raamaayan

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

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hindu maapan pranaali

raamaayan [k] aadi kavi vaalmeeki dvaara likha gaya sanskrut ka ek anupam mahaakaavya hai. iske 24,000 shlok[kh] hain. yeh hindu smruti ka vah ang hain jiske maadhyam se raghuvansh ke raaja Ram ki gaatha kahi gayi. ise aadikaavya bhi kaha jaata hai[kiske dvaara?]. raamaayan ke saat adhyaaya hain jo kaand ke naam se jaane jaate hain.

anukram

rachanaakaal

kuchh bhaarateeya kehte hain ki yeh 600 ipoo se pehle likha gaya.[1] uske peechhe yukti yeh hai ki mahaabhaarat jo iske pashchaat aaya bauddh dharm ke baare mein maun hai yadyapi usamein jain, shaiv, paashupat aadi anya paramparaaon ka varnan hai. at: raamaayan Gautam buddh ke kaal ke poorv ka hona chaahiye. bhaasha-shaili se bhi yeh paanini ke samay se pehle ka hona chaahiye.

raamaayan ka pehla aur antim kaand sambhavat: baad mein joda gaya tha. adhyaaya do se saat tak jyaadaatar is baat par bal diya jaata hai ki Ram vishnu[g] ke avataar the. kuchh logon ke anusaar is mahaakaavya mein yoonaani aur kai anya sandarbhon se pata chalta hai ki yeh pustak doosari sadi isa poorv se pehle ki naheen ho sakti par yeh dhaarana vivaadaaspad hai. 600 ipoo se pehle ka samay isaliye bhi theek hai ki bauddh jaatak raamaayan ke paatron ka varnan karte hain jabki raamaayan mein jaatak ke charitron ka varnan naheen hai.[1]

hindu kaalaganana ke anusaar rachanaakaal

raamaayan ka samay tretaayug ka maana jaata hai. bhaarateeya kaalaganana ke anusaar samay ko chaar yugon mein baaainta gaya hai- satayug, tretaayug, dvaapar yug ev kaliyug. ek kaliyug 4,32,000 varsh ka, dvaapar 8,64,000 varsh ka, treta yug 12,96,000 varsh ka tatha satayug 17,28,000 varsh ka hota hai. is ganana ke anusaar raamaayan ka samay nyoonatam 8,70,000 varsh (vartamaan kaliyug ke 5,250 varsh + beete dvaapar yug ke 8,64,000 varsh) siddh hota hai. bahut se vidvaan iska taatparya isa poo. 8,000 se lagaate hai jo aadhaaraheen hai. anya vidvaan ise isse bhi puraana maanate hain.

raamakatha ka katha

sanaatan dharm ke dhaarmik lekhak tulaseedaas ji ke anusaar sarvapratham shri Ram ki katha Bhagwan shri shankar ne maata paarvati ji ko sunaayi thi. jahaaain par Bhagwan shankar paarvati ji ko Bhagwan shri Ram ki katha suna rahe the vahaaain kaaga (kauva) ka ek ghosala tha aur uske bheetar baitha kaaga bhi us katha ko sun raha tha. katha poori hone ke pehle hi maata paarvati ko neend aa gayi par us pakshi ne poori katha sun li. usi pakshi ka punarjanm kaakabhushundi[gh] ke roop mein hua. kaakabhushundi ji ne yeh katha garud ji ko sunaai. Bhagwan shri shankar ke mukh se nikli shreeraam ki yeh pavitra katha adhyaatm raamaayan ke naam se prakhyaat hai. adhyaatm raamaayan ko hi vishv ka sarvapratham raamaayan maana jaata hai.

hrudaya parivartan ho jaane ke kaaran ek dasyu se rishi ban jaane tatha jnyaaanapraapti ke baad vaalmeeki ne Bhagwan shri Ram ke isi vrutaant ko pun: shlokabaddh kiya. maharshi vaalmeeki ke dvaara shlokabaddh Bhagwan shri Ram ki katha ko vaalmeeki raamaayan ke naam se jaana jaata hai. vaalmeeki ko aadikvi kaha jaata hai tatha vaalmeeki raamaayan ko aadi raamaayan ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.

desh mein videshiyon ki satta ho jaane ke baad sanskrut ka hraas ho gaya[krupaya uddharan jodein] aur bhaarateeya log uchit gyaan ke abhaav tatha videshi satta ke prabhaav ke kaaran apni hi sanskruti ko bhoolane lag gaye.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aisi sthiti ko atyant vikt jaanakar janajaagaran ke liye mahaajnyaaani sant shri tulaseedaas ji ne ek baar fir se Bhagwan shri Ram ki pavitra katha ko desi bhaasha mein lipibddh kiya. sant tulaseedaas ji ne apne dvaara likhit Bhagwan shri Ram ki kalyaanakaari katha se paripoorn is granth ka naam raamacharitmaanas[ङ] rakha. saamaanya roop se raamacharitmaanas ko tulasi raamaayan ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

kaalaantar mein Bhagwan shri Ram ki katha ko anek vidvaanon ne apne apne buddhi, gyaan tatha mataanusaar anek baar likha hai. is tarah se anekon raamaayanon ki rachanaaeain hui hain.

sankshep mein raamaayan-katha

hindu shaastron ke anusaar Bhagwan Ram, vishnu ke avataar the. is avataar ka uddeshya mrutyulok mein maanavajaati ko aadarsh jeevan ke liye maargadarshan dena tha. antat: shreeraam ne raakshas jaati[ch] ke raaja raavan ka vadh kiya aur dharm ki punarsthaapana ki.

baalakaand

ayodhya nagari mein dasharath naam ke raaja huye jinki kaushalya, kaikeyi aur sumitra naamak patniyaaain theen. santaan praapti hetu ayodhyaapati dasharath ne apne guru shri vashishth ki aajnyaa se putrakaameshti yagya karavaaya[2] jise ki ringi rishi ne sampann kiya. bhaktipoorn aahutiyaaain paakar agnidev prasann huye aur unhonne swayam prakat hokar raaja dasharath ko havishyapaatr (kheer, paayas) diya jise ki unhonne apni teenon patniyon mein baaaint diya. kheer ke sevan ke parinaamasvaroop kaushalya ke garbh se Ram ka, kaikeyi ke garbh se bharat ka tatha sumitra ke garbh se Lakshman aur shatrughn ka janm hua.

seeta svanyavar (chitrakaar: ravi varma)

raajakumaaron ke bade hone par aashram ki raakshason se raksha hetu rishi vishvaamitr raaja dasharath se Ram aur Lakshman ko maang kar apne saath le gaye. Ram ne taadka aur subaahu jaise raakshason ko maar daala aur maareech ko bina fal vaale baan[3] se maar kar samudra ke paar bhej diya. udhar Lakshman ne raakshason ki saari sena ka sanhaar kar daala. dhanushayajnya hetu raaja janak ke nimntran milne par vishvaamitr Ram aur Lakshman ke saath unki nagari mithila (janakapur) aa gaye. raaste mein Ram ne Gautam muni ki stri ahalya ka uddhaar kiya. mithila mein raaja janak ki putri seeta jinhein ki jaanki ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai ka svayanvar ka bhi aayojan tha jahaaain ki janakapratijnyaa ke anusaar shivdhanush ko tod kar Ram ne seeta se vivaah kiya. Ram aur seeta ke vivaah ke saath hi saath guru vashishth ne bharat ka maandavi se, Lakshman ka urmila se aur shatrughn ka shrutakeerti se karva diya.[4]

ayodhyaakaand

Ram ke vivaah ke kuchh samay pashchaat raaja dasharath ne Ram ka raajyaabhishek karna chaaha. is par devata logon ko chinta hui ki Ram ko raajya mil jaane par raavan ka vadh asambhav ho jaayega. vyaakul hokar unhonne devi sarasvati se kisi prakaar ke upaaya karne ki praarthana ki. sarasvati nein manthara, jo ki kaikeyi ki daasi thi, ki buddhi ko fer diya. manthara ki salaah se kaikeyi kopabhavan mein chali gayi. dasharath jab manaane aaye to kaikeyi ne unase varadaan[5] maange ki bharat ko raaja banaaya jaaye aur Ram ko chaudah varshon ke liye vanavaas mein bhej diya jaaye.

Ram ke saath seeta aur Lakshman bhi van chale gaye. ringaverapur mein nishaadaraaj guh ne teenon ki bahut seva ki. kuchh aanaakaani karne ke baad kevat ne teenon ko ganga nadi ke paar utaara. prayaag pahuainch kar Ram ne bharadvaaj muni se bheint ki. vahaaain se Ram yamuna snaan karte huye vaalmeeki rishi ke aashram pahuainche. vaalmeeki se hui mantrana ke anusaar Ram, seeta aur Lakshman chitrakoot mein nivaas karne lage.

ayodhya mein putr ke viyog ke kaaran dasharath ka svargavaas ho gaya. vashishth ne bharat aur shatrughn ko unke nanihaal se bulava liya. vaapas aane par bharat ne apni maata kaikeyi ki, usaki kutilta ke liye, bahut bhartasna ki aur gurujanon ke aajnyaaanusaar dasharath ki antyeshti kriya kar diya. bharat ne ayodhya ke raajya ko asveekaar kar diya aur Ram ko mana kar vaapas laane ke liye samast sneheejanon ke saath chitrakoot chale gaye. kaikeyi ko bhi apne kiye par atyant pashchaataap hua. seeta ke maata-pita sunayana evam janak[6] bhi chitrakoot pahuainche. bharat tatha anya sabhi logon ne Ram ke vaapas ayodhya jaakar raajya karne ka prastaav rakha jise ki Ram ne, pita ki aajnyaa paalan karne aur raghuvansh ki reeti nibhaane ke liye, amaanya kar diya.

bharat apne snehi janon ke saath Ram ki paaduka ko saath lekar vaapas ayodhya aa gaye. unhonne Ram ki paaduka ko raaj sinhaasan par viraajit kar diya swayam nandigraam mein nivaas karne lage.[7]

aranyakaand

kuchh kaal ke pashchaat Ram ne chitrakoot se prayaan kiya tatha ve atri rishi ke aashram pahuainche. atri ne Ram ki stuti ki aur unki patni anasooya ne seeta ko paativrat dharm ke marm samajhaaye. vahaaain se fir Ram ne aage prasthaan kiya aur sharabhang muni se bheint ki. sharabhang muni keval Ram ke darshan ki kaamna se vahaaain nivaas kar rahe the at: Ram ke darshanon ki apni abhilaasha poorn ho jaane se yogaagni se apne shareer ko jala daala aur brahmalok ko gaman kiya. aur aage badhne par Ram ko sthaan sthaan par haddiyon ke dher dikhaai pade jinke vishay mein muniyon ne Ram ko bataaya ki raakshason ne anek muniyon ko kha daala hai aur unheen muniyon ki haddiyaaain hain. is par Ram ne pratijnyaa ki ki ve samast raakshason ka vadh karke pruthvi ko raakshas viheen kar deinge. Ram aur aage badhe aur path mein suteekshn, agastya aadi rishiyon se bheint karte huye dandak van mein pravesh kiya jahaaain par unki mulaakaat jataayu se hui. Ram ne panchavati ko apna nivaas sthaan banaaya.

seeta haran (chitrakaar: ravi varma)

panchavati mein raavan ki bahan shoorpanakha ne aakar Ram se pranaya nivedan-kiya. Ram ne yeh kah kar ki ve apni patni ke saath hain aur unka chhota bhaai akela hai use Lakshman ke paas bhej diya. Lakshman ne uske pranaya-nivedan ko asveekaar karte huye shatru ki bahan jaan kar uske naak aur kaan kaat liye. shoorpanakha ne khar-dooshan se sahaayata ki maang ki aur vah apni sena ke saath ladne ke liye aa gaya. ladaai mein Ram ne khar-dooshan aur usaki sena ka sanhaar kar daala.[8] shoorpanakha ne jaakar apne bhaai raavan se shikaayat ki. raavan ne badla lene ke liye maareech ko svarnamrug bana kar bheja jiski chhaal ki maang seeta ne Ram se ki. Lakshman ko seeta ke raksha ki aajnyaa de kar Ram svarnamrug roopi maareech ko maarane ke liye uske peechhe chale gaye. maareech ke haathon maara gaya par marate marate maareech ne Ram ki aavaaj bana kar 'ha Lakshman' ka krandan kiya jise sun kar seeta ne aashankaavash hokar Lakshman ko Ram ke paas bhej diya. Lakshman ke jaane ke baad akeli seeta ka raavan ne chhalapoorvak haran kar liya aur apne saath lanka le gaya. raaste mein jataayu ne seeta ko bachaane ke liye raavan se yuddh kiya aur raavan ne uske pankh kaatkar use adhamara kar diya.[9]

seeta ko na pa kar Ram atyant dukhi huye aur vilaap karne lage. raaste mein jataayu se bheint hone par usane Ram ko raavan ke dvaara apni durdasha hone va seeta ko har kar dakshin disha ki or le jaane ki baat bataai. ye sab bataane ke baad jataayu ne apne praan tyaag diye aur Ram usaka antim sanskaar karke seeta ki khoj mein saghan van ke bheetar aage badhe. raaste mein Ram ne durvaasa ke shaap ke kaaran raakshas bane gandharv kabandh ka vadh karke usaka uddhaar kiya aur shabari ke aashram ja pahuainche jahaaain par ki uske dvaara diye gaye jhoothe beron ko uske bhakti ke vash mein hokar khaaya. is prakaar Ram seeta ki khoj mein saghan van ke andar aage badhte gaye.

kishkindhaakaand

Ram rishyamook parvat ke nikat aa gaye. us parvat par apne mantriyon sahit sugreev rahata tha. sugreev ne, is aashanka mein ki kaheen baali ne use maarane ke liye un donon veeron ko na bheja ho, hanumaan ko Ram aur Lakshman ke vishay mein jaankaari lene ke liye braahman ke roop mein bheja. yeh jaanane ke baad ki unhein baali ne naheen bheja hai hanumaan ne Ram aur sugreev mein mitrata karva di. sugreev ne Ram ko saantvana di ki jaanki ji mil jaayeingeen aur unhein khojane mein vah sahaayata dega saath hi apne bhaai baali ke apne oopar kiye gaye atyaachaar ke vishay mein bataaya. Ram ne baali ka chhalapoorvak vadh kar ke sugreev ko kishkindha ka raajya tatha baali ke putr angad ko Yuvraj ka pad de diya.[10]

raajya praapti ke baad sugreev vilaas mein lipt ho gaya aur varsha tatha sharad ritu vyateet ho gayi. Ram ke naaraajagi par sugreev ne vaanaron ko seeta ki khoj ke liye bheja. seeta ki khoj mein gaye vaanaron ko ek gufa mein ek tapasvini ke darshan huye. tapasvini ne khoj dal ko yogashakti se samudratat par pahuaincha diya jahaaain par unki bheint sampaati se hui. sampaati ne vaanaron ko bataaya ki raavan ne seeta ko lanka ashokavaatika mein rakha hai. jaambavant ne hanumaan ko samudra laanghane ke liye utsaahit kiya.

sundarakaand

hanumaan ne lanka ki or prasthaan kiya. surasa ne hanumaan ki pareeksha li[11] aur use yogya tatha saamarthyavaan paakar aasheervaad diya. maarg mein hanumaan ne chhaaya pakadne waali raakshasi ka vadh kiya aur lankini par prahaar karke lanka mein pravesh kiya. unki vibheeshan se bheint hui. jab hanumaan ashokavaatika mein pahuainche to raavan seeta ko dhamaka raha tha. raavan ke jaane par trijta ne seeta ko saantavana di. ekaant hone par hanumaan ne seeta se bheint karke unhein Ram ki mudrika di. hanumaan ne ashokavaatika ka vidhvans karke raavan ke putr Akshay Kumar ka vadh kar diya. meghanaath hanumaan ko naagapaash mein baandh kar raavan ki sabha mein le gaya.[12] raavan ke prashn ke uttar mein hanumaan ne apna parichay Ram ke doot ke roop mein diya. raavan ne hanumaan ki pooainchh mein tel mein dooba hua kapda baandh kar aag laga diya is par hanumaan ne lanka ka dahan kar diya.[13]

hanumaan seeta ke paas pahuainche. seeta ne apni choodaamani de kar unhein vida kiya. ve vaapas samudra paar aakar sabhi vaanaron se mile aur sabhi vaapas sugreev ke paas chale gaye. hanumaan ke kaarya se Ram atyant prasann huye. Ram vaanaron ki sena ke saath samudratat par pahuainche. udhar vibheeshan ne raavan ko samajhaaya ki Ram se bair na lein is par raavan ne vibheeshan ko apamaanit kar lanka se nikaal diya. vibheeshan Ram ke sharan mein aa gaya aur Ram ne use lanka ka raaja ghoshit kar diya. Ram ne samudra se raasta dene ki vinti ki. vinti na maanane par Ram ne krodh kiya aur unke krodh se bhayabheet hokar samudra ne swayam aakar Ram ki vinti karne ke pashchaat nal aur neel ke dvaara pul banaane ka upaaya bataaya.

lankaakaand (yuddhakaand)

jaambavant ke aadesh se nal-neel donon bhaaiyon ne vaanar sena ki sahaayata se samudra par pul baandh diya.[14] shri Ram ne shri raameshvar ki sthaapana karke Bhagwan shankar ki pooja ki aur sena sahit samudra ke paar utar gaye. samudra ke paar jaakar Ram ne dera daala. pul bandh jaane aur Ram ke samudra ke paar utar jaane ke samaachaar se raavan man mein atyant vyaakul hua. mandodari ke Ram se bair na lene ke liye samajhaane par bhi raavan ka ahankaar naheen gaya. idhar Ram apni vaanarasena ke saath subel parvat par nivaas karne lage. angad Ram ke doot ban kar lanka mein raavan ke paas gaye aur use Ram ke sharan mein aane ka sandesh diya kintu raavan ne naheen maana.

shaanti ke saare prayaas asafal ho jaane par yuddh aarambh ho gaya. Lakshman aur meghanaad ke madhya ghor yuddh hua. shaktibaan ke vaar se Lakshman moorkshit ho gaye. unke upachaar ke liye hanumaan sushen vaidya ko le aaye aur sanjeevani laane ke liye chale gaye. guptachar se samaachaar milne par raavan ne hanumaan ke kaarya mein baadha ke liye kaalanemi ko bheja jiska hanumaan ne vadh kar diya. aushadhi ki pehchaan na hone ke kaaran hanumaan poore parvat ko hi utha kar vaapas chale. maarg mein hanumaan ko raakshas hone ke sandeh mein bharat ne baan maar kar moorkshit kar diya parantu yathaarth jaanane par apne baan par bitha kar vaapas lanka bhej diya. idhar aushadhi aane mein vilamb dekh kar Ram pralaap karne lage. sahi samay par hanumaan aushadhi lekar aa gaye aur sushen ke upachaar se Lakshman svasth ho gaye.[15]

raavan ne yuddh ke liye kumbhakarn ko jagaaya. kumbhakarn ne bhi raavan ke sharan mein jaane ki asafal mantrana di. yuddh mein kumbhakarn ne Ram ke haathon paramagati praapt ki. Lakshman ne meghanaad se yuddh karke usaka vadh kar diya. Ram aur raavan ke madhya anekon ghor yuddh huye aur ant mein raavan Ram ke haathon maara gaya.[16] vibheeshan ko lanka ka raajya saunp kar Ram seeta aur Lakshman ke saath pushpakavimaan par chadh kar ayodhya ke liye prasthaan kiya.[17]

uttarakaand

uttarakaand Ram katha ka upasanhaar hai. seeta, Lakshman aur samast vaanarasena ke saath Ram ayodhya vaapas pahuainche. Ram ka bhavya svaagat hua, bharat ke saath sarvajanon mein aanand vyaapt ho gaya. vedon aur Shiv ki stuti ke saath Ram ka raajyaabhishek hua. abhyaagaton ki vidaai di gayi. Ram ne praja ko upadesh diya aur praja ne krutajnyaata prakat ki. chaaron bhaaiyon ke do do putr huye. raamaraajya ek aadarsh ban gaya.

