purtagaali saahitya

mahaanatam purtagaali kavi kaamoo ke vyaktitv mein purtagaali saahitya ki donon pramukh visheshataaeain sahit milni hain. ye hain - prageeti prerana aur svachhand abhiruchi. ye visheshataaeain kisi vishesh aitihaasik yug ki naheen, kintu sabhi yugon ki saamaanya maanav manovrutti hai. premaatmak aur vyaktigat samasyaaon par aagrah, apni vyaktigat peeda mein ek mrudu aanand (saudaade), yeh purtagaali chittavrutti ki visheshataaeain hain - ghar ke prati mamata ki bhaavana, aspasht aakaankshaaeain aur aasha - naveen bhoobhaag aur naveen samudri bhaagon ki khoj mein rat rahanevaale ek chhote raashtra ke kaalpanik bhaagya ki mahaan bhaavana se yukt.

buddhi ki apeksha samvedna aur kalpana ke praadhaanya ke kaaran daarshanik paddhatiyon ka nirmaan, gambhir adhyayan aur shodh ki gaharaai mein jaana, vistrut aitihaasik aadhaar taiyaar karna kathin hota hai. mahaduddashya ko sammukh rakhanevaala raashtra hone ka bodh kabhi bhavishyadarshi ka aanand, kabhi spasht rahasyavaad, aatmasamarpan ya to ullaasapoorn aanand ya niraash bhaagyavaad ki srushti karta hai.

prageeti rachanaaon dvaara purtagaali saahitya ka praarambh 12veen shati se hota hai. ye geet galeesheeya purtagaali boli mein the. galeeshiya Spain ka ek praant hai jo Portugal tak chala gaya hai. yeh galeesheeya boli aaiboriya praayadveep ke troovaadoron (saamanton ka yash gaanevaale) ki rachanaaon ki bhaasha ho gayi. is geetikaavya ke do paksh hain - ek lokapriya roop jo sthaaneeya boli mein likha gaya, doosra shisht roop jo proveinsaal shaili mein likha gaya. lokageet shaili mein vishesh sthaan kaantogaas de ameego (premika ke geet) ka hai jinmein premika apne premi ko sambodhit karke geet gaati hai. badle mein naayak bhi kaanteegaas ve amor (premageet) gaata hai. naayak sanbhraant kulotpanna naayika ko sambodhit karke geet gaata hai. premageeton ke is vishaal saahitya ke is samay keval teen sangrah upalabdh hain jinmein 1189 se lekar 14veen shati ke madhyakaal tak ki rachanaaeain sankalit hain. is kaal mein kuchh raajaaon ne katipaaya kaviyon aur geetagaayakon ko darbaar mein aashray pradaan kiya. aise raajaaon mein deenees (1261-1325) bahut prasiddh hai. in kaviyon ne bhi ullekhaneeya kaavyasrushti ki.

purtagaali gadya ne anuvaadakon ke dvaara saahityik pratishtha praapt ki. aalkobasa ebe anuvaadakon ka madhyayug mein pradhaan kendra tha. yahaaain santon ki jeevaniyaaain, upadeshapoorn, kathaaeain, puraani gaathaaeain, raajavansh gaathaaeain, vanshaavaliyaaain anoodit ki gayi aur unhein naveen roop mein prastut kiya gaya. inmein se anek veeragaathaapoorn saahasi kathaaeain hain. inko teen mukhya vargon mein rakha ja sakta hai - greek-laateeni, kaarolinjan (Charles mahaan se sambandhit) aur bretan.

us kaal ki atyant mahatvapoorn krutiyon mein se ek hai leyaal koselhiyero (vishvaasi paraamarshadaata). ismein apne samay ke sarvashreshth gadyalekhak raaja Edward (1391-1438) ki naitik upadeshaatmak rachanaaon ka sangrah hai.

15veen shati mein itihaas-saamagri-sankalan ka vikaas hua. Portugal ke raaja ne kai vivranalekhakon ki niyukti ki, jinko puraane raajyakaalon ka itihaas likhne ka kaarya saunpa gaya. ismein apni aitihaasik shodhon ke gaanbheerya aur saahityik shreshthata ke kaaran feranaaainon lopes (1380-1460) sabse prasiddh hai.

John dviteeya ke darbaar mein kuchh kavi the. uske mantri gaarsiya de resende (1470-1536) ne kaaainsoneharo jeraal (saamaanya geet sangrah) mein poisiya paalaasiyaan (darabaari kaavya) kahi jaanevaali kavitaaon ka vishaal sangrah kiya hai. kuchh apavaadon ko chhodkar praaya: ye kavitaaeain paranparaabhukt aur baahya-roop-pradhaan hain. inka mahatva tatkaaleen prathaaon aur is samay ki nai saahityik pravruttiyon ka parichay denevaali krutiyon ke roop mein vishesh hai. antim geetasangrah ke lagbhag sau varsh baad proveinsaal ka prabhaav samaapt ho gaya. itaaleeya shaili ke pratham chinh usamein dikhaai padte hain, petraark aur daante ko aadarsh maankar rachanaaeain hui. agali shati mein yeh pravrutti paripakva roop mein dikhti hai. itaaleeya prabhaav speni ke maadhyam se aaya, jo adhik spasht hai. lagbhag sabhi ne upekshaapoorvak speni aur purtagaali mein likha hai aur yeh do bhaashaaon mein likhne ki pravrutti 17veen shati tak chaaloo rahi.

16veen shati purtagaali saahitya ka svarnakaal hai. kvinheintismo (16veen shati ki shaili) praacheen saahitya ke prabhaav, samudra ki pukaar aur samudra paar ke deshon ke manoram aakarshan ka samanvit roop hai. sthaapeeya kala mein bhi yeh prabhaav dikhaai padta hain, visheshakar maanueleeno shaili mein, jo us samay ke atyant prasiddh samraat maanuel pratham (1495-1521) ke naam par maanueleeno kahalaai. is shaili ki visheshata hai bhaarateeya mandiron se prabhaavit lataavrukshon ke abhipraayon se yukt prabhoot alankaran.

jil veecheinte (1465-1537) ke prayaason ke falasvaroop is shati mein aadhunik rangamanch ka vikaas hua. usane aaiberiya mein prasiddh aauto naamak vishesh prakaar ki naatya rachanaaon ki srushti ki. madhyayugeen dhaarmik naatak ke sthaan par jil veecheinte ne ooainchi prageeti kalpana ke saath yathaarthavaadi abhivyanjana shakti samanvit karke atyant svaabhaavik paatron se yukt naatakon ki rachana ki. yadyapi uske anuyaayiyon ne usaki kala ka anusaran kiya aur rangamanch ko uchchatam shikhar par pahuainchane ka shreya Spain ko mila, tathaapi jil beecheint ko naatak praarambh karne ka shreya hai.

lui de kaamos (1524-1580) ki pratibha 16veen shati mein sabse adhik prabhaavashaali rahi. os loosiaadaas ke roop mein usane apne desh ko klaasikl saaainche mein dhala atyant safal aakhyaan kaavya aur shreshth raashtreeya kaavya pradaan kiya. is kruti mein purtagaali mallaahon aur veeron ke saahasapoorn kaaryon ka pauraanik dhang se yashogaan kiya gaya hai. kintu kaamos ki khyaati geeti kavi ke roop mein isse bhi adhik hai. usaki geeti kavitaaon mein udaatt sangeet dvaara man ki sookshmatam bhaavanaaeain hui hain.[1]

madhyayugeen paranparaaon ka svar saahasapoorn kathaaon mein milta hai. benaardim riveiro (1482-1552) ne meneena emosa (chhota aur yuvak) ke roop mein bhaavuk ya saudaade bhaavadhaara se pradhaan vishesh prakaar ke purtagaali upanyaas ki srushti ki. riveiri antim mahaan kavi hai jisne medida velha (praacheen chhand) ka medida nova (naya chhand) ke sthaan par prayog kiya.

itaaleeya prabhaav khaas taur par sa de meeraanda (1481-1558) ke maadhyam se aaya jo kai varsh Italy mein rahane ke baad 1526 mein Portugal lauta. usane itaaleeya kavita ke chhandon, geet, saunet tatha ottaava reema (aathaveen laya) ka purtagaali kavita mein prayog kiya. jil beecheinte ki sthaaneeya visheshata se yukt lokapriya naatakon ka usane virodh kiya aur praacheen shaili ka samarthan kiya jiska anukaran plaautus, tereins aur ariosto ne kiya tha. sa de meeraanda ne bookolik kavita shaili mein bhi rachana ki. praacheen kaavyashaili ka anukaran karte hue usane apne samay ke vyaktiyon ka ullekh kiya hai.

purtagaali saahitya ka sabse mahatvapoorn aur vichitr ang hai upaniveshon ke itihaason, saahasapoorn yaatraaon, yuddhon, vijyon aur khojon se sambandhit krutiyon ki prachur maatra mein rachana. feranauon medes pinto (1510-1583) ki kruti peregreenaasaaaino (yaatra) is prakaar ki shreshth kruti hai. kruti ka vishay Portugal ke poorveeya deshon ke aadhiptya se sambandhit hai. anek vidvaanon ke mat se yeh kruti saahasi upanyaason ke kshetr mein atyant shreshth samajhi jaati hai.

itihaas lekhakon mein joaaaino de vaarros (1496-1570) ullekhaneeya hai. livi ko aadarsh maankar apni kruti dekaadaas mein chaaron mahaadveepon mein purtagaaliyon ke kaaryon ki gaatha gaane ki yojana banaakar vishaal aitihaasik kruti likhne ki rooparekha banaai thi. kintu usane keval Asia tak hi apne ko seemit rakha. baarros ko praacheen (classic) aadarsh ka nirvaah karne mein safalta mili hai. usaka anukaran karanevaalon ko vaisi safalta naheen mili, kintu apni pratyaksh anubhootiyon ke aadhaar par kai lekhakon ne saahasapoorn ghatnaaon ke vivran likhe hein jinmein bhale hi kala utkrushtata na mile kintu sajeevata avashya hai.

17veen shati ka vaataavaran bilkul bhinn hai. svaadheenata nasht ho gayi thi aur naitik niraasha ke kaaran Portugal mein kaavyarachana ka utsaah mand pad gaya tha; kaavya ke vibhinn angon mein hraas hone laga jo speneeya shaasan ke samaapt hone par (1640) bhi naheen ruka. aisi sthiti mein bhi gadya ne prashansaneeya saahityik garima praapt ki. anek lekhakon ne anek prakaar ki gadya krutiyaaain likheen jinmein bhaasha ki sajaavat par vishesh dhyaan diya gaya hai. in lekhakon mein antoniyo diyera (1608-1697) pradhaan hai. dhaarmik vishyon se sambandhit usaki anek krutiyaaain hain.

18veen shati mein do saahityik aandolan dikhte hain. pehla asvaabhaavik sajaavat ke viruddh jiske falasvaroop arkaadiya looseetaana (1756) ki sthaapana hui, jiska khaas uddeshya tha asvaabhaavikta ko sanyamit karna tatha speni ke prabhaav ke pratikool sangharsh. doosra aandolan us shati ki vishesh pravrutti ka soochak hai jiska uddeshya itihaas-lekhan-pranaali ko naya roop pradaan karna tatha daarshanik, gambhir aur aalochanaatmak krutiyon ke srujan ko utsaahit karna tha.

parivartan ke is yug mein bokaaje (1765-1805) ka ashaant aur jatil vyaktitv mahatvapoorn hai. vah vividh naveen vishyon par sahaj bhaav se vichaar prakat karne ki pratibha se yukt tha. kintu saath hi prachur samvedna bhi usamein thi aur is drushti se vah svachhandavaad ka aguaa hai.

svachhandavaad ka aagaman anek mahatvapoorn raajaneetik ghatnaaon se juda hua hai. ugr aur udaar dalon mein jo sangharsh hua uske kaaran bahut se lekhak baadhya hokar France aur England chale gaye jahaaain ve svachhandavaadi aandolan ke sampark mein aae. udaaravaadi vichaaradhaara ki sena ki vijay ke saath hi aalmeida gaareintt (1799-1853) aur aleksaandre herakoolaano (1810-1877) svadesh laut ae. ve donon svachhandavaad ke prabal samarthak the aur unhonne purtagaali saahitya ki kalaatmak shakti se yukt ek mahaan yug ka praarambh kiya jo poori shati mein chaaloo raha.

gaareintti is dhaara ka neta tha. usane svachhandavaadi pravruttiyon praapt kar raashtreeya naatak ka nirmaan kiya, geetikaashya ko fir se pallavit, pushpit kiya aur gadya ka navanirmaan kiya. herakoolaano aitihaasik upanyaas likhne tatha patrakaarita mein nipun tha. apne lekhon mein apne yug ki samasyaaon ki usane sookshm pareeksha ki hai aur is prakaar itihaas mein usane naveen aalochanaatmak drushtikon ka sanchaar kiya.

purtagaali svachhandavaadi saahitya sabhi roopon mein prasfutit hua aur jab anya deshon mein usaka hraas ho raha tha ya ho chuka tha us samay feleechyaano de kaasteelho (1800-1875) ne ek prakaar ki saahityik taanaashaahi sthaapit kar rakhi thi. jo koi bhi naveen vichaaradhaara praarambh karne ka yatn karta usaka vah ghor virodh karta.

1865 mein "koinbra ke asantushtavaadi aandolan" ne kaasteelho ke viruddh khula yuddh aarambh kar diya. saahityik jagat sangharsh jaise vaadavivaadon se kshubdh ho gaya, sabhi prakaar ki vichaaradhaaraaon ne purtagaaliyon mein svatantr roop se pravesh kiya.

is utsaahi peedhi ke navayuvak pratinidhiyon mein, jinhonne vivaad ke aaranbhik dinon mein prasiddhi praapt ki, kavi, daarshanik aantero the kvetaal (1842-1891), itihaas lekhan ko nai disha aur vistrut uddeshya pradaan karanevaale oleeveira maartins (1845-1894) tatha teofeelo braaga (1843-1924) jisne purtagaali sabhyata ka poorn sarvekshan nae drushtikon se prastut kiya, pramukh hain.

svachhandavaad aur yathaarthavaad ke beech ke sankraantikaal mein kaameelan kaastelo braankro ne achhi khyaati praapt ki. vah un mahaan Portugal upanyaasakaaron mein se hai jinhonne apni krutiyon mein svachhandavaad ke abhilshitta ke saath yathaarth aur paini paryavekshan drushti ko samanvit kiya.

19veen shati ke mahaan kathaakaaron mein esa de kveiri (1845-1900) ka sthaan bahut ooaincha hai. vah pratibhaasanpann upanyaas lekhak tha, jisne adviteeya aur sajeev paatron ki srujana ki tatha maanav durbalataaon par, suruchi ki raksha karte hue, vyangyapoorn dhang se prahaar kiya. purtagaali gadya ka usane navanirmaan ki use sajeevata aur vilkshan vyanjana pradaan ki.

is sandharshasheel peedhi ke pashchaat ek doosari peedhi aati hai jo apne vichaaron ko prachaarit karne mein aur bhi kattar thi. sankshep mein kah sakte hain ki 19veen shati ke saatavein dashak mein Portugal Europeeya chintan ki pramukh pravruttiyon mein pravisht ho chukane ke baad virodhi pravruttiyaaain dikhti hain- ek samanvayavaadi pravrutti jo baahari anubhavon ko grahan karne ke paksh mein hai, doosari raashtravaadi hai jo sthaaneeya sroton tak hi seemit rahana chaahati hai.

is aandolan ka vishisht pratinidhi teksehara paaskois (1878-1952) tha. usane saaudaade ke naam par saaudosismo ki sthaapana ki. mahaan geetikvi aantoniyo nobare nitaant vyaktigat shaili mein paraspar bilkul bhinn anubhavon ko saath milaakar vyakt karne mein safal hua. vah aadhunikta ka aguaa hai. is dhaara ke pratinidhiyon mein feranaando pesoaa (1888-1935) sabse adhik siddh hai. usane anek upanaam rakhakar likhte hue apne bahumukhi pair shaktishaali vyaktitv ke vibhinn roopon ko alag-alag vyakt karne ka yatn kiya hai. use aage ki saahityik peedhiyon ka neta maana jaata hai. vartamaan saahitya mein kavita ka sthaan mahatvapoorn maana hua hai. preseinnja (ek saptaahik patra) ka aandolan, navayaarthavaadi aur atiythaarthavaadi pravruttiyon ka pratinidhitv karta hai. kai aise bhi kavi hain jo vishesh "vaad" ya pravrutti se alag aur svatantr hain.

gadya lekhakon mein aakveeleeno ribeiro (1885) ka naam vishesh ullekh yogya hai. vah apne yathaarthavaadi, vyanjak aur naatakeeya tatv yukt upanyaason ke liye prasiddh hai.

anek nibandh aur prabandh aalochanaatmak aur daarshanik drushtikon ki paripkvata ka parichay dete hain. is disha mein aantoniyo serajyo (1883) ki den sarvaadhik hai.

sandarbh

  1. "The Lusiads". 1800-1882. http://www.wdl.org/en/item/11198/. abhigman tithi: 2013-08-31.

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