raamachandr shukl

janm: 4 October, 1884
basti, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 2 February,1941
Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: saahityakaar, lekhak, nibandhakaar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: gadya
vishay: yaatraavrutt, sansmaran va nibandh
saahityik
aandolan
:
aalochanaaen, kaavya mein rahasyavaad, kaavya mein abhivyanjanaavaad, ras meemaansa
pramukh kruti(yaaain): hindi saahitya ka itihaas, chintaamani, hindi shabd saagar, naagari prachaarini patrika

aachaarya raamachandr shukl (4 October, 1884- 2 February, 1941) beesaveen shataabdi ke hindi ke pramukh saahityakaar hain. unka janm basti, uttar pradesh mein hua. unke dvaara likhi gayi sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn pustak hai hindi saahitya ka itihaas, jiske dvaara aaj bhi kaal nirdhaaran evam paathyakram nirmaan mein sahaayata li jaati hai. shukl ji ne itihaas lekhan mein rachanaakaar ke jeevan aur paath ko samaan mahatva diya. hindi mein paath aadhaarit vaigyaanik aalochna ka sootrapaat unheen ke dvaara hua. hindi nibandh ke kshetr mein bhi shukl ji ka mahatvapoorn yogadaan hai. bhaav, manovikaar sambandhit manovishleshanaatmak nibandh unke pramukh hastaakshar hain. unhonne praasangikta ke drushtikon se saahityik pratyayon evam ras aadi ki punarvyaakhya ki.[1]

anukram

jeevan parichay

aachaarya raamachandr shukl ka janm san. 1884 mein basti jile ke agona naamak gaanv mein hua tha. pita pan॰ chandrabali shukl ki niyukti sadar kaanoonago ke pad par mirjaapur mein hui to samast parivaar mirjaapur mein aakar rahane laga. jis samay shukl ji ki avastha nau varsh ki thi, unki maata ka dehaant ho gaya. maatru sukh ke abhaav ke saath-saath vimaata se milne vaale du:kh ne unke vyaktitv ko alpaayu mein hi paripakva bana diya. adhyayan ke prati lagnasheelata shukl ji mein baalyakaal se hi thi. kintu iske liye unhein anukool vaataavaran na mil saka. kisi tarah unhonne enntreins aur ef. A. ki pareekshaaen utteern keen. unke pita ki ichha thi ki shukl ji kachahari mein jaakar daftar ka kaam seekhein, kintu shukl ji uchch shiksha praapt karna chaahate the. pita ji ne unhein vakaalat padhne ke liye Allahabad bheja par unki ruchi vakaalat mein na hokar saahitya mein thi. at: parinaam yeh hua ki ve usamein anutteern rahe. shukl ji ke pitaaji ne unhein naayab tahaseeladaari ki jagah dilaane ka prayaas kiya, kintu unki svaabhimaani prakruti ke kaaran yeh sambhav na ho saka.[2]

shukl ji mirjaapur ke mission school mein adhyaapak ho gaye. isi samay se unke lekh patra-patrikaaon mein chhapane lage aur dheere-dheere unki vidvata ka yash chaaron or fail gaya. unki yogyata se prabhaavit hokar kaashi naagari prachaarini sabha ne unhein hindi shabd saagar ke sahaayak sampaadak ka kaarya-bhaar saunpa,[1] jise unhonne safalataapoorvak poora kiya. ve naagari prachaarini patrika ke bhi sampaadak rahe. shukl ji ne kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya mein hindi adhyaapan ka kaarya bhi kiya. babu shyaam sundar das ki mrutyu ke baad ve vahaan hindi vibhaag ke adhyaksh niyukt hue. 2 February, san 1941 ko hrudaya ki gati ruk jaane se shukl ji ka dehaant ho gaya. 30 September, 2008 ko Delhi ke pragati maidaan mein aayojit vishv pustak mele mein inki jeevani ka vimochan hua.[3]

krutiyaaain

shukl ji ki krutiyaaain teen prakaar ke hain.

  • maulik krutiyaaain teen prakaar ki hain--
    • aalochanaatmak granth : soor, tulasi, jaayasi par ki gayi aalochanaaen, kaavya mein rahasyavaad, kaavya mein abhivyanjanaavaad, ras meemaansa aadi shukl ji ki aalochanaatmak rachanaaen hain.
    • nibandhaatmak granth : unke nibandh chintaamani naamak granth ke do bhaagon mein sangraheet hain. chintaamani ke nibndhon ke atirikt shuklaji ne kuchh anya nibndh bhi likhe hain, jinmein mitrata, adhyayan aadi nibndh saamaanya vishyon par likhe gaye nibndh hain. mitrata nibndh jeevanopayogi vishay par likha gaya uchchakoti ka nibndh hai jismein shuklaji ki lekhan shaili gat visheshataayein jhalakati hain. krodh nibndh mein unhonne saamaajik jeevan me krodh ka kya mahatva hai, krodhi ki maanasikta-jaisai samabandhit pehaluo ka vishleshn kiya hai.
    • aitihaasik granth : hindi saahitya ka itihaas unka anootha aitihaasik granth hai.
  • anoodit krutiyaan

shukl ji ki anoodit krutiyaan kai hain. 'shashaank' unka bangala se anuvaadit upanyaas hai. iske atirikt unhonne angreji se vishvaprapanch, aadarsh jeevan, megasthaneej ka bhaaratavarsheeya varnan, kalpana ka aanand aadi rachanaaon ka anuvaad kiya.

  • sanpaadit krutiyaan

sanpaadit granthon mein hindi shabdasaagar, naagari prachaarini patrika, bhramarageet saar[4], soor, tulasi jaayasi granthaavali ullekhaneeya hai.

varnya vishay

shukl ji ne praay: saahityik aur manovaigyaanik nibandh likhe hain. saahityik nibandhon ke 3 bhaag kiye ja sakte hain -

saiddhaantik aalochanaatmak nibandh- 'kavita kya hai'. 'kaavya mein lok mangal ki saadhanaavastha', 'saadhaaraneekaran aur vyakti vaichiyvaad', aadi nibandh saidhdaantik aalochna ke antargat aate hain. aalochna ke saath-saath anveshan aur gaveshana karne ki pravrutti bhi shukl ji mein paryaapt maatra mein hai. 'hindi saahitya ka itihaas' unki isi pravrutti ka parinaam hai.

vyavahaarik aalochanaatmak nibandh- bhaarateindu harishchandr, tulasi ka bhakti maarg, maanas ki dharm bhoomi aadi nibandh vyaavahaarik aalochna ke antargat aate hain.

manovaigyaanik nibandh- manovaigyaanik nibandhon mein karuna, shradhda, bhakti, lajja, glaani, krodh, lobh, preeti aadi bhaavon tatha manovikaaron par likhe gaye nibandh aate hain. shukl ji ke ye manovaigyaanik nibandh sarvatha maulik hain. unki bhaanti kisi bhi anya lekhak ne uparyukt vishyon par itni praudhta ke saath naheen likha. shukl ji ke nibandhon mein unki abhiruchi, vichaar dhaara adhyayan aadi ka poora-poora samaavesh hai. ve lokaadarsh ke pakke samarthak the. is samarthan ki chhaap unki rachanaaon mein sarvatr milti hai.

bhaasha

shukl ji ke gadya-saahitya ki bhaasha khadi boli hai aur uske praay: do roop milte hain -

  • klisht aur jatil
gambhir vishyon ke varnan tatha aalochanaatmak nibandhon ke bhaasha ka klisht roop milta hai. vishay ki gambheerta ke kaaran aisa hona svaabhaavik bhi hai. gambhir vishyon ko vyakt karne ke liye jis sanyam aur shakti ki aavashyakta hoti hai, vah poornat: vidyamaan hai. at: is prakaar ko bhaasha klisht aur jatil hote hue bhi spasht hai. usamein sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ki adhikta hai.
  • saral aur vyavahaarik
bhaasha ka saral aur vyavahaarik roop shukl ji ke manovaigyaanik nibandhon mein milta hai. ismein hindi ke prachalit shabdon ko hi adhik grahan kiya gaya hai yatha sthaan urdoo aur angreji ke atiprachalit shabdon ka bhi prayog hua hai. bhaasha ko adhik saral aur vyavahaarik banaane ke liye shukl ji ne tadk-bhadak atakal-pachchoo aadi graameen bolachaal ke shabdon ko bhi apnaaya hai. tatha nau din chale adhaai kos, jiski laathi usaki bhains, pet foolana, kaaton par chalana aadi kahaavaton va muhaavaron ka bhi prayog nissankoch hokar kiya hai.