uparokt baaton ke saath hi saath Goswami tulaseedaas ji ne uttarakaand mein shri Ram-vashishth samvaad, naarad ji ka ayodhya aakar raamachandr ji ki stuti karna, Shiv-paarvati samvaad, garud moh tatha garud ji ka kaakabhushundi ji se raamakatha evam Ram-mahima sunana, kaakabhushundi ji ke poorvajanm ki katha, gyaan-bhak‍aati niroopan, jnyaaanadeepak aur bhak‍aati ki mahaan mahima, garud ke saat prash‍aan aur kaakabhushundi ji ke uttar aadi vishyon ka bhi vistrut varnan kiya hai.

jahaaain tulaseedaas ji ne uparokt varnan likhkar raamacharitmaanas ko samapt kar diya hai vaheen aadikvi vaalmeeki apne raamaayan mein uttarakaand mein raavan tatha hanumaan ke janm ki katha,[18] seeta ka nirvaasan,[19] raaja nrug, raaja nimi, raaja yayaati tatha raamaraajya mein kutte ka nyaaya ki upakathaayein,[20] lavakush ka janm,[21] Ram ke dvaara ashvamegh yagya ka anushthaan tatha us yagya mein unke putron love tatha kush ke dvaara mahaakavi vaalmik rachit raamaayan gaayan, seeta ka rasaatal pravesh,[22] Lakshman ka parityaag,[23] 515 518 ka bhi varnan kiya hai. vaalmeeki raamaayan mein uttarakaand ka samaapan Ram ke mahaaprayaan ke baad hi hua hai.[24]

raamaayan ki seekh

raamaayan ke saare charitra apne dharm ka paalan karte hain.

  • Ram ek aadarsh putr hain. pita ki aajnyaa unke liye sarvopari hai. pati ke roop mein Ram ne sadaiv ekapatneevrat ka paalan kiya. raaja ke roop mein praja ke hit ke liye swayam ke hit ko heya samajhte hain. vilkshan vyaktitv hai unka. ve atyant veeryavaan, tejasvi, vidvaan, dhairyasheel, jitendriya, buddhimaan, sundar, paraakrami, dushton ka daman karne vaale, yuddh evam neetikushal, dharmaatma, maryaadaapurushottam, prajaavatsal, sharanaagat ko sharan dene vaale, sarvashaastron ke jnyaaata evam pratibha sampann hain.
  • seeta ka paativrat mahaan hai. saare vaibhav aur aishvavarya ko thukara kar ve pati ke saath van chali gain.
  • raamaayan bhaatru-prem ka bhi utkrusht udaaharan hai. jahaaain bade bhaai ke prem ke kaaran Lakshman unke saath van chale jaate hain vaheen bharat ayodhya ki raaj gaddi par, bade bhaai ka adhikaar hone ke kaaran, swayam na baith kar Ram ki paaduka ko pratishthit kar dete hain.
  • kaushalya ek aadarsh maata hain. apne putr Ram par kaikeyi ke dvaara kiye gaye anyaaya ko bhula kar ve kaikeyi ke putr bharat par utani hi mamata rakhati hain jitni ki apne putr Ram par.
  • hanumaan ek aadarsh bhakt hain, ve Ram ki seva ke liye anuchar ke samaan sadaiv tatpar rahate hain. shaktibaan se moorhit Lakshman ko unki seva ke kaaran hi praanadaan praapt hota hai.
  • raavan ke charitra se seekh milti hai ki ahankaar naash ka kaaran hota hai.

raamaayan ke charitron se seekh lekar manushya apne jeevan ko saarthak bana sakta hai.

raamaayan dvaara prerit anya saahityik mahaakaavya

vaalmeeki raamaayan se prerit hokar sant tulaseedaas ne raamacharitmaanas jaise mahaakaavya ki rachana ki jo ki vaalmeeki ke dvaara sanskrut mein likhe gaye raamaayan ka hindi sanskaran hai. raamacharitmaanas mein hindu aadarshon ka utkrusht varnan hai iseeliye ise hindu dharm ke pramukh granth hone ka shreya mila hua hai aur pratyek hindu parivaar mein bhaktibhaav ke saath iska pathan paathan kiya jaata hai.

raamaayan se hi prerit hokar maithileesharan gupt ne panchavati tatha saaket naamak khandakaavyon ki rachana ki. raamaayan mein Lakshman ki patni urmila ke ullekhaneeya tyaag ko shaayad bhoolavash anadekha kar diya gaya hai aur is bhool ko saaket khandakaavya rachakar maithileesharan gupt ji ne sudhaara hai.

inke alaava aur bhi anek saahityakaaron ne raamaayan se prerana le kar anek krutiyon ki rachana ki hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

teeka-tippani

k. ^ 'raamaayan' ka sandhi vichhed karne hai 'Ram' + 'ayan'. 'ayan' ka arth hai 'yaatra' isaliye raamaayan ka arth hai Ram ki yaatra.
kh. ^ ismein 4,80,002 shabd hain jo mahaabhaarat ka chauthaai hai.
g. ^ padmapuraan, shreemadbhaagavat puraan, koormapuraan, mahaabhaarat, aanand raamaayan, dashaavataaracharit evam raamacharitmaanas mein Ram ke vishnu ka avataar hone ka spasht ullekh hai, kintu vaalmeeki raamaayan mein keval iska sanket maatr hi hai.
gh. ^ kaakabhushundi ki vistrut katha ka varnan tulaseedaas ji ne raamacharitmaanas ke uttarakaand ke doha kramaank 96 se doha kramaank 115 tak mein kiya hai.
ङ. ^ raamacharitmaanas = Ram + charit + maanas, raamacharitmaanas ka arth hai Ram ke charitra ka sarovar. raamacharitmaanas ke baalakaand ke doha kramaank 35 se doha kramaank 42 mein tulaseedaas ji ne is sarovar ke svaroop ka varnan kiya hai.
ch. ^ “aaachaarya chaturasena” ne apne granth 'vayan rakshaam:' mein raakshasajaati evam raakshas sanskruti ka vistrut varnan kiya hai.

sandarbh

  1. a aa Singh, bi.pi. (2001). govind chandr paande: Life, Thought and Culture of India — “aThe Valmiki Ramayana: A Study”. Centre of Studies in Civilizations, nai Delhi. aaiesabeeen 81-87586-07-0.
  2. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 163
  3. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 180
  4. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 92-93
  5. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 120-128
  6. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 528-533
  7. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 554-557
  8. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 251-263
  9. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 603-606
  10. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 634-638
  11. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 658-659
  12. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 668-672
  13. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 678-679
  14. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 709-711
  15. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 751-759
  16. 'raamacharitmaanas', teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur prushth 802-807
  17. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 455-459
  18. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 463-475
  19. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan'', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 480-483
  20. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 485-491
  21. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 495-496
  22. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 508-512
  23. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 515-518
  24. 'vaalmeekeeya raamaayan', prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi prushth 518-520

granthasoochi

  • raamacharitmaanas, teekaakaar: hanumaanaprasaad poddaar, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur
  • shreemadvaalmeekeeya raamaayan (pratham evam dviteeya khand), sachitr, hindi anuvaad sahit, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur
  • kavitaavali, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur
  • raamaayan ke kuchh aadarsh paatr, prakaashak evam mudrak: geetaapres, Gorakhpur
  • vaalmeekeeya raamaayan, prakaashak: dehaati pustak bhandaar, Delhi

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