pyaaj

हरीप्याज
प्याज

pyaaj ek vanaspati hai jiska kand sabji ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai. Bhaarat mein Maharashtra mein pyaaj ki kheti sabse jyaada hoti hai. yahaaain saal me do baar pyaaj ki fsal hoti hai - ek November mein aur doosari May ke maheene ke kreeb hoti hai. pyaaj Bhaarat se kai deshon mein niryaat hota hai, jaise ki Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, ityaadi. pyaaj ki fsal Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan, uttar pradesh, Bihar, pashchim Bengal madhya pradesh jaisi jagahon par alag-alag samay par taiyaar hoti hai. vishv mein pyaaj 1,789 hajaar hektar kshetrafal mein ugaai jaati hain, jisse 25,387 hajaar mi. tan utpaadan hota hai. Bhaarat mein ise kul 287 hajaar hektar kshetrafal mein ugaaye jaane par 2450 hajaar tan utpaadan praapt hota hai. Maharashtra, udeesa, Karnataka, uttar pradesh, Tamil Nadu tatha Gujarat aadi pradeshon mein adhikta se ugaaya jaata hai. yeh shalkakandeeya sabji hai, jiske kand sabji ke roop mein upayog kiye jaate hain. kand teekha hota hai. yeh teekhaapan ek vaashpasheel tel elaail propaail daaya salfaaid kaaran hota hai. pyaaj ka upayog sabji, masaale, salaad tatha achaar taiyaar karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. kand mein aayaran, kailshiym, tatha vitaamin 'si' paaya jaata hai. kand teekha, tej, balavadhraak, kaamottejak, svaadavardhak, kshudhaavardhak tatha mahilaaon mein rakt vardhak hota hai. pittarog, shareer dard, foda, khooni bavaaseer, tilli rog, rataundhi, netradaah, maleriya, kaan dard tatha pultis ke roop mein laabhadaayak hai. anidra nivaarak (bachchon mein), fit (chakkar) mein sunghaane ke liye upayogi. keedon ke kaatne se utpann jalan ko shaant karta hai (aayurved). pyaaj, ek tana jo ki chhoti-si tastari ke roop mein hota hai, atyant hi mulaayam shaakhaaon waali fasal hai, jo ki pole tatha goodedaar hote hain. ropan ke 2) se 3 maah pashchaat taiyaar ho jaati hai. iski fasal avadhi 120-130 din hai. ausat upaj 300 se 375 quintal prati hektar hoti hai. fasal March-aprel mein taiyaar ho jaati hai.

anukram

aavashyakataaeain:

jalavaayu, bhoomi, sinchaai –

pyaaj sheetaritu ki fasal hai kintu adhik sheet haanikaarak hoti hai. taapakram adhik ho jaana bhi haanikaarak hota hai. pyaaj ke vipul utpaadan ke liye paryaapt soorya prakaash ki aavashyakta hoti hai. pyaaj ke kand deergh prakaash ;svadah knl smadahajeeddh avadhi mein achhe bante hain. kandeeya fasal hone ke kaaran bhurabhuri tatha uttam jal nikaas waali bhoomi uttam maani jaati hai. balui dumat bhoomi sarvottam hoti hai. anya bhoomi mein bhi ugaai ja sakti hai. bhaari mitti uchit naheen hai. bhoomi ka peeech maan 5.8-6.5 ke madhya hona chaahiye. pyaaj ke liye kul 12-15 sinchaai ki aavashyakta hoti hai, 7-12 din ke antar se bhoomi ke anusaar sinchaai ki jaani chaahiye. paudhon ka shira jab murajhaane lage, yeh kand pakane ke lakshan hain, is samay sinchaai naheen karni chaahiye.

khaad evam urvarak –

gobar ki khaad ya kampost 200 quintal prati hektar tatha naaitrojan, faasforas evam potaash kramash: 100, 50, 100 kilo prati hektar aavashyak hai. gobar ki khaad ya kampost, faasforas tatha potaash bhoomi ke taiyaari ke samay tatha naaitrojan teen bhaagon mein baantakar kramash: paudh ropan ke 15 tatha 45 din baad dena chaahiye. anya saamaanya niyam khaad tatha urvarak dene ke paalan kiye jaane chaahiye.

udyaanik kriyaaeain:

beej vivran –

prati hektar beej ki maatra – 10 kilo

prati 100 gra. beej ki sankhya –

25,000

ankuran –

60 pratishat

ankuran kshamata –

ek varsh

beejopachaar –

1 pratishat bordo mishran ya anya fafoondanaashak dava se upachaarit karein.

paudh taiyaar karna –

beej bhoomi se 10 semi. ooainchi banaai gayi kyaariyon mein kataaron mein buvaai kar dhak dena chaahiye. aadrr galan ka rog paudhon mein na lagne paae isliye kyaariyon mein 1 pratishat bordo mishran ka chhidkaav karna chaahiye.

paudh ropan –

samay – 15 sitmbar se December

antar –

kataar 15 semi., paudhe 10 semi paudho jab 10-15 semi. ooainche ho jaaeain tab khet mein ropaea kar lagaane chaahiye. adhik umr ke paudhe ya jab unamein jad wala bhaag mota hone lage tab naheen lagaane chaahiye. khet ki taiyaari aaloo ke samaan hi ki jaani chaahiye. paudh ropan ke turant baad hi sinchaai karni chaahiye.

malching banaana –

pyaaj ke paudhon ki kataaron ke madhya puaal ya sookhi pattiyaaain bichha deni chaahiye jisse sinchaai ki bachat hoti hai. fool aana ya bolting ;thavasajapadahaddh – kand ke liye li jaane waali fasal mein fool aana uchit naheen maana jaata hai, isse kand ka aakaar ghat jaata hai. at: aarambh mein hi nikalte hue danthalon ko tod dena chaahiye.

khudaai –

jab pattiyon ka oopari bhaag sookhane lage to use bhoomi mein gira dena chaahiye jisse pyaaj ke kand theek se pak sakein. khudaai karne mein kand ko chot ya kharonch naheen lagani chaahiye.

pyaaj ka bhandaaran –

pyaaj ka bhandaaran ek mahatvapoorn kaarya hai. kuchh kismon mein bhandaaran kshamata adhik hoti hai, jaise- poosa red, Nasik red, belaari red aur N-2-4. N-53, arleegreno aur poosa ratnaar mein sangrahan kshamata kam hoti hai. aisi kismein jinmein khaadya padaarth rifrektiv indeks kam hota hai aur vaashpan ki gati aur kul vaashpan adhik hota hai, unki sangrahan kshamata kam hoti hai. chhote aakaar ke kandon mein bade aakaar ki tulana mein sangrahan kshamata adhik hoti hai. fasal mein naaitrojan yukt urvarak adhik dene se kandon ki sangrahan kshamata kam ho jaati hai. faaaisforas aur potaash ko koi mahatvapoorn prabhaav naheen hota hai. moti gardan vaale kand sangrahan mein sheegra hi kharaab hone lagte hain.


baahari kadiyaaain