayu mein hi unki maataaji (chanda devi) ka dehaant ho gaya.. unhein daadi ke alaava sarayoodei, (parivaar ki naain) ne paala. Tandon paathashaala mein chauthi tak padhaai karne ke baad vishveshvaranaath haaiskool mein daakhil hue.

unke pitaaji gaaaindheeji ke anuyaayi the. jab ve Gandhiji se milne jaate to Ram manohar ko bhi apne saath le jaaya karte the. iske kaaran Gandhiji ke viraat vyaktitv ka un par gahra asar hua. pitaaji ke saath 1918 mein Ahmedabad Congress adhiveshan mein pehli baar shaamil hue.

Mumbai ke maaravaadi school mein padhaai ki. lokamaanya gangaadhar tilk ki mrutyu ke din vidyaalaya ke ladkon ke saath 1920 mein pehli August ko hadtaal ki. Gandhi ji ki pukaar par 10 varsh ki aayu mein school tyaag diya. pitaaji ko videshi vastuon ke bahishkaar ke aandolan ke chalte saja hui. 1921 mein faijaabaad kisaan aandolan ke dauraan javaaharalaal Nehru se mulaakaat hui. 1924 mein pratinidhi ke roop mein Congress ke gaya adhiveshan mein shaamil hue. 1925 mein maitrik ki pareeksha di. kaksha mein 61 pratishat number laakar pratham aae. intar ki do varsh ki padhaai banaaras ke kaashi vishvavidyaalaya mein hui. college ke dinon se hi khaddar pahanana shuroo kar diya. 1926 mein pitaaji ke saath gauhaati Congress adhiveshan mein gaye. 1927 mein intar paas kiya tatha aage ki padhaai ke liye Calcutta jaakar taaraachand datt street par sthit poddaar chhaatr haustal mein rahane lage. vidyaasaagar college mein daakhila liya. akhil bang vidyaarthi parishad ke sammelan mein subhaashachandr Bose ke na pahunchane par unhonne sammelan ki adhyakshata ki. 1928 mein kalakata mein Congress adhiveshan mein shaamil hue. 1928 se akhil bhaarateeya vidyaarthi sangathan mein sakriya hue. Simon kamishn ke bahishkaar ke liye chhaatron ke saath aandolan kiya. Calcutta mein yuvakon ke sammelan mein javaaharalaal Nehru adhyaksh tatha subhaashachandr Bose aur lohiya vishay nirvaachan samiti ke sadasya chune gaye. 1930 mein dviteeya shreni mein beee ki pareeksha paas ki.

Europe gaman

1930 July ko lohiya Agrawal samaaj ke kosh se padhaai ke liye England ravaana hue. vahaaain se ve barlin gaye. vishvavidyaalaya ke niyam ke anusaar unhonne prasiddh arthashaastri pro॰ barnar jembaart ko apna praadhyaapak chuna. 3 maheene mein jarman bhaasha seekhi. 12 March 1930 ko Gandhi ji ne daandi yaatra praarambh ki. jab namak kaanoon toda gaya tab police atyaachaar se peedit hokar pita heeraalaal ji ne lohiya ko vistrut patra likha. 23 March ko Lahore mein bhagat Singh ko faansi diye jaane ke virodh mein league of neshans ki baithak mein barlin mein pahunchakar seeti bajaakar darshak deergha se virodh prakat kiya. sabhaagruh se unhein nikaal diya gaya. Bhaarat ka pratinidhitv kar rahe Bikaner ke mahaaraaja dvaara pratinidhitv kiye jaane par lohiya ne roomaaniya ki pratinidhi ko khuli chitthi likhkar use akhbaaron mein chhapavaakar usaki kaupi baithak mein bantavaai. Gandhi irvin samjhaute ka lohiya ne pravaasi bhaarateeya vidyaarthiyon ki sanstha "madhya Europe hindustaani sangh" ki baithak mein sanstha ke mantri ke taur par samarthan kiya. kamyuniston ne virodh kiya. barlin ke spotars pailes mein hitlar ka bhaashan suna. 1932 mein lohiya ne namak satyaagrah vishay par apna shodh prabandh poora kar barlin vishvavidyaalaya se dauktaret ki upaadhi praapt ki.

svadesh aagaman evam svatantrata sangraam

1933 mein Madras pahunche. raaste mein saamaan jabt kar liya gaya. tab samudri jahaaj se utarakar hindu akhbaar ke daftar pahunchakar do lekh likhkar 25 rupaya praapt kar Calcutta gaye. Calcutta se banaaras jaakar maalaveeya ji se mulaakaat ki. unhonne raameshvar das bidla se mulaakaat karaai jinhonne naukri ka prastaav diya, lekin do hafte saath rahane ke baad lohiya ne niji sachiv banane se inkaar kar diya. tab pita ji ke mitr seth jamunaalaal Bajaj lohiya ko Gandhi ji ke paas le gaye tatha unase kaha ki ye ladka raajaneeti karna chaahata hai.

kuchh din tak jamunaalaal Bajaj ke saath rahane ke baad shaadi ka prastaav milne par shahar chhodkar vaapas Calcutta chale gaye. vishv raajaneeti ke aagaami 10 varsh vishay par dhaaka vishvavidyaalaya mein vyaakhyaan dekar Calcutta aane-jaane ki raashi jutaai. Patna mein 17 May 1934 ko aachaarya Narendra Dave ki adhyakshata mein desh ke samaajavaadi anjuman-A-islaamiya hall mein ikatthe hue, jahaan samaajavaadi party ki sthaapana ka nirnaya liya gaya. yahaan lohiya ne samaajavaadi aandolan ki rooparekha prastut ki. party ke uddeshyon mein lohiya ne poorn svaraajya ka lakshya jodne ka sanshodhan pesh kiya, jise asveekaar kar diya gaya. 21-22 October 1934 ko Mumbai ke barli sthit 'redimni teres' mein 150 samaajavaadiyon ne ikattha hokar Congress soshalist party ki sthaapana ki. lohiya raashtreeya kaaryakaarani ke sadasya chune gaye. Congress soshalist saptaahik mukhapatr ke sampaadak banaae gaye.

Gandhi ji ke virodh mein jaakar unhonne kaanusil pravesh ka virodh kiya. Gandhi ji ne lohiya ke lekh par do patra likhe. 1936 ke Meerut adhiveshan mein Congress soshalist party ne communist party ke sadasyon ke liye party ka darvaaja khol diya. lohiya baar-baar kamyuniston ke prati sachet rahane ki chetaavani jayaprakaash Narayan ji evam anya netaaon ko dete rahe. 1935 mein Jawahar laal Nehru ki adhyakshata mein Lucknow mein Congress ka adhiveshan hua jahaan lohiya ko pararaashtr vibhaag ka mantri niyukt kiya gaya jiske chalte unhein Allahabad aana pada. 1938 mein Congress soshalist party mein lohiya raashtreeya kaaryakaarani ke sadasya chune gaye. unhonne Congress ke pararaashtr vibhaag ke mantri pad se isteefa de diya. 1940 mein raamagadh Congress ke kamyuniston ko party se nikaalne ka nirnaya liya gaya. 1939 mein tripuri Congress mein subhaash chandra Bose ko samaajavaadiyon ne samarthan kiya. dau॰ lohiya tatasth bane rahe. lohiya ne Gandhi ji dvaara yeh kahe jaane par ki Bose ka chunaav meri shikast hai par prastaav pesh karte hue kaha ki yeh prastaav Gandhi ji se sammaanapoorvak aahvaan karta hai ki unki shikast naheen hui hai. Gandhi ji ki ichhaanusaar subhaashachandr Bose kaaryasamiti banaane ko taiyaar naheen hue tatha Nehru sahit anya Congress ke netaaon ne Bose ke saath kaaryasamiti mein rahane se inkaar kar diya tab Bose ne Congress ke adhyaksh pad se isteefa diya tatha Congress se naata tod liya.

