raajya ke neeti nirdeshak tatv

kisi bhi svatantr raashtra ke nirmaan mein maulik adhikaar tatha neeti nirdesh mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain. raajya ke neeti nirdeshak tatv (directive principles of state policy) janataantrik samvaidhaanik vikaas ke naveenatam tatv hain. sarvapratham ye Ireland ke samvidhaan me laagoo kiye gaye the. ye ve tatv hai jo samvidhaan ke vikaas ke saath hi viksit hue hai. in tatvon ka kaarya ek janakalyaanakaari raajya (welfare state) ki sthaapana karna hai.

anukram

parichay

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke bhaag 4 ke anuchhed 36 se 51 tak raajya ke neeti nirdeshak tatv shaamil kiye gaye hain. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke bhaag 3 tatha 4 milkar samvidhaan ki aatma tatha chetna kahalaate hai in tatvon mein samvidhaan tatha saamaajik nyaaya ke darshan ka vaastavik tatv nihit hain. nideshak tatv kaaryapaalika aur vidhaayika ke ve tatv hain, jinke anusaar inhe apne adhikaaron ka prayog karna hota hai.

raajya ke neeti nirdeshak tattvon ka uddeshya saamoohik rup se Bhaarat mein aarthik evam saamaajik lokatantr ki rachana karna tatha kalyaanakaari raajya ki sthaapana karna hain.

in tatvon ki prakruti

anu 37 ke anusaar ye tatv kisi nyaayaalaya me laagoo nahi karavaaye ja sakte yeh tatv vaidhaanik na hokar raajanaitik svaroop rakhate hai tatha maatr naitik adhikaar rakhate hai. ve na to koi vaidhaanik baadhyata hi raajya pe laagoo karte hai na janta hetu adhikaar kartavya ve maatr raajya ke liye aise saamaanya nirdesh hai ki raajya kuchh aise kaarya kare jo raajya ki janta ke liye laabhadaayak ho. in nirdeshon ka paalan kaaryapaalika ki neeti tatha vidhaayika ki vidhiyaaain se ho sakta hai.

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke neeti-nirdeshak tattv

anuchhed vivran
36 paribhaasha
37 is bhaag mein antarvish‍aat tat‍aavon ka laagoo hona
38 raaj‍aaya lok kal‍aayaan ki abhivruddhi ke liye saamaajik v‍aayavas‍aatha banaaega
39 raaj‍aaya dvaara anusaraneeya kuchh neeti tat‍aav
39k samaan n‍aayaaya aur ni:shul‍aak vidhik sahaayata
40 gram panchaayaton ka sangathan
41 kuchh dashaaon mein kaam, shiksha aur lok sahaayata paane ka adhikaar
42 kaam ki n‍aayaayasangat aur maanavochit dashaaon ka tatha prasooti sahaayata ka upabandh
43 karmakaaron ke liye nirvaah majadoori aadi
43k udyogon ke prabandh mein kaarmakaaron ka bhaag lena
44 naagrikon ke liye ek samaan civil sanhita
45 baalakon ke liye ni:shul‍aak aur anivaarya shiksha ka upabandh
46 anusoochit jaati, anusoochit janajaati tatha an‍aaya durbal vargon ke shiksha aur arth sambandhi hiton ki abhivruddhi
47 poshaahaar s‍aatar aur jeevan s‍aatar ko ooncha karne tatha lok s‍aavaas‍aath‍aaya ko sudhaar karne ka raaj‍aaya ka kartav‍aaya
48 krushi aur pashupaalan ka sangathan
48k paryaavaran ka sanrakshan aur sanvardhan aur van tatha van‍aaya jeevon ki raksha
49 raash‍aatreeya mahat‍aav ke sans‍aamaarakon, s‍aathaanon aur vas‍aatuon ka sanrakshan
50 kaaryapaalika se n‍aayaayapaalika ka pruthak‍aakaran
51 antararaash‍aatreeya shaanti aur suraksha ki abhivruddhi

maulik adhikaar tatha neeti nirdeshak tatv me bhed

  • 1 maulik adhikaar raajya ki nakaaraatmak bhoomika ka varnan karte hai tatha raajya ko kuchh vishesh krutya karne se rokate hai vahi ye tatv raajya ki sakaaraatmak bhoomika daayitv ka varnan karte hai tatha raajya se apeksha karte hai ki vah janakalyaan hetu vishisht prayaas kare
  • 2 maulik adhikaar desh me raajanaitik jantantra sthaapit karte hai vahi ye tatv desh me saamaajik aarthik jantantra laate hai
  • 3 maulik adhikaar janta ko diye ja chuke hai vahi nirdeshak tatv nirdeshaatmak hai jo nye adhikaaron ki charcha to karte hai parntu vaastav me dete kuchh nahi hai
  • 4 maulik adhikaar kade vaidhaanik shabdon me varnit hain, jab ki tatv maatr saamaanya bhaasha mein.
  • 5 donon ki nyaayaalaya me sthiti poornat: bhinn hai sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn nirdeshak tatv 39 b tatha s hai.
  • anu 39 b ke anusaar raajya ke sansaadhan is prakaar prayog ho ki unka laabh janasankhya ke sabhi bhaagon ko praapt hon
  • anu 39 s kuchh vyaktiyau ke haathon me dhan ke kendreeyakaran ko rokata hai
  • anu 37 ke anusaar neeti nirdeshak tatvon ko nyaayaalaya me praapt karne laayak to nahi bataate hai parntu desh ke shaasan me inhe maulik roop me nihit maanate hai yeh raajya ka kartavya hai ki vah in tatvau ko apni neetiyau tatha sansad dvaara banaaye kaanoonau me sthaan de.

chanpar duraai raajan vaad 1951 me sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne yeh nirnaya diya tha ki ye tatv anivaarya roop se maulik adhikaaron ke adheenasth hai un par prabhuta nahi rakh sakte donon me vivaad paida hone par maulik adhikaar vareeyata paayeinge, kintu jab raajya vidhaayika ne jameendaari unmoolan praanrabh kiya taaki anu 39 b 39 s ke nideshak tatvau ko prabhaavi kar sake tab sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne in tatvau ka mahtv samjha tatha kaameshvar Singh banaam Bihar vaad 1952 se reekeral shiksha bill vaad 1957 tak Supreme court ne maana ki neeti nirdeshak tatv maulik adhikaar pe prashraya nahi pa sakte, parantu baad me nyaayaalaya ne haarmoni siddhaant pratipaadit kiya tatha sahayogaatmak vikaas ka prayaas kiya tatha dono ko utana prabhaavi karne ka prayaas kiya jitna sabhanv tha. haarmoni siddhaant dono ke madhya koi sangharsh nahi maan kar donau ko ek doosare ka poorak maanata hai. is siddhaant ke anusaar yadi do vyaakhyaane sambhav hai jo ki neeti nirdeshak tatv ko maulik adhikaar ke saath santulan sthaapit kare vahi doosari vyaakhya uname vivaad bataaye to nyaayaalaya ko doosari vyaakhya par pratham vyaakhya ki vareeyata deni chaahiye yadi maatr ek vyaakhya sambhav ho aur jo neeti - adhikaarau mein sangharsh paida kare to nyaayaalaya baadhya hai ki neeti nideshak tatvau par adhikaarau ko vareeyata 'the' privi pars unmoolan tatha bainkig raashtreeyakaran adhiniyam jo ki anu 39 'b' tatha 's' ki paalana hetu laaye gaye the ko sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne maulik adhikaarau ka ullaghann karne ke kaaran [anu 14,19,31] asamvaidhaanik ghoshit kar diya sansad ne iske pratyuttar me 25 va sanshodhan 1971 paarit kar diya tatha anu 31 s ko janm diya jo ki kehta hai ki yadi koi vidhi paarit ki jaati jo ki 39 b s ke neeti nirdeshak tatvau ko prabhaavi karti hai tatha is prakriya me yadi anu 14, 19, 31 ke adhikaarau ka ullaghann kare to use is aadhaar par asamvaidhaanik ghoshit naheen kiya ja sakta

anu 31 s ke anusaar koi vidhi jo anu 39 b s ko prabhaavi karti hai kisi bhi nyaayaalaya me pareekshit nahi ki ja sakegi. keshavaanand bhaarati vaad me is sanshodhan ko chunauti di gayi. sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne anu 31 s ke pratham bhaag ko vaidh maan liya kintu doosare bhaag ko is aadhaar par khaarij kar diya kyonki vah nyaayapaalika ki punareekshan shakti chheen leti hai jo ki samvidhaan ke mool dhaaainchein ka ang hai. is vaad ke nirnaya se preevi pars tatha bainkig raashtreeyakaran adhiniyam vaidh ho gaye. 42 va samvidhaan sanshodhan adhiniyam 1976 31 s ko sanshodhit karta hai ismein kaha gaya hai ki sanshodhit 31 s ke anuroop yadi raajya koi aisi vidhi banaaye jo ki kisi bhi neeti nideshak tatv ko prabhaavi kare is aadhaar par asamvaidhaanik ghoshit naheen kar sakte ki vah anu 14,19,31 ka ullaghann karte isi tarah vah vidhi nyaayaalaya me chunauti praapt nahi kar sakti. is sanshodhan ko minrva mil banaam Bhaarat sangh vaad 1980 me chunauti di gayi jisme Supreme court ne anu 31 s me kiye gaye naye sanshodhan ko gair samvaidhaanik ghoshit kar diya kyauki yeh samvidhaan ke bhaag 3 tatha 4 ke santulan ko bigaad deta tha. 44 ve sanshodhan 1978 ne anu 31 ka hi vilopan kar diya. vartamaan sthiti yeh hai ki do nideshan tatv 39 b, s do maulik adhikrau 14, 19 pe vareeyata dekar laagoo kiye ja sakte hai.

neeti nideshak tatvon ka mahatva

samvidhaan sabha mein bhaag 4 ke mahatva pe prashn kiya gaya tatha kaha gaya ki yeh bhaag hi vyarth hai kyonki ye tatv koi vaidhaanikta nahi rakhate hai. vaastav me ye ve pareekshan gubbaare hai jo ki satta mein vidyamaan sarkaar ki kshamata ka pareekshan karte hain. kuchh vidhiyon ki samvaidhaanikta ka pareekshan neeti nideshak tatvon ko dhyaan me rakhakar kiya ja sakega. inka shaikshanik mahatva hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain