puraana kila, Delhi

puraane kile, Delhi ka bada daravaaja

puraana kila nai Delhi mein yamuna nadi ke kinaare sthit praacheen deena-panaah nagar ka aantarik kila hai. is kile ka nirmaan sher shaah soori ne apne shaasan kaal mein 1538 se 1545 ke beech karavaaya tha. kile ke teen bade dwaar hain tatha iski vishaal deevaarein hain. iske andar ek masjid hai jismein do taleeya ashtabhuji stambh hai. hindu saahitya ke anusaar yeh kila indraprasth ke sthala‍ par hai jo paandavon ki vishaal rajdhani hoti thi. jabki iska nirmaan afgaani shaasak sher shaah soori ne 1538 se 1545 ke beech karaaya gaya, jisne mugal baadshah humaayooain se Delhi ka sinhaasan chheen liya tha. aisa kaha jaata hai ki mugal baadshah humaayooain ki is kile ke ek se neeche girne ke kaaran durghatanaavash mrutyu ho gayi.

anukram

itihaas

kaha jaata hai ki Delhi ko sarvapratham paandav|paandavon ne apni rajdhani indraprasth ke roop mein basaaya tha vah bhi isaapoorv se 1400 varsh pehle, parantu iska koi pakka pramaan naheen hain. aaj dikh rahe puraane kile ke dakshin poorvi bhaag mein san 1955 mein pareekshan ke liye kuchh khandak khode gaye the aur jo mitti ke paatron ke tukade aadi paae gaye ve mahaabhaarat ki katha se jude anya sthalon se praapt pura vastuon se mel khaate the jisse is puraane kile ke bhoobhaag ko indraprasth rahe hone ki maanyata ko kuchh bal mila hai. bhale hi mahaabhaarat ko ek puraan ke roop mein dekhte hain lekin bauddh saahitya “aanguttar nikaaya” mein vaarnit mahaajanapadon yatha ang, asmak, avanti, gandhaar, magadh, chhedi aadi mein se bahuton ka ullekh mahaabhaarat mein bhi milta hai jo is baat ka sanket hai ki yeh granth maatr pauraanik hi naheen tathaapi kuchh aitihaasikta ko bhi sanjoye hue hai. bj

puraataatvik pramaan

puraane kile ki poorvi deevaar ke paas dubaara khudaai 1969 se 1973 ke beech bhi ki gayi thi. vahaan se mahaabhaarat kaaleen maanav basaasat ke koi pramaan to naheen mile lekin maurya kaal (300 varsh isaapoorv) se lekar praarambhik mugl kaal tak anvarat vah bhoobhaag maanav basaahat se paripoorn raha. aise pramaan milte gaye hain jinme kaal vishesh ke sikke, manake, mitti ke bartan, paki mitti ki (teraakota) yaksh yakshiyon ki chhoti chhoti pratimaaeain, lipi yukt mudraaeain (seal) aadi pramukh hain jo kile ke sangrahaalaya mein prardashit hain.

kehte hain ki mugl samraat humaayooain ne yamuna nadi ke kinaare usi teele par jiske neeche indraprasth dabi padi hai, apne swayam ki nagari “adeenapanaaha” sthaapit ki thi. tatpashchaat sherashaah soor (soori)(1538-45) ne jab humaayooain par vijay praapt ki to sabhi bhavanon ko nasht kar vartamaan Delhi, sherashaahi ya “asheragadh” ka nirmaan praarambh karavaaya. is beech humaayooain ne pun: sanghatit hokar aakraman kiya aur apni khoi hui saltanat vaapas pa li. samjha jaata hai ki kile ka nirmaan kaarya humaayooain ne hi 1545 mein poorn karaaya tha.

kile ka varnan

puraana kila moolat: yamuna nadi ke tat par hi bana tha parantu uttar aur pashchim dishaaon ke dhalaan se prateet hota hai ki nadi ko jodti hui ek khaai suraksha ke drushti se bani thi. is kile ki chahar deevaari lagbhag 2.4 kilometer lambi hai aur iske teen mukhya daravaaje uttar, pashchim aur dakshin mein hain. iname se pashchimi daravaaje ka prayog aajkal kile mein pravesh ke liye kiya jaata hai. uttar ki or ka dwaar “atalaaki daravaajaa” kahalaata hai. yeh spasht naheen hai ki kab aur kyon is daravaaje ke upayog ko pratibandhit kiya gaya. yeh kila mugl, hindu tatha afaghaani vaastukala ke samanvaya ka ek sundar namoona maana jaata hai.

sherashaah dvaara banavaaya gaya sher mandal jo ashtakoneeya do manjila bhavan hai. isi bhavan me humaayooain ka pustakaalaya hua karta tha. yaheen par ek baar pustakon ke bojh ko uthaaye hue jab humaayooain seedhiyon se utar raha tha, tabhi ajaan (islaami praarthana) ki pukaar sunaai padti hai, namaaj ka samay ho chala tha. humaayooain ki aadat thi ki namaaj ki pukaar sunate hi, jahaaain kaheen bhi hota jhuk jaaya karta. jhukate samay uske pair lambe choge mein kaheen fains gaye aur vah santulan kho kar gir pada. is durghatana se hui shaareerik kshati se hi 1556 ke poorvaardh me vah chal basa.

mahaabhaarat ka indraprasth

mahaabhaarat mein ullekhit paandavon ki rajdhani indraprasth sambhavat: isi sthaan par thi. puraane kile mein vibhinn sthaanon par shilaapaton par yeh vaakya likhe hain. paandavon ki rajdhani indraprasth kahaan thi? is baat ko lekar logon mein bahas hoti rahi hai. lekin khudaai mein mile avasheshon ke aadhaar par puraatatvavidon ka ek bada varg yeh maanata hai ki paandavon ki rajdhani isi sthal par rahi hogi.

yadyapi puraatatvavidon ke paas is baat ke pukhta pramaan naheen hain, lekin khudaai ke dauraan yahaan mile bartanon ke avasheshon se kile ke aaspaas paandavon ki rajdhani hone ki baat ko bal milta hai. yahaan khudaai mein aise bartanon ke avashesh mile hain, jo mahaabhaarat se jude anya sthaanon par bhi mile hain. iske alaava mahaabhaarat se jude prasang aur praacheen paramparaaen bhi is or sanket karti hain, ki yahaan paandavon ki rajdhani rahi hogi.

Bhaarat mein bahut kam nagar aise hain, jo Delhi ki samaan puraane hon. itihaasakaaron ke anusaar poorv aitihaasik kaal mein jis sthal par indraprasth basa hua tha, uske oonche teele par 16 veen shataabdi mein puraana kila banaaya gaya. bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ne is kile ki kai staron par khudaai ki hai. khudaai mein praacheen bhoore rang se chitrit mitti ke vishisht bartanon ke avashesh mile hain, jo mahaabhaarat kaal ke hain. aise hi bartan anya mahaabhaarat kaaleen sthalon par bhi paae gaye hain. is baare mein ek tathya yeh bhi hai ki indraprasth ke apabhransh indraparat ke naam ka ek gaanv vartamaan shataabdi ke praarambh tak puraana kila mein sthit tha. rajdhani nai Delhi ka nirmaan karne ke dauraan anya gaanvon ke saath use bhi hata diya gaya tha. Delhi mein sthit saaraval gaanv se 1328 isvi ka sanskrut ka ek abhilekh praapt hua hai. yeh abhilekh laal kile ke sangrahaalaya mein upasthit hai. is abhilekh mein is gaanv ke indraprasth jile mein sthit hone ka ullekh hai.

vaheen mahaabhaarat ke anusaar kuru desh ki rajdhani ganga ke kinaare hastinaapur mein sthit thi. jab paandavon aur unke chachere bhaai kauravon ke beech sambandh bigad gaye to kauravon ke pita dhrutaraashtr ne paandavon ko yamuna ke kinaare khaandavaprasth ka kshetr de diya. vahaan unhonne samudra jaise gaddhon dvaara ghire hue ek nagar ko banaaya aur usaki rakshaatmak praacheerein banaai. vidvaanon ka mat hai ki puraana kila ki rooparekha bhi isi prakaar ki thi. isse bhi spasht hota hai ki indraprasth ek nagar ka naam tha, jo puraana kila ke sthaan par basa tha aur jis kshetr mein yeh sthit tha, us kshetr ka naam khaandavaprasth tha. kaha jaata hai ki kauravon par apni vijay ke baad paandavon ne rajdhani indraprasth ko Bhagwan Krishna se sambandhit kisi Yadav vanshaj ko saunp diya.

ek aur prasang hai, jiske anusaar paandavon ne kauravon se paanch gaanv maange the. ye ve gaaainv the jinke naamon ke ant mein pat aata hai. jo sanskrut ke prasth ka hindi saamya hai. ye pat vaale gaanv hain indarapat, baagapat, tilpat, soneepat aur Panipat hain. yeh parampara mahaabhaarat par aadhaarit hai. jin sthaanon ke naam diye gaye hain. unamein okhala nahar ke poorvi kinaare par Delhi ke dakshin mein lagbhag 22 kilometer doori par tilpat gaanv sthit hai. in sabhi sthalon se mahaabhaarat kaaleen bhoore rang ke bartan mile hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

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