lohiya ne mahaayuddh ke samay yuddhabharti ka virodh, deshi riyaasaton mein aandolan, british maal jahaajon se maal utaarane va laadne vaale majadooron ka sangathan tatha yuddhakarj ko manjoor tatha ada na karne, jaise chaar sootreeya muddon ko lekar yuddh virodhi prachaar shuroo kar diya. 1939 ke May maheene mein dakshin kalakata ki Congress committee mein yuddh virodhi bhaashan karne par unhein 24 May ko giraftaar kiya gaya. Calcutta ke cheef preseedensi majisterat ke saamane lohiya ne swayam apne mukadame ki pairavi aur bahas ki. 14 August ko unhein riha kar diya gaya. 9 October 1939 ko Congress samiti ke baithak vardha mein hui jismein lohiya ne samjhaute ka virodh kiya. usi samay unhonne shastron ka naash ho naamak prasiddh lekh likha. 11 May 1940 ko sultaanapur ke jila sammelan mein lohiya ne Congress se 'satyaagrah abhi naheen' naamak lekh likha. Gandhi ji ne mool roop mein lohiya dvaara diye gaye chaar sootron ko sveekaar kiya.

7 June 1940 ko dau॰ lohiya ko 11 May ko dostapur (sultaanapur) mein diye gaye bhaashan ke kaaran giraftaar kiya gaya. unhein kotavaali mein sultaanapur mein Allahabad ke Swaraj bhavan se le jaakar hathakadi pahanaakar rakha gaya. 1 July 1940 ko Bhaarat suraksha kaanoon ki dhaara 38 ke tahat do saal ki sakht saja hui. saja sunaane ke baad unhein 12 August ko bareli jail bhej diya gaya. 15 June 1940 ko Gandhi ji ne 'harijn' mein likha, ki 'main yuddh ko gair kaanooni maanata hoon kintu yuddh ke khilaaf mere paas koi yojana naheen hai is vaaste main yuddh se sahamat hoon.' 25 August ko Gandhi ji ne likha ki 'lohiya aur doosare Congress vaalon ki sajaaen Hindustan ko baandhane waali janjeer ko kamjor banaane vaale hathaude ke prahaar hain. sarkaar Congress ko civil-naafaramaani aarambh karne aur aakhiri prahaar karne ke liye prerit kar rahi hai. yadyapi Congress use us din tak ke liye sthagit karna chaahati hai jab tak England museebat mein ho.' Gandhi ji ne Mumbai mein kaha, ki 'jab tak dau॰ raamamanohar lohiya jail mein hai tab tak main khaamosh naheen baith sakta, unase jyaada bahaadur aur saral aadmi mujhe maaloom naheen. unhonne hinsa ka prachaar naheen kiya jo kuchh kiya hai unase unka sammaan badhta hai.' 4 December 1941 ko achaanak lohiya ko riha kar diya gaya tatha desh ke anya jailon mein band Congress ke netaaon ko chhod diya gaya. 19 April 1942 ko harijn mein lohiya ka lekh 'vishvaasaghaati Japan ya aatmasantusht Britain' Gandhi ji dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya. Gandhi ji ne tippani ki ki meri ummeed hai ki sabhi sambandhit iske prati dhyaan deinge.

san 1942 mein Allahabad mein Congress ka adhiveshan hua, jahaan lohiya ne khulkar Nehru ka virodh kiya. iske baad almoda jila sammelan mein lohiya ne 'Nehru ko jhat palatane wala nat' kaha. Gandhi ji ke saath ek saptaah rahakar lohiya ne Gandhi ji ko vaaisaraaya ke naam patra likhne ke liye prerit kiya. jismein Gandhi ji ne likha ki ahinsaanisht soshalist dau॰ lohiya ne bhaarateeya shaharon ko bina police va fauj ke shahar ghoshit karne ki kalpana nikaali hai. lohiya ji ke dvaara duniya ki sabhi sarkaaron ko nai duniya ki buniyaad banaane ki yojana ki kalpana Gandhi ji ke saamane rakhi gayi, jismein ek desh ki doosare desh mein jo poonji lagi hai use jabt karna, sabhi logon ko sansaar mein kaheen bhi aane-jaane va basane ka adhikaar dena, duniya ke sabhi raashtron ko raajanaitik aajaadi tatha vishv naagarikta ki baat kahi gayi thi. Gandhi ji ne ise harijn mein chhaapa aur apni or se samarthan bhi kiya tatha angrejon ke khilaaf jaldi ladaai chhedne ko lekar Gandhi ji ne das din rookane ke liye lohiya ko kaha. das din baad 7 August 1942 ko Gandhiji ne teen ghante tak bhaashan dekar kaha, ki 'ham apni aajaadi ladkar praapt kareinge.' agale din 8 August ko 'Bhaarat chhodo' prastaav Mumbai mein bahumat se sveekrut hua. Gandhi ji ne karo ya maro ka sandesh diya.

Bhaarat chhodo aandolan

9 August 1942 ko jab Gandhi ji va anya Congress ke neta giraftaar kar liye gaye, tab lohiya ne bhoomigat rahakar 'Bhaarat chhodo aandolan' ko poore desh mein failaaya. lohiya, achyut patavardhan, saadik Ali, purooshottam tikram das, mohanalaal Saxena, raamanandan mishra, sadaashiv mahaadev Joshi, saane gurooji, kamalaadevi chattopaadhyaaya, Aruna aasifali, sucheta krupalaani aur poornima Bannerjee aadi netaaon ka kendreeya sanchaalan mandal banaaya gaya. lohiya par neeti nirdhaaran kar vichaar dene ka kaaryabhaar saunpa gaya. bhoomigat rahate hue 'jang joo aage badho, kraanti ki taiyaari karo, aajaad raajya kaise bane' jaisi pustikaaen likheen. 20 May 1944 ko lohiya ji ko Mumbai mein giraftaar kar liya gaya. giraftaari ke baad Lahore kile ki ek andheri kothari mein rakha gaya jahaan 14 varsh pehle bhagat Singh ko faansi di gayi thi. police dvaara lagaataar unhein yantrana di gayi, 15-15 din tak unhein sone naheen diya jaata tha. kisi se milne naheen diya gaya 4 maheene tak brush ya pest tak bhi naheen diya gaya. har samay hathakadi baandhe rakhi jaati thi. Lahore ke prasiddh vakeel jeevanalaal Kapoor dvaara haibiys kaarapas ki darakhaast lagaane par unhein tatha jayaprakaash Narayan ko state prijnar ghoshit kar diya gaya. mukadame ke chalte sarkaar ko lohiya ko padhne-likhne ki suvidha deni padi. pehla patra lohiya ne british lebar party ke adhyaksh pro॰ heraald J. laaski ko likha jismein unhonne poori sthiti ka vistrut byaura diya. 1945 mein lohiya ko Lahore se Agra jail bhej diya gaya. dviteeya vishvayuddh samaapt hone par Gandhi ji tatha Congress ke netaaon ko chhod diya gaya. keval lohiya va jayaprakaash hi jail mein the. isi beech angrejon ki sarkaar aur Congress ki beech samjhaute ki baatcheet shuroo ho gayi. England mein lebar party ki sarkaar ban gayi sarkaar ka pratinidhi mandal dau॰ lohiya se Agra jail mein milne aaya. is beech lohiya ke pita heeraalaal ji ki mrutyu ho gayi. kintu lohiya ji ne sarkaar ki krupa par perol par chhootane se inkaar kar diya.

11 April 1946 ko lohiya ko Agra jail se riha kar diya gaya. 15 June ko lohiya ne Goa ke panjim mein 'Goa mukti aandolan' ki pehli sabha li. lohiya ko 18 June ko Goa mukti aandolan ke shurooaat ke din hi giraftaar kar liya gaya. 14 August 1946 ko 'harijn' mein Gandhi ji ne likha ki, lohiya ko badhaai di jaani chaahiye. 30 December 1946 ko navaakhali mein hindu aur musalmaan ke beech ke avishvaas ko door karne mein Gandhi ji ke saath vistrut kaaryakram taiyaar kiya. poore saal navaakhali, Calcutta, Bihar, Delhi sabhi jagah lohiya Gandhi ji ke saath milkar saampradaayikta ki aag ko bujhaane ki koshish karte rahe. 9 August 1947 se lagaataar hinsa rokane ka prayaas chalta raha. 14 August ki raat ko hindu-muslim bhaai-bhaai ke naaron ke saath lohiya ne sabha ki. 31 August ko vaataavaran fir bigad gaya, Gandhi ji anashan par baith gaye tab lohiya ne dangaaiyon ke hathiyaar ikatthe karaae. lohiya ke prayaas se shaanti samiti ki sthaapana hui tatha 4 sitmbar ko Gandhi ji ne anashan toda. 29 sitmbar ko belagaanv mein lohiya ko fir giraftaar kar liya gaya. 26, 27, 28 fravari 1947 ko soshalist party ki kaaryakaarini ki baithak mein tatasth rahane ka nirnaya liya gaya.

svatantrata praapti ke baad

January 1947 mein lohiya ne nepaali raashtreeya Congress ko sthaapit karne tatha raanaashaahi ke viruddh satyaagrah praarambh karne ki pahal ki. 25 January 1948 ko Mumbai hadtaal ko lekar lohiya ji ne Gandhi ji se hadtaal ka samarthan maanga. 28 January ko Gandhi ji ne kaha ki kal aana kal pet bhar ki baat hogi. 30 January ko lohiya jab bidla bhavan ke liye nikle tab unhein Gandhi ji ki hatya ki khabar sunane ko mili. March 1948 mein Nasik sammelan mein soshalist dal ne Congress se alag hone ka nishchaya kiya. lohiya ki prerana se riyaasaton ki samaapti ka aandolan 650 risaasaton mein samaajavaadi chala rahe the. 2 January 1948 ko reeva mein 'hamein chunaav chaahiye vibhaajan radd karo' ke naare ke saath aandolan kiya gaya jismein police ne goli chalaai 4 aandolanakaari shaheed hue. 1949 ko soshalist party dvaara lohiya ke netrutv mein nepaali Congress ke poorv adhyaksh vishveshvar prasaad Koirala ke aamaran anashan tatha Nepal mein raanaashaahi ke atyaachaar ke khilaaf sabha ki gayi. nepaali dootaavaas ki or jab juloos badha tab laathi chaarj kiya gaya lohiya ko giraftaar kiya gaya. 20 June ko desh bhar mein lohiya diwas manaaya gaya. mukadame mein do maheene ki kaid hui. 3 July ko unhein riha kar diya gaya.

san 1949 mein Patna mein soshalist party ka doosra raashtreeya sammelan hua. isi sammelan mein lohiya ne 'chaukhanbha raajya' ki kalpana prastut ki. Patna mein 'hind kisaan panchaayat' ki sthaapana bhi hui jiska adhyaksh lohiya ko chuna gaya. 25 November 1949 ko Lucknow mein ek lakh kisaanon ne vishaal pradarshan kiya. 26 fravari 1950 ko reeva mein 'hind kisaan panchaayat' ka pehla raashtreeya adhiveshan hua. Delhi mein 3 June 1951 ko janavaani diwas par pradarshan kiya gaya. 'roji-roti kapda do naheen to gaddi chhod do', pradarshanakaariyon ka mukhya naara tha. 14 June 1951 ko saagar station mein lohiya ko giraftaar kar Bengaluru ke havaalaat mein band kar diya gaya. 3 July ko lohiya chhoote. 24 July ko ve vishv sarkaar ke samarthakon ke sammelan mein sveedan ki rajdhani staukahom gaye 17 saal baad ve pun: barlin pahunche. lohiya England, pashchim Africa, dakshin pashchim Asia ke kai deshon mein gaye; israayal se hokar 15 November ko svedash laute.

1951 mein lohiya ko 3 July ko samaajavaadiyon ke antararaashtreeya sammelan mein bulaaya gaya. sammelan mein Germany, yugoslaaviya, America, havaai, Japan, Hongkong, thaaidesh, Singapore malaaya, Indonesia tatha lanka bhi gaye. lohiya vishv prasiddh vaigyaanik aainstan se prinsatan mein mile. aainsteen ne kaha, ki 'kisi manushya se milna kitna achha hota hai aadmi kitna akela pad jaata hai.' lohiya ne amareeka mein saikadon sthaanon par bhaashan kiye. us samay unhonne Asia ki samast soshalist paartiyon ka sangathan nirmit karne ka vichaar banaaya. 25 March se 29 March 1952 mein Asiaee soshalist kaanfreins hui, lekin ismein lohiya shaamil naheen ho sake. jayaprakaash naraayan bhaarateeya pratinidhimandal ke neta ban kar rangoon gaye.

May 1952 mein panchamadhi mein soshalist party ka sammelan hua. aam chunaav mein haar ke baad lohiya ne chunaavon ki paraajaya ki shav pareeksha ke badle thos vichaaron ki or party ko le jaane ka vichaar diya. Gujarat party sammelan mein itihaas chakr ki nai vyaakhya lohiya dvaara prastut ki gayi. 24-25 sitmbar 1952 mein soshalist party ki general kaunsil baithak mein kisaan-majadoor praja party aur soshilist party ke vilay ka nirnaya liya gaya. is tarah praja soshalist party ka janm hua. 29 se 31 December 1953 ko praja soshalist party ka pehla sammelan Allahabad mein hua. vahaan lohiya ne Allahabad theesis prastut ki. lohiya ko unke mana karne ke baavajood party ka raashtreeya mahaamantri chuna gaya. 13-14 May 1954 ko uttar pradesh praja soshalist party dvaara nahar rate ki badhotri ke khilaaf aandolan shuroo kiya gaya. 4 July 1954 ko faarookhaabaad mein vaani svatantrata ke sangharsh ko lekar bhaashan diye jaane ke kaaran giraftaar kiya gaya. Nagpur mein 26-28 November 1954 ke beech Kerala goli kaand par vichaar karne ke liye sammelan hua. lohiya Kerala mantreemandal se isteefa maang chuke the. 31 December 1955 tatha 1 January 1956 ko soshalist party ka sthaapana hui. Lucknow mein lohiya ke netrutv mein ek lakh kisaanon ka pradarshan hua. 1956 mein lohiya ne "mainakaaind" naamak patrika shuroo ki. soshilist party ka pratham vaarshik adhiveshan Bhaarat ke madhya bindu Madhya Pradesh ke gram sihora mein 28, 29, 30 December 1956 ko hua. 2 November 1957 ko lohiya krimnal law emeindameind act ki dhaara 7 ki tahat daakiye se kuchh kehne par akaaran giraftaar kar liya gaya. 12 November 1958 ko lohiya poorvotar ke daure par nikle, jahaan unhein daura karne se rok diya gaya.

ek saal baad fir usi sthaan urvasiym (nefa) se lohiya ne poorvottar mein pravesh kiya, jahaan unhein giraftaar kar liya gaya. 17 April 1960 ko kaanupar ke sarkit house mein anaadhikrut pravesh karne ke kaaran aparaadh bataakar unhein pun: giraftaar kiya gaya. 1961 mein 'angreji hataao aandolan' ke dauraan lohiya ki sabha par Madras mein patthar barasaaye gaye. 1961 mein lohiya Athens, rom aur kaahira gaye. 1962 mein chunaav hua lohiya Nehru ke viruddh fulapur mein chunaav maidaan mein utare. 11 November 1962 ko Calcutta mein sabha kar lohiya ne Tibet ke savaal ko uthaaya. 1963 ke faarookhaabaad ke Loksabha upachunaav mein lohiya 58 hajaar maton se chunaav jeete. Loksabha mein lohiya ki teen aana banaam pandrah aana ki bahas atyant charchit rahi, jismein unhonne 18 karod aabaadi ke chaar aane par jindagi kaatne tatha pradhaanamantri par 25 hajaar rupae pratidin kharch karne ka aarop lagaaya. 9 August 1965 ko lohiya ko Bhaarat suraksha kaanoon ke antargat giraftaar kiya gaya.

dehaavasaan

30 sitmbar 1967 ko lohiya ko nai Delhi ke vilingdan aspataal ab jise lohiya aspataal kaha jaata hai ko pauroosh granthi ke operation ke liye bharti kiya gaya jahaan 12 October 1967 ko unka dehaant 57 varsh ki aayu mein ho gaya.

gair-kaangresavaad ke shilpi

desh mein gair-kaangresavaad ki alakh jagaane vaale mahaan svatantrata senaani aur samaajavaadi neta Ram manohar lohiya chaahate the ki duniyaabhar ke soshalist ekajut hokar majaboot manch banaae. lohiya bhaarateeya raajaneeti mein gair kaangresavaad ke shilpi the aur unke athak prayaason ka fal tha ki 1967 mein kai raajyon mein Congress ki paraajaya hui, haalaanki kendra mein Congress jaise-taise satta par kaabij ho paayi. haalaanki lohiya 1967 mein hi chal base lekin unhonne gair kaangresavaad ki jo vichaaradhaara chalaayi usi ki vajah se aage chalakar 1977 mein pehli baar kendra mein gair Congressi sarkaari bani. lohiya maanate the ki adhik samay tak satta mein rahakar Congress adhinaayakavaadi ho gayi thi aur vah uske khilaaf sangharsh karte rahe.

jaisi kathani vaisi karni

lohiya ke samaajavaadi aandolan ki sankalpana ke bhool mein anivaaryat: vichaar aur karm ki ubhaya upasthiti thi- jiske moortimant svaroop swayam dau॰ lohiya the aur aajanm unhonne 'karm aur vichaar' ki is sanyukti ko apne aacharan se jeevant udaaharan bhi prastat kiya.

angrejon ke khilaaf Bhaarat ke svaadheenata aandolan mein bhaag lene vaale tamaam vyaktitvon ki bhaanti lohiya prabhaavit bhi the. ve jail bhi gaye aur aisi yaatanaaen bhi saheen. aajaadi se poorv hi Congress ke bheetar unka soshalist group tha, lekin pandrah August saintaalis ko angrejon se mukti paane par ve ullasit to the lekin vibhaajan ki keemat par pai gayi is svatantrata ke kaaran Nehru aur Nehru ki Congress se unka raasta hamesha ke liye alag ho gaya. svatantrata ke naam par satta ki lipsa ka yeh khula khel lohiya ne apni nangi aankhon se dekha tha aur iseeliye svatantrata ke baad ki Congress party aur kaangresiyon ke prati unamein itna rosh aur kshobh tha ki unhein dhur dakshinpanthi aur vaamapanthiyon donon ko saath lena bhi unhein behtar vikalp hi prateet hua.

Bhaarat-vibhaajan par lohiya ke vichaar

us samay ki tamaam aisi ghatnaaon aur sthitiyon ka jinke prati ek aam bhaarateeya naagrik ke man mein bahut spasht aur taarkik vyaakhya naheen hai, lohiya ne apni pustak 'gilti main end India's paarteeshan' (Bhaarat vibhaajan ke gunahagaar) mein parad dar parat rahasyon ko khola hai. lekin hamaara durbhaagya hai ki us samay ke poore aankhon dekhe itihaas ko hi naheen, balki uske ek sakriya, jeevant paatr rahe lohiya ki baaton ko aajaad Bhaarat mein sattaaroodh dal dvaara ek vipakshi neta ki 'kheejh' se jyaada naheen samajhne diya gaya, jabki sachchaai yeh hai ki satta hastaantaran ke khel ki asaliyt sangrahaalayon mein dafan dastaavejon se jyaada lohiya jaise netaaon ko bhi maaloom thi jise hote hue unhonne apni aankhon se dekha tha.

maulik evam theth desi chintak

svatantrata praapti ke baad ke raajanetaaon mein lohiya maulik vichaarak the.[1] lohiya ke man mein bhaarateeya ganatantr ko lekar theth desi soch thi. apne itihaas, apni bhaasha ke sandarbh mein ve katai pashchim se koi siddhaant udhaar lekar vyaakhya karne ko raaji naheen the. san 1932 mein Germany se Ph.D. ki upaadhi praapt karne vaale raamamanohar lohiya ne saath ke dashak mein desh se angreji hataane ka jo aahvaan kiya. angreji hataao aandolan ki ganana ab tak ke kuchh ine gine aandolanon mein ki ja sakti hai. unke liye svabhaasha raajaneeti ka mudda naheen balki apne svaabhimaan ka prashn aur laakhon–karodon ko heen granthi se ubarakar aatmavishvaas se bhar dene ka svapn tha– ''main chaahoonga ki Hindustan ke saadhaaran log apne angreji ke ajnyaaan par lajaaen naheen, balki garv karein. is saamanti bhaasha ko unheen ke liye chhod dein jinke maan baap agar shareer se naheen to aatma se angrej rahe hain.''

halaanki lohiya bhi Germany yaani videsh se padhaai kar ke aae the, lekin unhein un prateekon ka ehsaas tha jinse is desh ki pehchaan hai. shivraatri par chitrakoot mein raamaayan mela unheen ki sankalpana thi, jo saubhaagya se abhi tak anvarat chala aa raha hai. aaj bhi jab chitrakoot ke us mele mein hajaaron bhookhe nange nirdhan bhaaratavaasiyon ki bheed svayamev jutati hai to lagta hai ki ye hi hain jinki chinta lohiya ko thi, lekin aaj inki chinta karne ke liye lohiya ke log kahaan hain?

raajaneetik shuchita ke pakshadhar

lohiya hi the jo raajaneeti ki gandi gali mein bhi shuddh aacharan ki baat karte the. ve ekamaatr aise raajaneta the jinhonne apni party ki sarkaar se khuleaam tyaagapatr ki maang ki, kyonki us sarkaar ke shaasan mein aandolanakaariyon par goli chalaai gayi thi. dhyaan rahe svaadheen Bhaarat mein kisi bhi raajya mein yeh pehli gair Congressi sarkaar thi– ''Hindustan ki raajaneeti mein tab safaai aur bhalaai aaegi jab kisi party ke kharaab kaam ki ninda usi party ke log karein.....aur mai yeh yaad dila doon ki mujhe yeh kehne ka hak hai ki ham hi Hindustan mein ek raajaneetik party hain jinhonne apni sarkaar ki bhi ninda ki thi aur sirf ninda hi naheen ki balki ek maayane mein usako itna tang kiya ki use hat jaana padaa.

karmaveer

lohiya ji keval chintak hi naheen, ek karmaveer bhi the. unhone anek saamaajik, saanskrutik evam raajanaitik aandolanon ka netrutv kiya. san 1942 mein Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ke samay usha Mehta ke saath milkar unhone gupt radio station chalaaya. 18 June 1946 ko goaa ko purtagaaliyon ke aadhiptya se mukti dilaane ke liye unhone aandolan aarambh kiya. angreji ko Bhaarat se hataane ke liye unhone angreji hataao aandolan chalaaya.

lekhan

Dr raamamanohar lohiya ne anekon vishyon par apne vichaar lekh evam pustakon ke roop mein prakaashit keen. unki kuchh rachanaaeain hain-

  • angreji hataao
  • itihaas chakr
  • desh, videsh neeti-kuchh pahaloo
  • dharm par ek drushti
  • bhaarateeya shilp
  • Bhaarat vibhaajan ke gunahagaar
  • maarksavaad aur samaajavaad
  • raag, jimmedaari ki bhaavana, anupaat ki samajh
  • samalakshya, samabodh
  • samadrushti
  • sach, karm, pratikaar aur charitra nirmaan aah‌aavaan
  • samaajavaadi chintan
  • sansadeeya aacharan
  • sampoorn aur sambhav baraabari aur doosare bhaashan
  • hindu banaam hindu

inhe bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain