raaja shivprasaad 'sitaarehind'

raaja shivprasaad 'sitaarehind' (1823 - 1895) hindi ke unnaayak evam saahityakaar the. ve shiksha-vibhaag mein kaaryarat the. unke prayatnon se schoolon mein hindi ko pravesh mila. us samay hindi ki paathyapustakon ka bahut abhaav tha. unhone swayam is disha mein prayatn kiya aur doosaron se bhi likhvaaya. aapne 'banaaras akhbaar' naamak ek hindi patra nikaala aur iske maadhyam se hindi ka prachaar-prasaar kiya. inki bhaasha mein faarasi-arabi ke shabdon ka adhik prayog hota tha.

raaja saahab 'aam faham aur khaas pasand' bhaasha ke pakshapaati aur british shaasan ke nishthaavaan sevak the. bhaarateindu harishchandr ne inhein guru maanate hue bhi isliye inka virodh bhi kiya tha. fir bhi inheen ke udyog se us samay param pratikool paristhitiyon mein bhi shiksha vibhaag mein hindi ka pravesh ho saka. saahitya, vyaakaran, itihaas, bhoogol aadi vividh vishyon par inhonne praaya: 35 pustakon ki rachana ki jinmein inki savaan-A umari (aatmakatha), raaja bhoj ka sapana, aalasiyon ka koda aur 'itihaasatimirnaashak' ullekhya hain.

anukram

jeevan parichay

shivprasaad sitaarehind ka janm banaaras ki 'bhaat ki gali' mein maagh shukl 2, sanvat 1880 ko jain parivaar mein hua tha. jaageshvar mahaadev ki krupa se utpann samajhakar naam shivprasaad rakha gaya. ghar par aur school mein sanskrut, hindi, baingala, faarasi, arabi aur aaingareji ki shiksha praapt ki.

inke pita ka naam Gopichand tha. poorvajon ka mool sthaan ranathanbhor tha. vansh ke mool purush gokharoo se gyaaharaveen peedhi mein utpann bhaana naamak inka poorvaj alaauddeen khilji ke saath ranathanbhor vijay ke baad chanpaaner chala gaya. inke ek poorvaj ko shaahajahaaain ne 'rai' ki aur doosare poorvaj ko muhammadashaah ne 'jagatseth' ki upaadhi di thi. naadirshaahi mein parivaar ke do aadamiyon ke maare jaane par inka parivaar murshidaabaad chala gaya. Bengal ke soobedaar kaasim Ali khaaain ke atyaachaaron se tang aakar inke daada raaja aaingrejon se mil gaye jispar soobedaar ne unhein kaid kar liya. kisi prakaar vahaaain se bhaagakar ye banaaras chale aae aur yaheen bas gaye.

jab shivprasaad ji gyaarah saal ke the, pita ka dehaant ho gaya. satrah saal ki umr mein hi bharatapur ke raaja ki seva mein gaye aur raajya ke vakeel ka pad praapt kiya. teen saal baad naukri chhod di. kuchh din bekaar rahakar san 1845 mein british sarkaar ki seva sveekaar ki aur subaraaainv ke sikh yuddh mein sar henari laareins ki jaasoos ke roop mein sahaayata ki. tatpashchaat shimle ki ejeinti ke meer munshi niyukt hue. saat saal baad naukri chhod kaashi chale aae parantu sheegra hi Governor jenaral ke agent ke aagrah par pun: meer munshi ka pad saveekaar kiya aur do hi saalon ke bheetar pehle banaaras mein shiksha vibhaag ke sanyukt inspector aur tatpashchaat banaaras aur Allahabad ke school inspector niyukt hue. san 1872 E. mein si. I. E. aur san 1887 E. mein laard meyo ne unhein inpeeriyl kaunsil ka sadasya banaaya jahaaain elabart bill ka virodh kar unhonne use paarit na hone diya. san 1878 E. mein sarkaari naukri se peinshan le li. inki yeh ichha ki 'kaashi ki mitti jald kaashi mein mile' 23 May san 1895 E. ko poori hui.

hindi aur devanaagari ka samarthan

praarambhik khadi boli hindi ke vikaas mein hindi aur naagari lipi ke astitv ki ladaai ladne vaalon mein raaja shivprasaad 'sitaare hind' ka naam atyant mahattvapoorn hai. ve hindi aur naagari ke samarthan mein us samay maidaan mein utare jab hindi gadya ki bhaasha ka parishkaar aur parimaarjan naheen ho saka tha arthaat hindi gadya ka koi suvyavasthiti aur sunishchit naheen gadha ja saka tha. khadi boli hindi ghutanon ke bal hi chal rahi thi. vah khadi hone ki prakriya mein to thi; magar naheen ho pa rahi thi. kyonki ek taraf aaingrejon ke aadhiptya ke kaaran aaingreji ke prasaar-prachaar ka suvyavasthit abhiyaan chalaaya ja raha tha to doosari taraf raajakeeya kaamkaaj mein, kachahari mein urdoo samaadrut thi.

kaha jaata hai ki hindi vaale bhi apni pustakein faarasi mein likhne lage the, jiske kaaran devanaagari aksharon ka bhavishya hi khatre mein pad gaya tha. jaisa ki baalamukundaji ki is tippani se spasht hota hai-

jo log naagari akshar seekhate the, ve faarasi akshar seekhane par vivsh hue aur hindi bhaasha hindi na rahakar urdoo na gayi hindi us bhaasha ka naam raha jo tooti-footi chaal par devanaagari aksharon mein likhi jaati thi

dheere-dheere urdoo ke fashion aur hindi virodh ke kaaran devanaagari aksharon ka lop hone laga. adaalati aur raajakeeya kaamkaaj mein urdoo ka bolabaala hone se urdoo padhe-likhe logon ki bhaasha banane lagi. unneesaveen shataabdi ke madhya tak urdoo ki vyaapakata thi. khadi boli ka arabi-faarasi roop hi likhne-padhne ki bhaasha hokar saamane aa raha tha. hindi ko isse bada aaghaat pahuaincha.

raaja Shiv prasaad ka lipi sambandhi prativedan (1868 E.)

faarasi lipi ke sthaan par naagari lipi aur hindi bhaasha ke liye pehle prayaas ke rru mein raaja Shiv prasaad ka 1868 E. mein unke lipi sambandhi prativedan (court character in the upper provinces of India) se aarambh hua tha.

krutiyaaain

saahitya, vyaakaran, itihaas, bhoogol aadi vividh vishyon par inhonne praaya: 35 pustakon ki rachana ki. raaja Shiv prasaad ki rachanaaon mein nimnalikhit rachanaaeain bahut prasiddh theen-

  • maanav dharmasaar
  • vaama manaranjan
  • aalasiyon ka koda
  • vidyaankar
  • raaja bhoj ka sapana
  • itihaas timir naashak
  • baitaal pachcheesi
  • savaan-A umari (aatmakatha)
  • lipi sambandhi prativedan (1868 E.)

govind raghunaath dhatte ne san 1845 mein raaja Shiv prasaad ki madad se 'banaaras akhbaar' nikaala tha.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain