punjabi saahitya

punjabi saahitya ka aarambh kab se hota hai, is vishay mein vidvaanon ka mataikya naheen hai. fareed ko punjabi ka aadi kavi kaha jaata hai ; kintu yadi is baat ko sveekaar kiya jaaya ki jin fareed ki baani "aadi granth" mein sangruheet hai ve fareed saani hi the to kehna padega ki 16veen shati se pehle ka punjabi saahitya upalabdh naheen hai. is drushti se guru naanak ko hi punjabi ka aadi kavi maanana hoga. "aadi granth" punjabi ka aadi granth hai. ismein saat guruon aur 16 bhakton ki vaaniyaaain sangruheet hain. padon ki kul sankhya 3384 hai. guru naanak ki rachanaaon mein sarvaprasiddh "japuji" hai; iske atirikt "aasa di vaar," "sohila" aur "rahiraas" tatha lagbhag 500 futakar pad aur hai. bhaav aur abhivyakti evam kala aur sangeet ki drushti se yeh baani atyant sundar aur prabhaavapoorn hai. bhakti mein "simran" aur jeevan mein "seva" naanak ki vaani ke do pramukh svar hain. paravarti sikkh guruon ne guru naanak ke bhaavon ki praaya: anukruti aur vyaakhya ki hai. guru raamadaas (1534-1581 E.) ki kavita mein kaavyagun adhik hai. guru arjunadev (1561-1606 E.) ki vaani mein gyaan aur vichaar ki pradhaanata hai. "aadi" granth mein sabse adhik pad (1000 se kuchh oopar) inheen ke hain. yeh baat visheshat: ullekhaneeya hai ki poore granth mein kul milaakar 350-400 pad punjabi ke honge. guru govindasinh ke "dasham granth" mein bhi "chandi di vaar" ekamaatr punjabi ki kruti hai, jo sirkhandi chhand mein rachana hai. ismein durga devi aur daityon ke yuddh ka varnan hai. sikkh guruon ke atirikt bhaai gurudaas (1558-1637 E.) ki vaani ko gurumat saahitya ke antargat maanyata di jaati hai. unke kavitt aur savaie brajabhaasha mein hain, vaarein aur geet shuddh saahityik punjabi mein hain.

soofi kaviyon mein fareed ke baad lutf Ali ka naam aata hai. inki rachana "saifalamalook" samvedna, vairaagya bhaavana aur sarasata ke liye bahut prasiddh hai. paravarti soofiyon par iska bahut adhik prabhaav raha hai. prem, virh aur vairaagya se bhare shaah husen laahauri (1538-1599 E.) ke geet bade prabhaavotpaadak aur kavitvapoorn hain. inki kaafiyon mein nirpeksh prem ka svar hai. islaam ki sharaa se vidroh karanevaala doosra kavi sultaan baahoo (1629-1690 E.) hua hai. isne apni "seeharfiyon" mein ahankaar ke tyaag, guru ki krupa aur sahaayata, antarnireekshan aur aatmachintan par bal diya hai aur us duniya mein rahane ki aakaanksha prakat ki hai jahaaain "main" aur "mere" ka bakheda naheen hai. shaah sharaf ki kaafiyon mein roopakon dvaara ishk hakeeki ke rahasya samajhaae gaye hain. punjabi soofi saahitya ke prasiddhatam kavi bulleshaah kasoori prem, saadhana aur milan ke saadhak hain. unki kavita ki sabe badi visheshata hai bhaasha ka oj aur prabhaav. Ali haidar (1690-1785 E.) ki seehafinyaaain aur kaafiyaaain kuchh durooh aur daarshanik hone ke kaaran sarvapriya naheen hain. paravarti soofiyon mein vajeed, fareed (1720-90 E.), gulaam jeelaani (1749-1819), haashim (1753-1823), bahaadur (1750-1850 E.) aadi prasiddh hain. punjabi soofi saahatya praaya: geya muktak kaavya hai.

is yug ka laukik saahitya visheshataya vaaron aur shrungaararasapradhaan kisson ke roop mein upalabdh hai. heer raaainjha ka kissa sabse adhik puraatan aur prasiddh hai. sabse shreshth rachana baaris shaah (1738-1798 E.) ki "heer" hai. vaaris shaah bade anubhavi, pratibhaashaali aur bahujnya kavi the. bhaasha par unka poorn adhikaar tha. "mirja saahibaaain" ki premakatha ko bhi kai kaviyon ne kaavyabaddh kiya, par sabse puraatan aur uttam kissa jahaaaingeer aur shaahajahaaain ke raajyakaal mein peeloo ne likha. peeloo ke baad haafij barakhuradaar ne bhi mirjaasaahibaaain ka kissa likha. usane "yoosoof-julekha" aur "sassi punnoo" ki premakathaaeain bhi likheen. sassi aur punnoo bilochistan ke evam julekha aur Yusuf misr ke the. haashim (1753-1823 E.) ki "sassi" is naam ke kisson mein sabse adhik lokapriya hai. iske atirikt unki "sohani maheevaal," "sheereen farahaad" aur "laila majanooain" prabandh krutiyaaain hain. pichhle do kisse faarasi se liye gaye hain aur "sohani maheevaal" Gujarat (Punjab) ki lokavaarta se. bhaavon ki sookshm abhivyakti ke liye haashim adviteeya hai. ahamadayaar (1768-1845) ne 40 kisse likhe, jinmein "heer raaainjha," "sassi punnoo," "kaamaroop", "raajabeebi," "chandarabadan" uchch koti ke hain. inke kaavya ki visheshata hai vaichitryapoorn ghatnaaon ka taaratamya, sanyat varnan evam aalankaarik bhaasha shaili: kintu vishay ki mailikta kam hai. amaamabakhsh ki krutiyon mein "baharaam gor" uttam kaavya ke antargat gina jaata hai. isi samay ka ek aur kavi kaadarayaar hua hai. usaki prasiddhi "pooranabhagat" aur "raaja rasaaloo" ke kisson ke kaaran hai. pooran aur rasaaloo donon syaalakot ke raaja shaalivaahan ke putr the.

punjabi ka veer saahitya bahut samruddh hai. iske antargat guru govindasinh ki "chandi di vaar" shiromani rachana hai. najaabat ki "naadarashaah di heer" aur shaah muhammad (1782-1862 E.) ki apne aashrayadaata mahaaraaja ranajeetasinh ki katha bhi ullekhaneeya hai. mukabal (1696 E.) ka "jaganaama", jismein hasan husain aur yajeed ke yuddhon ka maarmik varnan hai, shiya musalmaanon mein bade chaav se padha jaata hai.

praarambhik kaal ka punjabi gadya saahitya mahaapurushon ki janmasaakhiyon, goshthon aur teekaaon ke roop mein praapt hota hai. bhaai baalaakrut guru naanak ki janmasaakhi (1535 E.) sabse praacheen hai. baad mein sevaasinh (1588 E.) aur maneesinh (1737 E.) ne bhi gurunaanak ka jeevanacharit likha. bhaai maneesinh ki "gyaan ratanaavali" punjabi gadya ki uttam kruti hai. unheen ki ek doosari gadyarachana "bhagat ratanaavali" hai jismein pehle paaainch guruon ke samakaaleen kuchh premi bhakton ki kathaaeain hai. inke atirikt "paarasabhaag," "bharathari", "mainaavat," hajarat muhammad saahab, kabeer aur ravidaas ki jeevaniyaaain, "satayug katha," "paki roti," "geetaasaar", "lavakush samvaad," "japu paramaarth" "sinhaasanabatteesi" aur "vivek" aadi chhoti badi gadyakrutiyaaain ullekhaneeya hain.

aadhunik punjabi saahitya mukhyat: sikkhon ki den hain aur usamein sikkhapan ka adhik sthaan mila hai. kintu jeevan ki ekaangita rahate hue bhi saahitya praaya: laukik hai. is yug ke aadi kavi bhaai veerasinh (1872-1957 E.) maane jaate hain. unka "raan sooratasinh" (1915) 35 sargon ka atukaant prabandh kaavya hai. iska uddeshya sikkh siddhaanton ki pratishtha hai. unki "laharaaain de haar" rahasyavaadi rachana hai. "matak hulaare" mein prakrutichitran aur "bijliyaaain de haar" mein deshaprem milta hai. pro॰ poorn Singh (1882-1932 E.) ki kavita mein vedaanti bauddh aur paashchaatya vichaaron ka goodh prabhaav hai. inke vichaaron aur alankaaron mein apni maulikta bhi spashtat: lakshit hoti hai. dhaneeraam chaatrik (janm 1876 E.) yathaarthavaadi kintu niraashaavaadi kavi hain. unke "bharathari hari" aur "nal damayanti" mein shaili aur vichaaradhaara puraani hai, baad ki kavitaaon mein shahari jeevan ka chitran maulik dhang se hua hai. punjabi kaavya ko nae mod denevaale kaviyon mein pro॰ mohanasinh (janm 1905 E.) sarvavidit hain. ishvar, jeevan, prem, samaaj aur prakruti ke prati unki naveen aur maulik drushti hai. "saave pattar" "kasunbhade" mein ve shareeravaadi aur maanavavaadi hain to "adhavaate" mein samaajavaadi aur chhaayaavaadi bankar aae hain. mohanasinh geetkaar bhi hai aur shaileekaar bhi. kaavya mein unhonne kai nae prayog chalaae hain. amruta preetam (janm 1909) ke anek kavitaasangrah prakaashit hain. ye badi safal geetkaar hain. inki kavita ki prerak shakti prem hai jo ab maanav prem mein parivrtit hota ja raha hai. gopaalasinh dardi ka "hanere savere" kaavya sangrah ullekhaneeya hai. ve samaaj ke paapon ka chitran karne mein daksh hain.

pramukh punjabi saahityakaar

  • surajeet paatar
  • bhaai veer Singh
  • dhani Ram chaatrik
  • harajadar Singh dilgar
  • guradiaal Singh
  • sohan Singh seetal
  • sant Singh sekhon
  • jasavant Singh kanval
  • pro॰ pooran Singh
  • pro॰ piaara Singh padam
  • Dave thareeke vaale
  • Anwar masood