pushp

dakshin geet ke chitrakaar li song dvaara cheeni foolon ke guladaste (flower bouquet) par chitrakaari resham par syaahi aur rang, 12 veen shataabdi ki ant-ant mein aur 13 veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein.

pushp, jinhein fool bhi kaha jaata hai, janan sanrachana hai jo paudhon mein paae jaate hain. ye (megnoliyofaaita prakaar ke paudhon mein paae jaate hain, jise egniyo shukraanu bhi kaha jaata hai. ek fool ki jaivik kriya yeh hai ki vah puroosh shukraanu aur maada beejaanu ke sangh ke liye madhyastata kare. prakriya paraagan se shuroo hoti hai, jiska anusaran garbhadhaaran se hota hai, jo ki beej ke nirmaan aur vikhraav/ visrjan mein khtm hota hai. bade paudhon ke liye, beej agali pusht ke mool roop mein seva karte hain, jinse ek prakaar ki vishesh prajaati dusare bhoobhaagon mein visrjit hoti hain. ek paudhe par foolon ke jamaav ko pushpan (inflorescence) kaha jaata hai.

fool-paudhon ke prajanan avayav ke saath-saath, foolon ko insaanon/manushyon ne saraaha hai aur istemaal bhi kiya hai, khaaskar apne maahol ko sajaane ke liye aur khaadya ke srot ke roop mein bhi.

anukram

fool ki visheshajnyaata/fool ki khaasiyat aur paraagan

bhinn parivaaron ke 12 foolon ki prajaatiyon athva guchhon ke saath ek poster

Parag (pollen) ko protsaahit karne ke liye pratyak pushp ki apni vishesh prakaar ki sanrachana hoti hai. kiliyesatogaimas fool (Cleistogamous flower) svaparaagit hote hain, jiske baad ve khul bhi sakte hain ya shaayad nahi bhi.kai prakaar ke viola aur saalvi prajaatiyon mein is prakaar ke fool hote hain.

keetapremi fool (Entomophilous flower) keeton, chamagaadadon, pakshiyon aur jaanvaron ko aakarshit karte hain aur ek fool se dusare ko Parag sthaanaantarit karne ke liye inka istemaal karte hain. saamaanyat: foolon ke anek bhaagon mein ek granthi hoti hai jise Parag (nectar) kaha jaata hai jo in keeton ko aakarshit karti hain. kuchh foolon mein sanrachanaayein hote hain jinhein madhuras nirdesh (nectar guides) kehte hain jo ki paraagan karne vaalon ko bataate hain ki madhu kahaaain dhooaindhana hai. fool paraagakon ko khushboo aur rang se bhi aakarshit karte hain. fir bhi koochh fool paraagakon ko aakarshit karne ke liye nakl ya anukaran karte hain. udaaharan ke liye kuchh orkid ki prajaatiyaaain fool srujit karti hain jo ki maada madhumakkhi ke rang, aakaar aur khushboo se mel khaate hain. fool roopon mein bhi visheshagya hote hain aur punkeshar (stamen) ki aisi vyavastha hoti hai ki yeh sunishchit ho jaata hai ki Parag ke daanein paraagak par sthaanaantarit ho jaayein jab vah apne aakarshit vaastu par utarata hai (jaise ki madhuras, Parag, ya saathi) kai foolon ki ek hi prajaati ke is aakarshaneeya vastu ko paane ke liye, paraagak un sabhi foolon mein Parag ko streekeshar (stigma) mein sthaanaantarit kar deta hai jo ki bilkul sateek roop se samaan roop mein vyavasthit hote hain.

vaataparaageet fool (Anemophilous flower) vaayu ka istemaal Parag ko ek fool se agale fool tak le jaane mein karte hain udahaaran ke liye ghaasein, santi vruksh, emborsiya jaati ki raig ghaans aur esar jaati ke ped aur jhaadiyaaain. unhein paraagakon ko aakarshit karne ki jarurat nahi padti jis kaaran unki pravruti "dikhaavati foolon" ki nahi hoti. aamtaur par nar aur maada prajanan ang alag-alag foolon mein paae jaate hain, nar foolon mein lambe lambe punkesar reshe hote hain jo ki antak mein khule hote hain aur maada falon mein lambe-lambe pankh jaise streekesar hote hain. jahaaain ki keetapraageeya foolon ke Parag bade aur lasalase daanon ki pravruti liye hue rahate hain jo ki proteen (protein) mein dhani hote hain (paraagaakon ke liye ek puraskaar), vaataparaagit foolon ke Parag jyaadaatar chhote daane liye hue rahate hain, bahut halke aur keeton ke liye itne poshak bhi nahi.

aakruti vijnyaaanan

fool-paudhe dvichhidranviya hote hain jo ki do prakaar ke chhidron (spore) ka srujan karte hain. Parag (pollen) (puroosh chhidr) aur beejaand (ovule) (mahila chhidr) ka nirmaan alag-alag angon mein hota hai, par ek vishisht fool baisporingiyet strobailus dhaaran kiye hue rahata hai jisme donon ang hote hain

fool ko ek sanshodhit tana (stem) kaha jaata hai, chhote intaranodon aur beyaring ke saath, iske nods (nodes) aise sanrachit hote hain jo ki ati sansodhit patte (leaves) ho sakte hain.[1] sankshep mein, ek fool ki sanrachana ek sanshodhit tane par ek agr mereestem (meristem) par hoti hai, jo ki lagaataar badhte nahi rahata (vruddhi niyat hoti hai) fool kuchh tareekon se paudhe se jude rahate hain. yadi fool tane se jude nahi hote aur unka nirmaan paton par hota hai to unhein avrint kaha jaata hai jab fool ka pushpan hota hai, to use ek fooleeya pushpan (peduncle) kaha jaata hai. yadi fuleeya pushpan (pedicel) foolon ke samoohon mein khtm hota hai, to pratyek taana jo fool ko grahan kiye rahata hai use pedeesel kehte hain. pushpan wala tana ek antak roop srujit karta hain jise fool ki kursi ya usaka patra kehte hain fool ke hisse patra ke upar vorl (whorl) mein vyavasthit hote hain. vorl ke chaar mukhya bhaag (jad se praarambh karke ya nyoonatam aasanthi se lekar oopar tak chalte hue) is prakaar hain:

rekha chitr ek paripakva fool ke bhaagon ko dikhaate hue
saarraseeniya (Sarracenia) jaati ke
chhatri ke shaili mein fool
poorn pushp ka ek udahaaran, kreteva releejiosa (Crateva religiosa) fool mein punkesar (baahya vrutaakaar mein) aur ek jaayaang (kendra mein).
  • baahyadalapunj (Calyx) :sepal (sepal) ka baahya vorl; aadarsh roop mein ye hare hote hain, par kuchh naslon mein pankhudi roopi bhi hote hain.
  • Corolla: pankhudi ka vorl dalapunj (petal), jo ki jyaadaatar patale, komal aur rangeen hote hain taaki paragan (pollination) ki prakriya ki madad ke liye keeton ko aakarshit kar sakein.
  • ऍnadrosiym (Androecium) (yoonaani ऍnadros oikiya : manushya ke ghar): punkesar (stamen) ke ek ya do vorl, pratyek ek resha (filament) hota hai jiske oopar paraagaashaya (anther) hota hai jo jismein Parag (pollen) ka utpaadan hota hai. Parag mein puroosh jananakosh (gamete) vidyamaan hote hain
  • jainaaisiym (Gynoecium) streekesar (yoonaani se jainaayeekosh oikiya : mahila ka ghar): jo ki ek ya usase jyaada garbhakesar (pistil) hote hain. streekesar (carpel) maada prajanan ang hain, jisme andaashaya ke saath poorvabeej (jinmein maada jananakosh hote hain) bhi hote hain. ek jaayaang mein kai kaarpel ek dusare mein salagn ho sakte hain, aise maamalo mein pratyek fool ka ek streekesar, ya ek vyaktik kaarpel (tab fool ko epokaarpas kaha jaata hai) streekesar ka lasalasa agr bhaag- streekesar (stigma) Parag ka graahi hota hai sahaayak danthal, yeh shaili Parag nali (pollen tube) ke liye raasta ban jaati hai taaki ve Parag ke daano se andakosh ke liye prajanan ke saamaan ko le jaate hue nirmit ho sakein.

yaddapi upar varnit foolon ki sanrachana ko 'aadarsh' sanrachanaatmak yojana maana ja sakta hai, parantu paudhon ki jaati is yojana se hatkar badlaav ke vyaapak bhinnata ko dikhaate hain. ye badlaav fool-paudhon ke vikaas mein bahut maayane rakhate hain aur vanaspatijnya iska gahan prayog paudhon ki nasl ke sambandhon ko sthaapit karne ke liye karte hain. masalan fool-paudhon ki do upajaatiyaan ka bhed unke pratyek vorl ke fuleeya ango ko lekar ho sakta hai: ek dvibeepatri (dicotyledon) ke vorl mein aadarsh roop mein chaar ya paaainch ang hote hain (ya chaar ya paaainch ke gunaank vaale) aur monokoteleedaun (monocotyledon) mein teen ya teen ke gunaank vaale ang hote hain. ek saamoohik streekesar mein keval do kaarpel ho sakte hain, ya fir upar diye gaye monokot aur daaikot ke saamaanyeekaran se sambandhit na hon.

jaisa ki oopar varnit kiya gaya hai ki vyaktik foolon ke jyaadaatar naslon me jaayaang (pistil) aur punkesar dona hote hain. vanaspatijnya in foolon ka varnan poorn, ubhayalaingeeya, haramaafrodaait (hermaphrodite) ke roop mein karte hain. fir bhi kuchh paudhon ki naslon mein fool apoorn ya ek lingeeya hote hain: ya to keval punkesar ya streekesar angon ko dhaaran kiya hue.pehle maamale mein agar ek vishesh paudha jo ki ya to maada ya puroosh hai to aisi nasl ko daayoisias (dioecious) maana jaata hai. lekin agar ek lingeeya puroosh ya maada fool ek hi paudhe par deekhate hain to aise nasl ko monoisias (monoecious) kaha jaata hai.

mool yojana se foolon ke badlaav par atirikt vichaar-vimarsh ka ullekh foolon ke mool bhaagon vaale lekhon mein kiya gaya hai. un prajaatiyon mein jahaaain ek hi shikhar par ek se jyaada fool hote hain jise tathaakathit roop se sayunkt ful bhi kaha jaata hain-aise foolon ke sangrah ko inafloroseins (inflorescence) bhi kaha jaata hai, is shabd ko foolon ki tane par ek vishisht vyavastha ko lekar bhi kiya ja sakta hai. is sambandh mein dhyaan dene ka abhyaas kiya jaana chaahiye ki "fool" kya hai. udahaaran ke liye vanaspatishaastr ki shabdaavali mein ek deji (daisy) ya sooryamukhi (sunflower) ek fool nahi hai par ek fool sheersh (head) hai-ek pushpan jo ki kai chhote foolon ko dhaaran kiye hue rahate hain (kabhi kabhi inhein florets bhi kaha jaata hai) iname se pratyek fool ka varnan shaareerik roop mein vaise hi honge jaisa ki inka varnan oopar kiya ja chuka hai. bahut se foolon mein avayav sanyog hota hai, agar baahya bhaag keindreeya shikhar se kisi bhi bindu par vibhaajeet hota hai, to do sumel aadhe hisse srujit hote hain- to unhein niyat ya samaanadharmi kaha jaata hai. uda gulaab ya treeliym. jab fool vibhaajit hote hain aur keval ek rekha ka nirmaan karte hain jo ki avayav sanyong ka nirmaan karte hain aise foolon ko aniyamit ya jaaigomorfik uda snaipadraigan/maajus ya jyaadaatar orkids.

vanaspati sootr/pushp sambandhi sootr

ek fool ka formula, ek tareeka hai jisse ek fool ki sanrachana ka pratinidhitv ek vishesh akshar, ank ya prateek ke dvaara kiya jaata hai. bajaay ek vishesh prajaati ke, ek saamaanya faarmoole ka istemaal ek paudhe ke parivaar (family) ke fuleeya sanrachana ko ingit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. nimnalikhit pratinidhiyon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.

Ca = baahyadalapunj (baahyadal vorl; udaaharan Ca5 = 5 baahyadalein)
Ca5 = dalapunj (pankhudi vorl; udaaharan, Co 3(x) = pankhudiyaan kuchh teen ke gunaank mein)
aur ऍnabeeesapi; aur ऍnabeeesapi; aur ऍnabeeesapi; aur ऍnabeeesapi; Z yadi jode jaaigomorfik (udaaharan, CoZ 6 = jaaigomorfik 6 pankhudiyon ke saath)
A = punkesar (vorl ke punkesar; udaaharan, A = kai punkesar)
G = jaayaang (kaarpel ya andp; udaaharan, G1 = ek andakoshadhaari)

x: "char sankhya"
ka pratinidhitv karna ∞: anekon
ka pratinidhitv karna

pushp sootr kuchh is prakaar se dikhaai dega:

Ca5Co5A10 - ∞G1

kai atirikt chinhon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai (pushp sootron ki kunji dekhein)

paraagan

Parag ke daane jo is madhumakkhi ko lag chuke hain unka sthaantaran jo jaaega jab vah agale fool par jaaega

fool ka praathamik uddeshya prajanan hai fool prajanan ang hote hain jo ki shukraanuon ko Parag se beejaand/andakosh se jodne mein madhyastata karte hain, saamaanya roop se ek paudhe se dusare ko, par kai paudhe swayam ke foolon ko paraagit kar sakte hain. urvar paryand beejon ka nirmaan karte hain jo ki aage ki pusht/peedhi hain. yaun prajanan aise anokhe santaan ki utpati karte hain, jo ki anukoolan (adaptation) ke liye taiyaar ho. foolon ki ek vishisht sanrachana hoti hai jo ki unhein ek hi nasl ke Parag ko ek paudhe se dusare paudhe mein sthaantarit karne ke liye prerit karti hai. foolon ke beech paraagon ke sthaanaantaran ke liye kai paudhe baahya kaarakon par nirbhar karte hain jinme vaayu aur pashu shaamil hain, khaasakar keet (insect). bahut bade pashu jaise ki pakshi, chamagaadad aur baune posam (pygmy possum) ko bhi niyukt/niyojit kiya ja sakta hai /prayog mein laaya ja sakta hai vah samay ki avadhi jisme yeh prakriya sthaan leti hai (fool puri tarah vistrut aur kaaryaanvit) ho jaati hai use ऍnatheesis kehte hain.

aakarshit karne ke tareeke

madhumakkhi orkid (Bee orchid) jo ki maada madhumakkhi ki nakl ke roop mein viksit (evolved) hoti hai nar madhumakkhi paraaganakartaaon

ko aakarshit karti hain. paudhe ek sthaan se dusare sthaan ke liye hil nahi sakte, aise mein kai fool chhitki hui aabaadi mein pratyek fool (vyakti) mein Parag ko sthaantarit karne ke liye jaanvaron ko aakarshit karne ke liye viksit hote hain. fool jo ki kit-paraagit hote hain unhein kitparageeya kaha jaata hain jo ki laitin mein kit-premi ke roop mein liya jaata hai. sah vikaas ke dvaara paraagit keeton ke saath iname kaafi sanshodhan (co-evolution) kiye ja sakte hainaamataur foolon ke vibhinn bhaagon mein granthiyaan hoti hain jinhein madhuraseeya ang kaha jaata hai jo ki jaanvaron ko aakarshit karte hain jo poshak madhuras (nectar) ki talaash mein rahate hain. pakshiyon aur madhumakkhiyon (bee) mein rang drushti hoti hai, jo ki unhein "rangeele" fool dhooaindhane mein yogya banaate hain. kuchh foolon mein madhuras nirdeshak/nirdeshan hote hain jo ki paraganakartaaon (nectar guide) ko madhuras ki talaash karna dikhaate hain ye sirf paraabaigani raushani mein hi dekhi ja sakti hai, jo ki madhumakkhiyon aur keeton ko hi dikhaai deti hain. fool paraagan kartaaon ko gandh (scent) aur kuchh gandh hamaare soonghane ki shakti ke liye bhi sukhad hote hain. sabhi foolon ki gandh manushyon ko appeal nahi karateen, kai fool aise keeton se paraagit hote hain jo ki sade maans se aakarshit hote hain aur fool jo ki mrut pashu ki tarah gandh maarate hain, jinhein aksar kairriyn fool (Carrion flower) kaha jaata hain jisme refaleshiya (Rafflesia), taaitanaairam (titan arum) aur uttari America ka paupau (pawpaw) (asemina traailoba) shaamil hain. fool jo ki raat ke aagantukon dvaara paraagit hote hain, sambhaavit hai ko ve paraagan kartaaon ko aakarshit karne ke liye apne gandh par dhyaan keindrit karte hain aise fool jyaadaatar safed hote hain.

fir bhi dusare fool paraaganon ko aakarshit karne ke liye nakl ka istemaal karte hain udahaaran ke liye kuchh orkid ki kuchh prajaatiyon ke fool madhumakhi ke rang, aakaar aur khooshaboo se mel khaate hai. nar madhumakkhi aise hi foolon mein se ek fool se dusare fool par saathi ki talaash mein ghoomate rahate hain.

paraagan tantr

paudhe dvaara paraagan ki vyavastha is baat par nirbhar karti hai ki kis tarah se paraagan ko istemaal kiya jaata hai.

adhikaansh fool apne paraagan ke tareeke ko lekar mote taur par do samoohon mein vibhaajit kiye ja sakte hain.

keetaparaageeya: fool keeton, chamagaadadon, pakshiyon aur jaanvaron ko aakarshit karte hain aur ek fool se dusare ko Parag sthaantarit karne ke liye inka istemaal karte hain. jyaadaatar ve aakaaron/roopon mein visheshagya hote hain aur punkesar ki aisi vyavastha hoti hai ki yeh sunishchit ho jaata hai ki Parag ke daanein paraagan par sthaanaantarit ho jaayein jab vah apne aakarshit vastu par utarata hai (jaise ki madhuras, Parag, ya saathi) kai foolon ki ek hi prajaati ke is aakarshaneeya vastu ko paane ke liye, paraaganakarta un sabhi foolon mein Parag ko stigma mein sthaantarit kar deta hai jo ki bilkul sateek roop se samaan roop mein vyavasthit hote hain.


kai fool paraagan ke liye maatr foolon ke hisson ke beech niktata par nirbhar/bharosa karte hain. anya jaise ki saaraseniya (Sarracenia) ya maada sleeper orkid (lady-slipper orchid) ke paas ai sunishchit dhaancha hota hai jo ki aatmaparaagan (self-pollination) ka neerodh karte hue paraagan ko nishchit karta hai.

prajanan ang jo ki chaaraagaheeya faaksatel fool se alag ho gaye hain.
ek ghaaseeya fool ka sheersh (chaaraagaheeya fauksatel fool) saade/maidaani rang ke foolon ko dikhaate hue jo ki bade prajananeeya angon ko liye hue hain.

vaataparaagit fool: vaayu ka istemaal Parag ko ek fool se agale fool tak le jaane mein karte hain udaaharan ke liye ghaasein (grasses), santi vruksh, emborsiya jaati ki raig ghaans aur esar jaati ke ped aur jhaadiyaaain. unhein paraaganon ko aakarshit karne ki jarurat nahi padti jis kaaran unki pravruti 'dikhaavati foolon' ki nahi hoti. jahaaain ki keetapraageeya foolon ke Parag bade aur lasalase daanon ki pravruti liye hue rahate hain jo ki proteen (protein) mein dhani hote hain (paraaganakartaaon ke liye ek puruskaar), vaataparaagit foolon ke Parag jyaadaatar chhote daane liye hue rahate hain, bahut halke aur keeton (insect) ke liye itne poshak bhi nahi. madhumakkhi aur bambal makkhi sakriya roop se vaataparaagit Parag korn (makke) jo jama karte hain haalaaainki ye unke jyaada mahattv ke nahi hote.

kuchh fool svaparaagit hote hain aur un foolon ka istemaal karte hain jo kabhi nahi khilte, ya fool khilne se pehle svaparaagit jo jaate hain, in foolon ko kleesatogaimas kaha jaata hai kai prakaar ke viola aur saalaviya prajaatiyon mein is prakaar ke fool hote hain.

fool-paraaganon ka sambandh

bahut se foolon mein ek ya kuchh vishisht prakaar ke jeevaanuon se nikat sambandh hote hain. udahaaran ke liye kai fool ek vishisht keet jaati se keval ek keet ko hi aakarshit karte hain, at: safal prajanan ke liye keval us keet par nirbhar karte hain. is ghanisht sambandh jo aksar sahavikaas (coevolution) ke udaaharan ke roop mein liya jaata hai, jaisa ki maana jaata hai ki fool aur paraaganakarta ek lambi avadhi se ek dusare ki jarooraton se mel khaane ke liye vikaas kar rahe hain

ye ghanisht sambandh vilopan (extinction) ke nakaaraatmak prabhaav ke roop mein yaugik ho jaate hain. is tarah ke sambandh mein ek ke bhi vilopan ka matlab hota hai ki lagbhag dusare sadasya ka bhi vilopan. kuchh luptapraay: paudhe jaatiyon (endangered plant species) ka kaaran khtm hote paraaganakartaaon ki janasainkhya mein kami hai (shrinking pollinator populations).

nishechan aur visrjan

is chitr mein fool ke punkesar spasht drushyamaan hain.

kuchh foolon mein punkesar aur streekesar donon svanishechan mein saksham hote hain, jo ki beejon ke utpaadan ke avsar badha deta hai parantu aanuvanshik vividhta ko seemit kar deta hai. svanishechan ke ativaadi maamale un foolon mein hote hain jo ki hamesh svanishechit hote hain, jaise ki kai kukraundhe (dandelion). iske vipreet, kai paudhon ki naslon mein svanishechan ko rokane ke apne tareeke hote hain. ek hi paudhe par ek laingeeya nar aur maada fool ek hi samay par dikhlaai nahi padte athva paripakva nahi hote pichhle prakaar ke fool, jinmein swayam ke Parag mein raasaayanik avarodh hote hain, aise foolon ko aatmamrut athva baaainjh ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai (paudhe ki kaamukata (Plant sexuality), bhi dekhein)

vikaas

kaamaakura, kaanaagaava (Kamakura, Kanagawa), Japan mein

fool

haalaaainki jameeni/dharati par ke paudhe 425 million saal tak astitv (reproduced) mein rahe hain, pratham jo ki apne samakakshon spors (spore) se ek saadhaaran anukoolan dvaara paida hue the. samudri paudhe aur kuchh jaanavar swayam ke anuvaanshik nakalon (clones) ko bikher sakte hain jo ki bah ke kaheen aur srujit ho sakein/vikaas kar sakein. is prakaar shuroo ke paudhe prajanit hote the. parantu sheegra hi paudhon ne apni nakalon ko surakshit rakhane ke tareekon ko viksit kar liya taaki sookhane aur dusare kashton/apaprayog/anuchit vyavahaar ka saamana kar sakein jo ki samudri paudhon ke mukaabale jameeni paudhon mein jyaada hai. ye suraksha beej ban gayi, jo ki abhi tak fool mein viksit nahi ho pai hai. pratham beej dhaarak paudhon mein gingako (ginkgo) aur shankuvruksh (conifer) shaamil hain. fool-paudhe ka praarambhik jeevaashm aarkaafruktus liaaoningajenisis (Archaefructus liaoningensis), ko 125 million saal pehle dinaankit kiya gaya hai.[2] gaaimanosparms ke kai samooh, khaasakar beej farn (seed fern) ko fool-paudhon ke poorvaj ke roop mein prastaavit kiya jaata hai par satat jeevaashmon ke saboot naheen hain jo yeh dikha sakein ki foolon ka vikaas kaise hua tha. jaahir taur par apekshaakrut navin paudhon ka jeevaashm itihaas mein achaanak dikhaai dena ne vikaas ke siddhaant ke saamane ek samasya khadi kar di, jise Charles daarvin dvaara "ghinauna rahasya" kaha gaya. haal heen mein khoje gaye aingiyosparm jeevaashm jaise ki aarkaafruktus, saath hi mein aage ki khojo mein gaaimanosparms ke jeevaashm yeh sujhaav dete hain ki kis tarah aingiyosparm ke charitra ek ke baad ek shrrunkhala ko haasil kar praapt hue honge.

haal hi mein hue DNA (DNA) vishleshan (aanvik yathaakram (molecular systematics))[3][4] dikhaate hain ki emborela traaikopoda" (Amborella trichopoda) jo ki new kailedoniya (New Caledonia), ke prashaanteeya dveepon mein paae jaate hain, anya fool-paudhon (sister group) ke samooh se hi hai aur aakruti vigyaan ke adhyayan[5] se sujhaavit hota hai ki iske charitra mein ve saari visheshataaen/gun hain jo ki praarambhik fool-paudhon mein theen.

vibhinn fool rang aur roop
ek saairafid makkhi (Syrphid fly) ek angoor roopi jal-kumbhi par (Grape hyacinth)

aam dhaarana yeh hai ki praarambh se hi foolon ka kaarya, pashuon ko prajanan prakriya mein shaamil karna raha hai. Parag chamakeele/sunahare aur spasht roop ke bagair bhi bikhr sakte hain, at: yeh ek daayitv ban jaata hai, paudhe ke sansaadhanon ka prayog jab tak ki vah anya koi laabh na pradaan kare. achaanak poorn roop se viksit foolon ki upasthiti ka ek prastaavit kaaran yeh bhi hai ki ye ek pruthak vaataavaran jaise ki ek dweep athva dveepon ki shrankhala mein mein viksit hue hain, jahaaain par paudhe jo unapar dhaaran hote the ne ek uchch vishesh sambandh kuchh vishisht jaanvaron (udaaharan ke liye ek tataiya) se viksit kar liye hain, jaisa ki vartamaan mein/aaj dveepeeya naslein/jaateeya viksit hoti hain. ek pariklpit tataiye ka Parag ke saath kaalpanik sambandh jo ki ek paudhe se dusare paudhe tak Parag le jaata hai, aaj ke anjeer tataiye (fig wasp) ke jaisa hai, ho sakta hai ki yeh paudhe aur uske saathi ke beech uchch star ki visheshata ka parinaam ho. visheshata ke aam srot ke roop mein dweep anuvaanshiki (Island genetics) ko maana jaata hai, khaaskar jab maulik/aaranbhik anukoolan/roopaantar ki baat aati hai to aantarik sankraman ke roopon ki aavashyakta padti hai. dhyaan de ki tataiye ka udahaaran aakasmik nahi hai, jaahir taur par madhumakkhiyaaain, jo ki kaalpanik/prateekaatmak paudhon ke sambandhon ke liye viksit huyi hain, tataiyon ke paravarti ke roop mein viksit hue hain.

isi tarah, kai fal jo ki paudhe ke prajanan mein istemaal kiye jaate hain fool ke bhaagon ke vistaar se hi aate hain, aksar fal ek upakaran hai jo un jaanvaron par nirbhar karta hai jo use khaane ke ichhuk, is prakaar un beejon ko bikherate hain jo us fal mein hain.

jabki is prakaar ke prateekaatmak sambandh (symbiotic relationship) mool bhoomi par apne astitv ko bachaae rakhane aur failane mein bahut naajuk hote hain, fool asaadhaaran roop se utpaadan ka ek kaaragar saadhan ban jaate hain, failaate hue/prasaar karte hue (jo bhi unka vaastavik roop/udgam raha ho) taaki ve jameeni paudhon ke jeevan mein sabse jyaada prabal hon.

jabki is baat ka mushkil se saboot hai ki aise fool 130 million saal pehle astitv mein the, kuchh parasthitijnak saboot hin jo ki ye bataate hain ki ye 250 million saal pehle astitv mein the. oleeyanen, ek rasaayan oliyn (oleanane) jo ki paudhon dvaara paane foolon ki raksha ke liye kiya jaata hai, puraane paudhon ke jeevaashm mein paaya gaya hai, jismein jaaigeintopetrid (gigantopterid)[6] shaamil hai jo ki us samay viksit the aur kai aadhunik fool-paudhon ke gun dhaaran kiye hue hain, haalaaainki ve fool-paudhon ke roop mein nahi jaane jaate, kyonki unke tane aur kaante hi poornaroop se sanrakshit ho paae hain, jo ki praarambhik jeevaashmeekaran (petrification) ka ek udaaharan hai.

patte (leaf) aur tane (stem) ki sanrachana mein samaanata bahut aavashyak hai, kyonki fool aanuvanshik roop se saamaanya patte aur tane ke ghatakon ka hi anukoolan hai, jeens ka sanyojan saamaanya roop se nae ankur ko srujit karte hain.[7] ati praacheen foolon mein maana jaata hain ki uname fool ke bhaagon ke parivrtanasheel ang hote hai jo ki jyaadaatar alag hote the (parantu ek dusare se sampark mein) fool shaayad ghumaavadaar roop se badhe honge taaki ve ubhayalingi (bisexual) ho sakein (paudhon mein iska matlab hota hain ki nar aur maada bhaag dona ekahi fool mein) aur jiska andaashaya (ovary) (maada hissa) dvaara varchasv kiya jaata hai. jaise-jaise fool badhte badhte aur unnat hue, unamein bhaagon ke aapas mein jud jaane ke kaaran vividhta ka vikaas hua aur bhi vishisht sankhya aur dhaanche ke saath, ya prati fool ya paudhe ke vishisht ling ke saath, ya kam se kam "andaashaya avar"

foolon ka aaj tak jaari hai, aadhunik fool itna jyaada manushyon dvaara prabhaavit hue hain ki kai to prakruti mein paraaganit nahi ho sakte. kai aadhunik, paalatoo fool jangali ghaans-foons hua karte the, jo ki usi samay khilte the jab bhootal mein kampan hoti thi/jab bhoomi hilti thi. kuchh maanav fasalon ke saath ugane ki pravruti rakhate the aur jo sabse sundar hota tha unhein apni khoobsoorti ke kaaran ukhaada nahi jaata tha, jisse maanaveeya sneh ke oopar nirbhar karna aur vishesh anukoolan ka vikaas hone laga.[8]

vikaas

fool ke vikaas ka ai bi si namoona

fuleeya ang ki pehchaan ke nirdhaaran ke liye aanavik niyantran poori tarah se samajh liya gaya hai. ek saadhaaran model mein, teen jeenon ki gatividhiyaaain sanyoji roop se ek dusare se judti rahati hain taaki fuleeya meristem (meristem) ke mool ang ke vikaashasheel pehchaan ka nirdhaaran kiya ja sake. in jeen ki kriyaaon ko a/ai, b/bi, aur s/si- jeen kriya kaha jaata hai. pehle fuleeya vorl mein keval ai-jeens hi vyakt hote hain, jo ki sepals ke nirmaan ka netrutv karte hain. dusare vorl mein ai- aur bi- jeens byakt hote hain, jo ki pankhudiyon ke nirmaan ka netrutv karte hain. teesare vorl mein bi aur si jeens ek dusare se judte hain taane aur fool ke madhya ke nirmaan ke liye, akele si jeens kaarpels ko janm dete hain. model [[homeeyotik/jaanvaron aur paudhon mein shareer athva kisi ang ke badle doosare shareer ya ang ka saamaanya srujan/nirmaan|homotik]] (homeotic) miootants [[araabidopesis/ fool-paudhon ki ek jaati jo ki uttar samasheetoshn ilaakon mein pai jaati hain, in paudhon ka istemaal vaigyaanik prayogon ke liye adhik kiya jaata hai|arabeedopsis]] (Arabidopsis) thaaliyaana aur snaipadraigan, [[enteerriniym maajus/ enteerriniym jaati mein se koi bhi ek paudha, khaaskar jo ki bhoomadhyasaagareeya pradesh mein ek booti ke roop mein ugaaye jaate hain.|enteerrhinum maajus]] (Antirrhinum majus) ke adhyan par aadhaarit hai. udahaaran ke liye jab bi-jeen ki kriya mein kami hoti hai, miootant fool sepals ke saath pratham vorl mein hamesha ki tarah utpann hote hain, par saamaanya pankhudiyon ke nirmaan ke bajaay dusare vorl mein bhi utpann hote hain. teesare vorl mein bi kriya ki kami parantu si kriya ki upasthiti chauthe vorl ki nakl kar deti hai, jo ki teesare vorl mein bhi karpels ke nirmaan ka netrutv karti hai. fool ke vikaas ka ABC model bhi dekhein (The ABC Model of Flower Development).

adhikaansh jeens jo ki model ke kendra mein hain MADS-bakse (MADS-box) jeens ki sampatti hain aur pratilekhan kaarak (transcription factors) hain jo ki pratyek fuleeya ang ke vishisht jeen ki abhivyakti ko viniymit karte hain.

pushpan sankraman

apne jeevan chakr mein pushpan ke liye sankraman (transition) paudhe dvaara badlaav ka ek mahaan charan hota hai. sankraman usi samay hona chaahiye jab adhiktam prajanan ki safalta ki sunishchitta hogi. in jarurato ko pura karne ke liye paudhe mahatvapoorn antarjaateeya aur paryaavaranik sootron ko jaise ki paudhe ke haaramonon (plant hormones) ke star mein parivartan aur mausami taapamaan aur [[photo avadhi/ vah samay jab ek jeev pratidin raushani ko paata hai/dhoop paata hai jo ki khaaskar us jeev ke srujan aur vikaas ke liye jaroori hota hai|fotosamaya]] (photoperiod) parivartan ko samajhne mein saksham hote hain. kai baarahamaasi paudhon aur dvivaarshik paudhon ko foolon ke [[varnaalaaijeshan/ beej ya beejaankur ko kam taapamaan mein rakhana taaki paudhe ki pushpan ki prakriya tvarit ho sake|vernaalaaijeshan]] (vernalization) ki jarurat padti hai. kuchh jeenson jaise CONSTANS aur FLC ke aanvik vyaakhyaaeain is baat ka nishchayan karti hain ki pushpan tabhi hoga jab nishechan (fertilization) aur beej gathan ke liye anukool samay hoga.[9] fuleeya gathan tane ke antak se shuroo hoti hai aur isame kai shaareerik aur aakruti sambandhi parivartan hote hain. pehla kadam sabjeeya paraaimordiya ka fuleeya paraaimordiya mein badlaav hai yeh raasaayanik roop mein hota hain jo ki patton, kali (bud) aur tane ke uttakon ki koshikeeya bhinnata ko dikhaane ke liye hota hain jo ki prajanan angon ke roop mein viksit honge. tane ke madhya/kendra bhaag ke agrabhaag ka badhna ruk jaata hai athva chapate ho jaate hain jiske kaaran tane ke ant ke baahya mein lachhedaar ya golaakaar roop mein kone fool jaate hain. ye viksan sepalon, pankhudiyon, tane aur kaarpel (carpel) mein hote hain. jyaadaatar paudhon mein jab ek baar yeh prakriya shuroo ho jaati hai to us vaapis lena naamumkin hai aur tana fool viksit kar leta hain, bhale hi fool ke gathan ka praarambhik kshan paryaavaran shrrunkhala (cue) par hi nirbhar kyon na ho.[10] ek baar yeh prakriya shuroo hoti hai aur shrrunkhala ko agar nikaal bhi diya jaata hai tab bhi fool ka vikaas hoga.

Small Text== prateekavaad ==

lili ka prayog jyaadaatar jeevan ke punarutthaan ko nirupit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai
sajaavati uddeshya ke liye fool prerit karte hain
jad jeevan mein fool ek aam vishay hai, jaise ki yeh ek embrosius bausakeyert (Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder) varishth
cheeni jed foolon ke deejaain ke saath, jin vansh (Jin Dynasty), (1115-1234 E.), Shanghai sangrahaalaya (Shanghai Museum).
apne bhinn sugandhon ke liye fool chahete rahe hain

paashchaatya sanskruti mein kai foolon ke mahatvapoorn prateek (symbol) hain. foolon ko arth adhimaanit karne ki pratha ko florograafi (floriography) kaha jaata hai. sabse aam udaaharanon mein shaamil hain:

  • laal gulaab (rose) prem, saundarya aur chaahat ke prateek ke roop mein diya jaata hai
  • khasakhas (Poppies) mrutyu ke samay saantvana ka prateek hai yu ke, New Zealand, Australia aur Canada mein laal khasakhas yuddh ke dauraan mare gaye sainikon ki shradhaanjali mein pahana jaata hai.
  • aairish (Irises)/lili (Lily) ka upayog dafnaane ke samay jeevan ke punarutthaan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai yeh sitaaron (sooraj) se bhi jod kar dekhi jaati hain aur usaki pankhudiyaan bhi khilti huyi/ chamakati huyi
  • desi (Daisies) ke fool maasoomiyt ke prateek hain

kala mein bhi fool jananaang (female genitalia) ka pratinidhitv karte hain jaisa ki jaarjiya O'keefi (Georgia O'Keefe), imogan kaningaham (Imogen Cunningham), veronika ruij de velaasko (Veronica Ruiz de Velasco) aur joodi chikaago (Judy Chicago) jaise kalaakaaron ke kaamo mein deekhata hain, hakeekat mein Asiaee aur pashchimi shaastreeya kala mein bhi yeh dikhaai deta hai. duniya bhar ki kai sanskrutiyon mein foolon ko streetv (femininity) ke saath jodne ki chinhit pravruti dikhaai deti hai.

bhinn prakaar ke naajuk aur sundar foolon ki vishaalata ne kai kaviyon ki srujanaatmakata ko prerit kiya hain, visheshat: romantic (Romantic) yug ke 18vi-19vi shataabdi mein. prasiddh udahaaran William vardasvarth ka I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud) aur William blek (William Blake) ka Ah! hai. soorya-mookhi.

apni vividhta aur rangeen upasthiti ke kaaran, fool drushya kalaakaaron ke bhi pasandeeda vishay rahe hain. mashahoor chitrakaaron dvaara kuchh prakhyaat chitron mein foolon ke chitr hain, udahaaran ke liye vain go (Van Gogh) ka sooryamukhi (sunflowers) ka shrrunkhala aur monet ke paani ke lili. foolon ko sukhaaya bhi jaata hai, sookhe roop mein freej kiya jaata hain aur dabaaya jaata hai taaki fool kala (flower art) ke teen-aayaami sthaayi hisse hon.

roman foolon, bageechon aur vasant ke mausam ki devi flora hai. vasant, foolon aur prakruti ki yoonaani devi kloris (Chloris) hai.

hindu pauraanik kathaaon mein foolon ka mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. vishnu jo ki hindu pranaali mein teen mukhya devataaon mein se ek hain, ko adhiktar kamal (lotus) ke fool par seedha khada chitrit kiya jaata hai.[11] vishnu se jude hone ke alaava bhi hindu parampara kamal ke adhyaatmik mahatta ko maanati hai.[12] udahaaran ke liye, yeh hindu kathaaon mein srujan ke liye varnit ki jaati hai.[13]

upayog

aadhunik samay mein logon ne kheti karne, khareedne, pahanane ya foolon ke ird-gird rahane ke tareeke dhoondh liye hain, aanshik roop se isliye ki ve manachaahe dikhaai dete hain aur unki gandh (smell) bhi manachaahi hoti hai. duniya bhar mein log foolon ka istemaal naanavidh upalakshyon aur samaarohon mein karte hain jo ki ek ke jeevan kaal mein jama hokar use ghere rahati hai.

  • navajaat shishu ke athva isaaikaran (Christening) ke liye
  • pushp aabhooshan (corsage) athva bataniyr (boutonniere) ke roop mein saamaajik samaarohon aur chhuttiyon/avakaashon mein pahanate hain.
  • prem aur abhimaan/sammaan ke chinh ke roop mein/ki nishaani ke roop mein
  • vadhu ki party/daavat/samaaroh ke liye shaadi ke fool aur bhavan/hall ki sajaavat ke liye
  • jais ki ghar ke andar roshani ki sajaavat
  • shubh yaatra paartiyon aur ghar-vaapasi ki paartiyon mein yaadagaar upahaar ke roop mein athva "aap ke baare mein sochate hue' upahaar.
  • antyeshthi (funeral) ke liye fool aur shok karne vaalon ke liye abhivyakti (sympathy)

isliye log apne ghar ke chaaron or fool ugaate hain, apna baithak ka kamre ka pura bhaag pushp udyaan (flower garden) ke liye samarpit kar dete hain, jangali foolon ko chunate hain nahi to foolavaale (florist) se fool khareedte hain jo ki vyaavasaayik utpaadako aur jahaajiyon par poorn roop se nirbhar karta hai.

fool, paudhe ke mukhya bhaagon (beej, fal, jad (root), tana (stem) aur patton (leaves) ke mukaabale kam aahaar upalabdh kara paate hain, par ve kai dusare mahatvapoorn khaadya padaarth aur masaale upalabdh kara paate hain. foolon ki sabjiyon mein shaamil hai brokoli (broccoli), foolagobi aur haatheechakr (artichoke). sabse mahanga masaala, jaafaraani (saffron), jaafaraani (crocus) ke fool ke stigma dhaaran kiye hue rahata hai. dusare foolon ki naslein hain laung (clove) aur kepars (caper).hope (Hops) foolon ka prayog biyr (beer) mein sugandh ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. murgiyon (chicken) ko geinde (Marigold) ka fool khilaaya jaata hai taaki ande ka peela bhaag aur sunahara peela ho sake, jo ki upabhoktaaon ko pasand hai. kukraundhe (Dandelion) ke foolon se aksar sharaab/vaain banaai jaati hai. madhumakkhi Parag (Pollen), madhumakkhiyon dvaara ekatrit Parag ko kuchh logon dvaara svaasthyavardhak aahaar kaha jaata hai. shahad (Honey) mein madhumakkhi dvaara sansaadhit fool ka ras hota hai aur jyaadaatar unka naam foolon ke naam par rakha jaata hai, udaaharan ke liye naarangi (orange) shahad fool, banamethi (clover) shahad, tupelo (tupelo) shahad.

sainkadon fool bhakshaneeya/khaane yogya hote hain par kuchh hi hain jinhein khaadya ke roop mein vyaapak taur par becha/vipnan kiya jaata hai. ye aksar salaadon mein rang aur svaad badhaane ke liye kiye jaate hain. skvaish (Squash) foolon ko bredakrambas mein dubokar tala jaata hai. khaadya foolon mein shaamil hain jalaindushur (nasturtium), guladaaudi (chrysanthemum), gulanaar (carnation), [[kaattail/katail/taifa jaati ki koi bhi baarahamaasi booti jo ki kisi bhi daladal vaale ilaakon mein paae jaate hain, inhein reed mej bhi kaha jaata hai|katail]] (cattail), shahadchusak (honeysuckle), kaasani (chicory), [[kornaflaavar/kornapushp/ ek vaarshik yooreshiyaai paudha jiski kheti uttar America mein ki jaati hai. ise kunvaare ka batan bhi kaha jaata hai/ ise baichalar batan bhi kaha jaata hai|makai ka fool]] (cornflower), devakali (Canna) aur sooryamukhi (sunflower). kuchh khaadya fool kabhi-kabhi khusaamad bhare bhi hotein hain jaise desi (daisy) aur gulaab (rose) (ho sakta hai aapka kisi banafasha (pansy) se bhi saabika pad jaae)

foolo ko aushadheeya chai (herbal tea) bhi banaaya ja sakta hai. sugandh aur aushadheeya gun, donon ke liye sookhe fool jaise ki guladaaudi, gulaab aur chameli, karpurapushp ko chai mein daala jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi unhein bhi chai (tea) patti ke saath sugandh ke liye milaaya jaata hai.

yeh bhi dekhein/ise bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  • ems.ai J.(1961) egniyosparm ka shaareerik gathan MC gra-hil pustak company, new yaark.
  • esaaoo, kethareen (1965)paudhe ki enaatomi (dvi.san.) John vile end sons, new yaark


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