raajashekhar

raajashekhar (vikramaabd 930- 977 tak) kaavyashaastr ke pandit the. ve kaanyakubj ke pratihaaravansheeya naresh maheindrapaal evam unke bete mahindr paal ke guroo evam mantri the. unke poorvaj bhi prakhyaat pandit evam saahityamaneeshi rahe the. kaavyameemaansa unki prasiddh rachana hai. samooche sanskrut saahitya mein kuntak aur raajashekhar ye do aise aachaarya hain jo paramparaagat sanskrut panditon ke maanas mein utane mahattvapoorn naheen hain jitne rasavaadi ya alankaaravaadi athva dhvanivaadi hain. raajashekhar leek se hat kar apni baat kehte hain aur kuntak vipreet dhaara mein bahne ka saahas rakhane vaale aachaarya hain.

jeevani

raajashekhar Maharashtra deshavaasi the aur yaayaavar vansh (kshatriya) mein utpann hue the kintu unka jeevan Bengal mein beeta. inki maata ka naam shilaavati tatha pita ka naam duhik ya durduk tha aur ve mahaamantri the. inke prapitaamah akaalajalad ka vird 'mahaaraashtrachoodaamani' tha. raajashekhar ki patni chauhaan kul ki kshatraani vidushi mahila thi jiska naam avantisundari tha. maheindrapaal ke upaadhyaaya hone ke saath ye uske putr maheepaal ke bhi krupaapaatr bane rahe. in donon nareshon ke shilaalekh dasveen shataabdi ke pratham charan (900 E. aur 917 E.) ke praapt hote hain at: raajashekhar ka samay 880-920 E. ke lagbhag maanya hai.

rachanaaeain

raajashekhar ne nimnaankit granthon ki rachana ki thi :

  • kaavyameemaansa
  • baal raamaayan
  • baal Bhaarat
  • karpooramanjari
  • viddhashaalabhanjika
  • bhuvanakosh, jiska nirdesh raajashekhar ne kaavyameemaansa (pru. 89) ne swayam kiya hai aur
  • harivilaas, jiska ullekh hemachandr ne apne kaavyaanushaasan mein kiya hai.

reetivishyak 'reetinirnaya' naamak ek granth ka inke naam se aur ullekh milta hai, kintu vah apraapya hai.

raajashekhar ki kaavyameemaansa reeti-ras-alankaar aadi kisi ek vishay ko lekar likhi rachana naheen hai, kintu apni naveen pratibhaajanya shaili dvaara kaavya evam kavi ke samagr prayojaneeya vishyon ka ek mahatvapoorn evam upayogi sankalan hai. is granth ka pratham adhikran hi upalabdh hai jismein 18 adhyaaya hain. iska naam 'kavi rahasya' hai jo vastut: kavi ke rahasya ko prakat karta hai. ismein kaviyon ka shreneenirdhaaran; kaviyon ke baithane ka kram, veshabhoosha aadi kar varnan hai at: ismein pradhaan vishay kavishiksha ka hi hai. ek rochak katha ko aadhaar banaakar pravrutti, vrutti aur reeti ke sambandh mein raajashekhar ka kathan hai ki kaavyapurush ke anveshan ke samay unki priya saahityavadhoo desh ke vibhinn anchalon mein vilkshan veshabhoosha, vichitr vilaas aur naveen naveen vachanavinyaas ko dhaaran karti jaati thi. is prakaar pravrutti arthaat veshavinyaasakram; vrutti arthaat vilaasavinyaasakram aur reeti arthaat vachanavinyaasakram ke aadhaar ko lekar Bhaarat ke vibhinn anchalon ki saahityik sanpada evam kaavyagat saundarya ki sameeksha ke vivek par raajashekhar ne vibhinn pradeshon ke naam se vibhinn kaavyashailiyon ka tathyamoolak naamaakaran kiya hai.

raajashekhar ne apne ko kaviraaj kaha hai aur kaviyon ki das shreniyon mein mahaakavi ke oopar usako sthaan diya hai. raajashekhar ne apne ko vaalmeeki, bhartrumesht aur bhavabhooti ki parampara ka vyakt kiya hai. pradesh vishesh ke aadhaar papar chaar pravruttiyaaain maanate hue bhi raajashekhar ne vaidarbhi, gaudi aur paanchaali, ye teen hi reetiyaaain maani hain. kaavyameemaansa se yeh baat spasht ho jaati hai ki raajashekhar ke vichaar mein sookshmataapoorvak prakrutinireekshan na karna kavi ka mahaan dosh hai. kaavyameemaansa mein deshakaalavibhaag ka sundar dhang se niroopan kaavya mein isi pravrutti ki avataarana ki drushti se kiya gaya prateet hota hai. 'kavismaya' shabd ka sarvapratham prayog bhi raajashekhar ne hi kiya hai aur iski paribhaasha mein iska sanket bhi kar diya hai. paravarti anek aalankaarikon ne kaviraaj raajashekhar ka anukaran kiya hai jinmein kshemeindr, bhojaraaj, hemachandr, vaagbhatt, keshav mishr, ajisen, deveshvar aadi ullekhya hain. kshemeindr ne apne suvruttatilk mein raajashekhar ke shaadoorlavikreedit chhand ki prashansa ki hai aur auchityavichaaracharcha mein bhi inka ullekh kiya hai.

'baalabhaarat' ya 'prachandapaandav' aur 'baalaraamaayan' kramash: raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat ki katha ke aadhaar par nirmit naatak hain. ye naatak sambhavat: 'baalaanaan sukhabodhaaya' na hokar raajeshvar ki praarambhik krutiyaaain rahi hain. 'karpooramanjari' sattak mein premakatha nibddh hai. 'viddhashaalabhanjika' bhi ek premaakhyaan hai. karpooramanjari aur kaavyameemaansa praudh kaal ki rachanaaeain hain.

aadikvi vaalmeeki, bhartrumeshth aur bhavabhooti ke anantar apni peedhi ki satta ko sveekaar karte hue kavi sagarv kehta hai-

shvabhoov vaalmeekibhv: puraakavi: tat: prapede bhuvi bhartrumeshthataam.
sthit: punaryo bhavabhooti rekhaya s vartate sanprati raajashekhar:.. -baalabhaarat, 1.13

baahari kadiyaaain