pustakaalaya

aadhunik shaili ka ek pustakaalaya

pustakaalaya vah sthaan hai jahaaain vividh prakaar ke gyaan, soochanaaon, sroton, sevaaon aadi ka sangrah rahata hai. pustakaalaya shabd angreji ke laaibreri shabd ka hindi roopaantar hai. laaiberi shabd ki utpatti letin shabd ' laaivar ' se hui hai, jiska arth hai pustak. pustakaalaya ka itihaas lekhan pranaali pustakon aur dastaavej ke svaroop ko sanrakshit rakhane ki paddhatiyon aur pranaaliyon se juda hai.

pustakaalaya yeh shabd do shabdon se milkar bana hai- pustak + aalaya. jismein lekhak ke bhaav sangruheet hon, use pustak kaha jaata hai aur aalaya sthaan ya ghar ko kehte hain. is prakaar pustakaalaya us sthaan ko kehte hain jahaaain par adhyayan saamagri (pustakein, film, patrapatrikaaeain, maanachitr, hastalikhit granth, graamofon rekaard ev anya pathaneeya saamagri) sangruheet rahati hai aur is saamagri ki suraksha ki jaati hai. pustakon se bhari alamaari athva pustak vikreta ke paas pustakon ka sangrah pustakaalaya naheen kahalaata kyonki vahaaain par pustakein vyaavasaayik drushti se rakhi jaati hain.

anukram

prakaar

vibhinn pustakaalayon ka apna kshetr aur uddeshya alag alag hota hai aur vah apne uddeshya ki poorti ke liye anukool roop dhaaran karte hain. isi ke aadhaar par iske anek bhed ho jaate hain jaise- raashtreeya pustakaalaya, saarvajanik pustakaalaya, vyaavasaayik pustakaalaya, sarkaari pustakaalaya, chikitsa pustakaalaya aur vishvavidyaalaya tatha shikshan sansthaaon ke pustakaalaya aadi.

raashtreeya pustakaalaya

jis pustakaalaya ka uddeshya sampoorn raashtra ki seva karna hota hai use raashtreeya pustakaalaya kehte hain. vahaaain par har prakaar ke paathakon ke aavashyakataanusaar pathanasaamagri ka sankalan kiya jaata hai. arnold isdail ke mataanusaar 'raashtreeya pustakaalaya ka pramukh kartavya sampoorn raashtra ke pragatisheel vidyaarthiyon ko itihaas aur saahitya ki saamagri sulabh karna, adhyaapakon, lekhakon evam shikshiton ko shikshit karna hai'. iske atirikt raashtreeya pustakaalaya ke nimnalikhit kartavya hote hain:

1- raashtreeya granthasoochi ke prakaashit karaane ka daayitv.

2- is pustakaalaya se sambaddh pustakaalayon ki ek sangheeya soochi ka sanpadaan karna.

3- pustakaalayon mein sandarbh seva ki poorn vyavastha karna aur pustakon kein antarraashtreeya aadaan-pradaan ki suvidha dilaana.

4- antarraashtreeya granthasoochi ke kaarya ke saath samanvaya sthaapit karna aur iya sambandh mein mahatvapoorn jaankaari rakhana.

5- sampoorn raashtra mein sthaapit mahatvapoorn sandarbhakeindron ki soochi taiyaar karna.

prasiddh bhaarateeya vidvaan‌ daaktar ranganaathan ke anusaar desh ki saanskrutik adhyayanasaamagri ki suraksha raashtreeya pustakaalaya ka mukhya kaarya hai. saath hi desh ke pratyek naagrik ko jnyaaanaarjan ki samaan suvidha pradaan karna aur janta ki shiksha mein sahaayata dene ke vividh kriyaakalaapon dvaara aisi bhaavana bharna ki log desh ke praakrutik saadhanon ka upayog kar sakein. yeh nishchaya hai ki yadi desh ke pratyek vyakti ka mastishk srujanasheel naheen hoga to raashtra ka sarvaangeen vikaas teevr gati se naheen ho sakega.

kaapeeraait ki suvidha se raashtreeya pustakaalayon ke vikaas mein vruddhi hui hai. vaastav mein pustakaalaya aandolan ke itihaas mein yeh kraantikaari kadam hai. Britain ke raashtreeya pustakaalaya, british myoojiym ko 1709 mein yeh suvidha pradaan ki gayi. isi prakaar France bibliyothek naishanal peris ko 1556 aur barlin laaibreri ko 1699 E. mein evam Swiss naishanal laaibreri ko 1950 E. mein vahaaain ke prakaashan ni:shulk praapt hone lage. kaapeeraait ki yeh mahatvapoorn suvidha bhaarateeya raashtreeya pustakaalaya ko san‌ 1954 E. mein pradaan ki gayi. delivery aanv books san‌ 1954 ke kaanoon ke dvaara pratyek prakaashan ki kuchh pratiyaaain raashtreeya pustakaalaya ko bhejana prakaashakon ke liye kaanoon dvaara anivaarya kar diya gaya hai.

saarvajanik pustakaalaya

aadhunik saarvajanik pustakaalayon ka vikaas vaastav mein prajaatantr ki mahaan‌ den hai. shiksha ka prasaaran evam janasaamaanya ko sushikshit karna pratyek raashtra ka kartavya hai. jo log schoolon ya kaalejon mein naheen padhte, jo saadhaaran padhe likhe hain, apna niji vyavasaaya karte hain athva jinki padhne ki abhilaasha hai aur pustakein naheen khareed sakte tatha apni ruchi ka saahitya padhna chaahate hain, aise vargon ki ruchi ko dhyaan mein rakhakar janasaadhaaran ki pustakon ki maaaing saarvajanik pustakaalaya hi poori kar sakte hain. iske atirikt pradarshani, vaadavivaad, shikshaaprad chalachitr pradarshan, mahatvapoorn vishyon par bhaashan aadi ka bhi prabandh saarvajanik pustakaalaya karte hain. is disha mein yoonaisako jaise antararaashtreeya sangathan ne bada mahatvapoorn yogadaan kiya hai. pratyek pragatisheel desh mein jan pustakaalaya nirantar pragati kar rahe hain aur saaksharata ka prasaar kar rahe hain. vaastav mein lok pustakaalaya janta ke vishvavidyaalaya hain, jo bina kisi bhedabhaav ke pratyek naagrik ke upayog ke liye khule rahate hai.

anusandhaan pustakaalaya

us sanstha ko kehte hain jo aise logon ki sahaayata evam maargadarshan karti hai jo gyaan ki seemaaon ko viksit karne mein kaaryarat hain. gyaan ki vibhinn shaakhaaeain hain aur unki poorti vibhinn prakaar ke sangrahon se hi sambhav ho sakti hai, jaise krushi se sambandhit kisi vishay par anusandhaanaatmak lekh likhne ke liye krushi vishvavidyaalaya ya krushikaaryon se sambandhit kisi sanstha ka hi pustakaalaya adhik upayogi siddh hoga. aise pustakaalayon ki kaaryapaddhati anya pustakaalayon se bhinn hoti hai. yahaaain kaarya karanevaale kaarmikon ka atyant daksh evam apne vishay ka pandit hona anivaarya hai, naheen to anusandhaanakartaaon ko theek maargadarshan upalabdh na ho sakega. sangrah ki drushti se bhi yahaaain par bahut satarkataapoorvak saamagri k chunaav karna chaahiye. sandarbh sambandhi prashnon ka tatkaal uttar dene ke liye pustakaalaya mein vishesh upaadaanon ka hona aur unka rakharakhaav bhi aisa chaahiye ki alp samay mein hi aavashyak jaankaari sulabh ho se. vibhinn prakaar ki riporte aur vishay se sanbandhi mukhya-mukhya patrikaaeain, granthasoochiyaaain, vishvakosh, kosh aur patrikaaon ki faailein sangruheet ki jaani chaahiye.