shukl ji ka donon prakaar ki bhaasha par poorn adhikaar tha. vah atyant sanbhat, parimaarjit, praudh aur vyaakaran ki drushti se poorn nirdosh hai. usamein ranchamaatr bhi shithilta naheen. shabd motiyon ki bhaanti vaakyon ke sootr mein gunthe hue hain. ek bhi shabd nirrthak naheen, pratyek shabd ka apna poorn mahatva hai.

shaili

shukl ji ki shaili par unke vyaktitv ki poori-poori chhaap hai. yahi kaaran hai ki pratyek vaakya pukaar kar kah deta hai ki vah unka hai. saamaanya roop se shukl ji ki shaili atyant praudh aur maulik hai. usamein gaagar mein saagar poorn roop se vidyamaan hai. shukl ji ki shaili ke mukhyat: teen roop hain -

  • aalochanaatmak shaili
shukl ji ne apne aalochanaatmak nibandh isi shaili mein likhe hain. is shaili ki bhaasha gambhir hai. unamein sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ki adhikta hai. vaakya chhote-chhote, sanyat aur maarmik hain. bhaavon ki abhivyakti is prakaar hui hai ki unako samajhne mein kisi prakaar ki kathinaai naheen hoti.
  • gaveshanaatmak shaili
is shaili mein shukl ji ne naveen khojapoorn nibandhon ki rachana ki hai. aalochanaatmak shaili ki apeksha yeh shaili adhik gambhir aur durooh hai. ismein bhaasha klisht hai. vaakya bade-bade hain aur muhaavaron ka nitaant abhaav hai.
  • bhaavaatmak shaili
shukl ji ke manovaigyaanik nibandh bhaavaatmak shaili mein likhe gaye hain. yeh shaili gadya-kaavya ka sa aanand deti hai. is shaili ki bhaasha vyavahaarik hai. bhaavon ki aavashyakataanusaar chhote aur bade donon hi prakaar ke vaakyon ko apnaaya gaya hai. bahut se vaakya to sookti roop mein prayukt hue hain. jaise - bair krodh ka achaar ya murabba hai.

inke atirikt shukl ji ke nibandhon mein nigman padhdati, alankaar yojana, tukadaar shabd, haasya-vyangya, moortimtta aadi anya shaileegat visheshataaen bhi milti hain.

saahitya mein sthaan

shukl ji hindi saahitya ke keerti stambh hain. hindi mein vaigyaanik aalochna ka sootrapaat unheen ke dvaara hua. tulasi, soor aur jaayasi ki jaisi nishpaksh, maulik aur vidvattaapoorn aalochanaaen unhonne prastut ki vaisi abhi tak koi naheen kar saka. shukl ji ki ye aalochanaaen hindi saahitya ki anupam vidhiyaan hain. nibandh ke kshetr mein shukl ji ka sthaan bahut ooncha hai. ve shreshth aur maulik nibandhakaar the. hindi mein gadya -shaili ke sarvashreshth prasthaapakon mein aachaarya raamachandr shukl ji ka naam sarvopari hai. unhonne apne drushtikon se bhaav, vibhaav, ras aadi ki punavyaakhya ki, saath hi saath vibhinn bhaavon ki vyaakhya mein unka paanditya, maulikta aur sookshm paryavekshan pag -pag par dikhaai deta hai. hindi ki saidhaantik aalochna ko parichay aur saamaanya vivechan ke dharaatal se oopar uthaakar gambhir svarup pradaan karne ka shreya shukl ji ko hi hai. "kaavya mein rahasyavaad" nibandh par inhein hindustaani academy se 500 rupaye ka tatha chintaamani par hindi saahitya sammalen, prayaag dvaara 1200 rupaye ka mangala prashaad paaritoshik praapt hua tha.[1]

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa i sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; .E0.A4.B9.E0.A4.BF.E0.A4.A8.E0.A5.8D.E0.A4.A6.E0.A5.80_.E0.A4.95.E0.A5.81.E0.A4.9E.E0.A5.8D.E0.A4.9C naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. aachaarya raamachandr shukl par pustak ka lokaarpan daits hindi par
  3. "aachaarya raamachandr shukl pustak ka vimochan" (hindi mein). presanot.in. 30. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. http://www.pressnote.in.
  4. aachaarya raamachandr shukl, bhramar geet saar, vishvavidyaalaya prakaashan, 05 March 2007.

baahari kadiyaaain