raajasthaani bhaasha aur saahitya

raajasthaani aadhunik bhaarateeya aarya bhaashaaon mein se ek hai, jiska vaastavik kshetr vartamaan Rajasthan praant tak hi seemit na hokar Madhya Pradesh ke katipya poorvi tatha dakshini bhaag mein aur Pakistan ke vahaavalapur jile tatha doosare poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi seema pradeshon mein bhi hai.

anukram

vikaas ka itihaas

raajasthaani ka vikaas, adhikaansh vidvaanon ke mataanusaar, madhyadesheeya praakrut ya shauraseni se hua hai, kintu dau॰ chaaturjya iska vikaas ashokakaaleen sauraashtri praakrut se maanate hain, jo "shauraseni ya madhyadesheeya praakrut se kuchh vibhinn thi". isi praakrut ka kshetr Gujarat praant tatha maaravaad praant tha aur yeh boli yahaaain Madhya Pradesh se na aakar "uttar-Bhaarat ke kisi aur praant ya janapad se I thi. isi aadhaar par dau॰ chaaturjyaan gujaraati maaravaadi ko pashchimi Punjab ki lainhada tatha sindh ki sindhi se vishesh sambaddh maanate hain. vaise is pradesh ki boliyon ko madhyayug mein shauraseni ne kaafi prabhaavit kiya hai. isa ki teesari-chauthi sadiyon mein svaat pradesh ke gurjar Gujarat, Rajasthan tatha maalava mein aa base the. pichhle dinon in logon ne yahaaain kai raajya sthaapit kiye aur ye log hi vartamaan agnivanshi raajapooton mein badal gaye. gurjar jaati ki mool boliyon ne is pradesh ki praakrut ko paryaapt prabhaavit kiya hai tatha apabhransh ke vikaas mein, khaas taur par uske shabdakosh ke vikaas mein, is jaati ka mahatvapoorn yogadaan raha hai. dandi ne to "apabhransh" bhaasha ko aabheeraadi ki hi boliyaaain maana hai. naagar apabhransh ke hi paravarti roop se, jise maakobi jaise vidvaan gurjar apabhransh ya shvetaanbar apabhransh kehna adhik theek samajhte hain, gujaraati-raajasthaani ka vikaas hua hai. gujaraati moolat: raajasthaani (pashchimi raajasthaani) ka hi ek vibhaasha thi, jo solahaveen sadi tak avibhkt thi, kintu baad mein chalakar saanskrutik, praanteeya tatha saahityik kaaranon se svatantr bhaasha ban baithi. pashchimi raajasthaani ya maaravaadi jahaaain gujaraati aur sindhi ke adhik nikat hai vahaaain poorvi raajasthaani (jaipuri haadauti) brajabhaasha (pashchimi hindi) se paryaapt roop mein prabhaavit hai. fir bhi poorvi raajasthaani mein bhi spasht bhedak tattv maujood hain jo ise hindi ki vibhaasha maanane se inkaar karte hain. raajasthaani bhaasha ki bhaashaashaastreeya sthiti rihaari tatha pahaadi ki tarah un bhaashaaon mein hai, jinhein hindi ki vibhaasha naheen maana ja sakta, kintu hindi ke saanskrutik tatha saahityik itihaas ke saath iska gathabandhan itna drudh ho gaya hai ki saahityik drushti se raajasthaani bhaasha ki svatantr satta na rah pai aur yeh usaki vibhaashaasi ban gayi.

saahitya

raajasthaani mein paryaapt praacheen saahitya upalabdh hai. jain yati raamasinh tatha hemachandraachaarya ke dohe raajasthaani gujaraati ke apabhransh kaaleen roop ka parichay dete hain. iske baad bhi puraani pashchimi raajasthaani mein jain kaviyon ke faagu, raas tatha charchari kaavyon ke atirikt anek gadya krutiyaaain upalabdh hain. prasiddh gujaraati kaavya padmanaabhakavikrut "kaanhadadeprabandh" vastut: puraani pashchimi raajasthaani ya maaravaadi ki hi kruti hai. isi tarah "praakrutapaingalam" ke adhikaansh chhandon ki bhaasha poorvi raajasthaani ki bhaasha-prakruti ka sanket karti hai. yadi raajasthaani ki in saahityik krutiyon ko alag rakh diya jaae to hindi aur gujaraati ke saahityik itihaas ko madhyayug se hi shuru karna padega. puraani raajasthaani ki pashchimi vibhaasha ka vaigyaanik adhyayan dau॰ L. pi. tessitori ne "Indian entivveri" (1914-16) mein prastut kiya tha, jo aaj bhi raajasthaani bhaashaashaastr ka akela praamaani granth hai. hindi mein dau॰ chaaturjyaan ki ""raajasthaani bhaasha"" (sooryamall bhaashanon) ke atirikt raajasthaani bhaasha ke vishya mein koi praamaanik bhaashaashaastreeya kruti upalabdh naheen hai. vaise do teen pustakein aur bhi hain, par unka drushtikon parichyaatmak ya saahityik hai, shuddh bhaashaashaastreeya naheen. griyrsan ki lingvistik sarve mein raajasthaani boliyon ka vistrut parichay avashya milta hai.

pashchimi raajasthaani ka madhyayugeen saahitya samruddh hai. rajdhani ki hi ek krutrim saahityik shaili dingal hai, jismein paryaapt chaaran-saahitya upalabdh hai. "dhola ma degree ra doha jaise lok-kaavyon ne aur "beli krisn rukamani ri" jaisi alankrut kaavya krutiyon ne raajasthaani ki shreevruddhi mein yog diya hai. bhaashaagat vikeindreekaran ki neeti ne raajasthaani bhaashaabhaashi janta mein bhi bhaasha sambandhi chetna paida kar di hai aur idhar raajasthaani mein aadhunik saahityik rachanaaeain hone lagi hai. raajasthaani naagari lipi mein likhi jaati hai. iske atirikt yahaaain ke puraane logon mein ab bhi ek bhinn lipi prachalit hai, jise "baanyaaain vaati" kaha jaata hai. is lipi mein praaya: maatra-chihr naheen diye jaate. raajasthaani baniye aaj bhi baheekhaaton mein is lipi ka prayog karte hain. raajasthaani bhaasha ka saahityik roop dingal hai aur dingal saahitya ek samradh saahitya hai dingal saahitya mein aneko granth hai iska vikaas 7-8 vi sadi se suru hua tha dingal ko chaaran sahit bhi kehte hai kyuki madhya kaal mein mukhyat iske rachana car chaaran hi the

raajasthaani ki boliyaaain

dau॰ griyrsan ne raajasthaani ki paaainch boliyaaain maani hain-

(1) pashchimi raajasthaani (maaravaadi),

(2) uttar poorvi raajasthaani (mevaati aheeravaati),

(3) madhyapoorvi (ya poorvi) raajasthaani (dhooaindhaadi haadauti),

(4) dakshin-poorvi raajasthaani (maalavi),

(5) dakshini raajasthaani (nimaadi).

griyrsan ne bheeli aur khaanadeshi ko svatantr bhaasha varg mein maana hai, kintu dau॰ chaaturjya inhein "raajasthaani varg" ke hi antargat rakhana chaaheinge, jo adhik sameecheen jaan padta hai. dooaingarapur, baaainsavaada, prataapagadh tatha aaspaas ki bheeli boliyon aur khaanadeshi ki vyaakaranik sanghatana raajasthaani se vishesh bhinn naheen hai. vastut: ye raajasthaani ke ve roop hain jo kramash: gujaraati aur maraathi tatvon se mishrit hain. raajasthaani varg ke antargat Pakistan tatha Kashmir ke seemaant pradesh ki goojari boli aur tamil-naad ki Saurashtra boli bhi aati hai, jo poorvi raajasthaani se vishesh sambaddh jaan padti hai. dau॰ chaaturjya ne griyrsan ke raajasthaani ke paaainch boli-bhedon ko naheen maana he. ve maaravaadi aur dhooaindhaadi haadauti ko hi "raajasthaani" sanjnyaa dena theek samajhte hain. unke anusaar raajasthaani ke dohi varg hai :-

(1) pashchimi raajasthaani (maaravaadi),

(2) poorvi raajasthaani (jaipuri haadauti).

mevaati, maalavi aur nimaadi ka ve pashchimi hindi ki hi vibhaasha maanane ke paksh mein hain, yadyapi is sambandh mein va antim nirnaya naheen dete.

raajasthaani bhaasha ki saamaanya visheshataaeain

raajasthaani bhaasha ki saamaanya visheshataaeain nimn hain-

(1) raajasthaani mein "n", "d" aur (maraathi) "l" teen vishisht dhvaniyaaain (Phonemes) pai jaati hain.

(2) raajasthaani tadbhav shabdon mein mool sanskrut "a" dhvani kai sthaanon par "i" tatha "i" "u" ke roop mein parivrtit hoti dekhi jaati hain-"mink" (manushya), haran (harin), k"maar (kunbhakaar).

(3) mevaadi aur maalavi mein "ch, chh, j, jh" ka uchchaaran bheeli aur maraathi ki tarah kramash: "ts, s, dj, za" ki tarah paaya jaat hai.

(4) sanskrut hindi padaadi "s-dhvani" poorvi raajasthaani mein to surakshit hai, kintu mevaadi-maalavi-maaravaadi mein aghosh "hth" ho jaati hai. hi. saas, jaipuri-haadauti "saasoo", mevaadi-maaravaadi "hthaaoo"

(5) padamadhyagat hindi shuddh praanadhvani ya mahaapraan dhvani ki praanata raajasthaani mein praaya: padaadi vyanjan mein antarbhukt ho jaati hai-hin. kandha, ra. khaaaindo; hi. padhana, ra. fadh-bo.

(6) raajasthaani ke sabal puling shabd hindi ki tarah aakaaraant na hokar okaaraant hai :-hi. ghoda, ra. ghodi, hin. gadha, ra. g"ddo, hin. mota, ra. moto.

(7) pashchimi raajasthaani mein sambandh kaarak ke parasarg "ro-ra-ri" hain, kintu poorvi raajasthaani mein ye hindi ki tarah "ko-ka-ki" hain.

(8) jaipuri-haadauti mein "nai" parasarg ka prayog karmavaachya bhootakaalik karta ke atirikt chetan karm tatha sanpradaan ke roop mein bhi paaya jaata hai-"chhora nai chhori maari" (ladke ne ladki maari); "mhooain chhora nai maarasyainoo" (main ladke ko peetooainga;-chetan karm); "yo laadoo chhora nai de do" (yeh laddoo ladke ko de do-sanpradaan).

(9) raajasthaani mein uttam purush ke shrotru-saapeksh "aapaaain-aapan" or shrotru nirpeksh "mahe-mhein-me" duhare roop paae jaate hain.

(10) hindi ki tarah raajasthaani ke vartamaanakaalik kriya roop sahaayak kriyaayukt shatrupratyayaant viksit roop na hokar shuddh tadbhav roop hain. "mooain jaaooain chhooain" (main jaata hooain).

(11) sahaayak kriya ke roop pashchimi raajasthaani mein "hoon-haaain-ho-hai" (vartamaan) aur "tho-thi-tha" (bhootakaal) hain, kintu poorvi raajasthaani mein "chhooain-chhaaain-chho-chhai" (vartamaan) aur "chho-chhi-chha" (bhootakaal) hain.

(12) raajasthaani mein teen prakaar ke bhavishyatkaalik roop paae jaate hain :-jaavaigo, jaasi, jaavailo. inmein dviteeya roop sanskrut ke bhavishyatkaalik tiङaant roopon ka vikaas hain-"jaasi" (yaasyati), jaasyooain (yaasyaami).

(13) raajasthaani ki anya padarachanaatmak visheshata poorvakaalik kriya ke liye "-r" pratyaya ka prayog hai : -"oo-padh-r roti khaasi" (vah padhkar roti khaaega).

(14) raajasthaani ki vaakyarachanaagat visheshataaon mein pramukh uktivaachak kriya ke karm ke saath sanpradaan kaarak ka prayog hai, jabki hindi mein yahaaain "karan ya apaadaan" ka prayog dekha jaata hai1"ya baat ooainnai kah do" (yeh baat usase kah do). poorvi raajasthaani mein hindi ke hi prabhaav se sanpradaanagat prayogake atirikt vikalp se kaaran-apaadaanagat prayog bhi sunaai padta hai-"ya baat ooain sooain kah do".

baahari kadiyaaain