vyaavasaayik pustakaalaya

in pustakaalayon ka uddeshya kisi vishesh vyaavasaayik sanstha athva vahaaain ke karmachaariyon ki seva karna hota hai. inke aavashyakataanusaar vishesh pathanasaamagri ka in pustakaalayon mein sangrah kiya jaata hai, jaise vyavasaaya se sambandhit daayarektaroj, vyaavasaayik patrikaaeain, samayasaaraniyaaain, mahatvapoorn sarkaari prakaashan, maanachitr, vyavasaaya se sambandhit paathya evam sandarbhagranth, vidhi saahitya ityaadi.

sarkaari pustakaalaya

vaise to sarkaar anek pustakaalayon ko vitteeya sahaayata deti hai, parantu jin pustakaalayon ka sampoorn vyaya sarkaar vahan karti hai unhein sarkaari pustakaalaya kehte hain, jaise raashtreeya pustakaalaya, vibhaagateeya pustakaalaya, vibhinn mantraalayon ke pustakaalaya, praanteeya pustakaalaya. sansad aur vidhaanabhavanon ke pustakaalaya bhi sarkaari pustakaalaya ki shreni mein aate hain.

chikitsa pustakaalaya

yeh pustakaalaya kisi chikitsa sambandhi sanstha, vidyaalaya, anusandhaan kendra athva chikitsaalaya se sambaddh hote hain. chikitsa sambandhi pustakon ka sangrah inmein rahata hai aur inka roop saarvajanik na hokar vishesh varg ki seva maatr tak hi seemit hota hai.

shikshan sansthaaon ke pustakaalaya

shikshan sansthaaon ke pustakaalayon ko is prakaar vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai, jaise vishvavidyaalaya pustakaalaya, vidyaalaya pustakaalaya, maadhyamik shaala pustakaalaya, besik shaala pustakaalaya evam prayogashaalaaon, anusandhaan sansthaaon aur khoj sansthaaon ke niji pustakaalaya aadi. har vishvavidyaalaya ke saath ek vishaal pustakaalaya ka hona praaya: anivaarya hi hai. besik shaalaaon evam junior haai schoolon mein to abhi pustakaalayon ka vikaas naheen hua hai, parantu maadhyamik shaalaaon evam vidyaalayon ke pustakaalayon ka sarvaangeen vikaas ho raha hai.

iske atirikt pustakaalayon ke aur bhi anek bhed hain jaise dhvani pustakaalaya, jismein graamofon rekaardon aur filmon aadi ka sangrah rahata hai, kaanoon pustakaalaya, samaachaarapatr pustakaalaya, jail pustakaalaya, andhon ka pustakaalaya, sangeet pustakaalaya, baal pustakaalaya evam sachal pustakaalaya aadi.

sena pustakaalaya

ye pustakaalaya vishisht prakaar ke hote hain aur sangrah ki drushti se to inka roop praaya: anya pustakaalayon se bhinn hota hai. pratham vishvayuddh ke samay aise pustakaalayon ki aavashyakta ki or dhyaan diya gaya tha aur dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samay to sena ke adhikaariyon ko pathan-paathan ki suvidha dene hetu mitr-raashtron ne anekaanek pustakaalaya sthaapit kiye. akele amareeka mein nabh sena ke liye 1600 pustakaalaya hain jinmein nabh sena ke upayog ke liye nai se nai saamagri ka sangrah kiya jaata hai. ye pustakaalaya bahut se jalapoton aur sainik chhaavaniyon ke saath sthaapit kiye gaye hai. isi prakaar vaayusena aur sthal sena ke bhi anek pustakaalaya vishv ke anek deshon mein hain. American peintaagen mein sena ka ek vishaal pustakaalaya hai. Bhaarat mein raksha mantraalaya, sena pradhaan kaaryaalaya evam defence science organaaijeinshan ke vishaal pustakaalaya hain.

itihaas

{{mukhya|pustakaalaya ka itihaas]]

Bhaarat ke pramukh pustakaalaya

Delhi pablik laaibreri

yoonesko aur Bhaarat sarkaar ke sanyukt prayaas se sthaapit Delhi pablik laaibreri ka udghaatan svargeeya javaaharalaal Nehru ne 27 October 1951 ko kiya. 15 varsh ki is alp avadhi mein is pustakaalaya ne abhootapoorv unnati ki hai. ismein granthon ki sankhya lagbhag chaar lakh hai. nagar ke vibhinn bhaagon mein iski shaakhaaeain khol di gayi hai. iske atirikt praarambh se hi chalta-firta pustakaalaya bhi isne shuroo kiya. pustakaalaya ke sandarbh aur soochana vibhaag mein naveenatam vishvakosh, gazette, shabdakosh aur sandarbh saahitya ka achha sangrah hai. bachchon ke liye baal pustakaalaya vibhaag hai. pustakon ke atirikt is vibhaag mein tarah-tarah ke khilaune, lakdi ke akshar, sundar chitr aadi bhi hain.

saamaajik shiksha vibhaag samay samay par film pradarshani, vyaakhyaan, naatak, vaadavivaad pratiyogita ka aayojan karta hai. iske atirikt is vibhaag ke paas aadhuniktam drushyashravya upakaran bhi hain. is pustakaalaya ke sadasyon ki sankhya lagbhag ek lakh hai.

raashtreeya pustakaalaya, Calcutta

is pustakaalaya ki sthaapana shri J. H. staakalar ke prayatn se 1836 E. mein Calcutta mein hui. ise anek udaar vyaktiyon se evam tatkaaleen fort William kaalej se anek granth upalabdh hue. praarambh mein pustakaalaya ek niji makaan mein tha, parantu 1841 E. mein fort William kaalej mein ise rakha gaya. san‌ 1844 E. mein iska sthaanaantaran metakaaf bhavan mein kar diya gaya. san‌ 1890 E. mein Calcutta nagarapaalika ne is pustakaalaya ka prabandh apne haath mein le liya. baad mein tatkaaleen Bengal sarkaar ne ise vitteeya sahaayata di. 1891 E. mein inpeeyil laaibreri ki sthaapana ki gayi aur laard karjan ke prayatn se Calcutta pablik laaibreri tatha inpeeriyl laaibreri ko 1902 E. mein ek mein mila diya gaya. udaar vyaktiyon ne ise bahumoolya granthon ka niji sangrah bheint svaroop diya.

san‌ 1926 E. mein riche seemit ne is pustakaalaya ke vikaas ke sambandh mein Bhaarat sarkaar ko apna prativedan diya. September, 1948 mein yeh pustakaalaya nae bhavan mein laaya gaya aur iski rajat jayanti 1 fravari 1953 E. ko manaai gayi. svatantrata ke pashchaat‌ iska naam badalkar 'raashtreeya pustakaalaya' kar diya gaya. ismein granthon ki sankhya lagbhag 12 lakh hai. 'delivery ov books aikt 1954' ke anusaar pratyek prakaashan ki ek prati is pustakaalaya ko praapt hoti hai. varsh 1964-65 mein is yojana ke atanrgat 18642 pustakein ise praapt hui evam bheint svaroop 7000 se adhik granth mile.

keindreeya sandarbh pustakaalaya ne raashtreeya granthasoochi ki nau jildein prakaashit ki evam raajya sarkaaron ne tamil, malayalam tatha gujaraati ki granthasoochiyaaain prakaashit keen.

pustakaalaya ka prabandh aur sanchaalan

sandarbh granth

  • shaastri dvaarikaaprasaad : pustakaalaya prabandh, pustak vargeekaran kala, pustakaalaya vigyaan, Bhaarat mein pustakaalayon ka udbhav aur vikaas; *pustakaalaya mein sandarbhaseva, besik vidyaalaya mein pustakaalaya ki upayogita;
  • tivaari, bhaaskaranaath : pustak chunaav, siddhaant aur vidhi;
  • gaud, pi. N. : pustakaalaya vigyaan kosh;
  • ranganaathan, S. aar. : laaibreri mainual, laaibreri aidaministreshan;
  • Bhaarat sarkaar, shiksha mantraalaya : vaarshik report, 1964-1965.

inhein bhi dekhein

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