punjabi bhaasha

punjabi
ਪaaੰaaਜaaਾaaਬaaੀ; پaaنaaجaaاaaبaaی
Punjabi example.svg
boli jaati hai Pakistan, Bhaarat, sanyukt raajashaahi, sanyukt raajya America, Canada aur anya punjabi aprivaasan ke desh.
kshetr Punjab
kul bolne vaale 12.9 karod
bhaasha parivaar hind-Europeeya
lekhan pranaali punjabi
aadhikaarik star
aadhikaarik bhaasha ghoshit Punjab (Bhaarat), Punjab (Pakistan)
niyaamak koi aadhikaarik niyman naheen
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 pa
ISO 639-2 pan
ISO 639-3 pan

punjabi (guramukhi: ਪaaੰaaਜaaਾaaਬaaੀ ; shaahamukhi: پaaنaaجaaاaaبaaی) ek hind-aaryan bhaasha hai aur aitihaasik Punjab kshetr (ab Bhaarat aur Pakistan ke beech vibhaajit) ke nivaasiyon tatha pravaasiyon dvaara boli jaati hai. iske bolne vaalon me sikh, musalmaan aur hindu sabhi shaamil hain. Pakistan ki 1998 ki janaganana aur 2001 ki Bhaarat ki janaganana ke anusaar, Bhaarat aur Pakistan me bhaasha ke kul vaktaaon ki sankhya lagbhag 9-13 karod hai, jiske anusaar yeh vishv ki 11veen sabse vyaapak bhaasha hai. kam se kam pichhle 300 varshon se likhit punjabi bhaasha ka maanak roop, maajhi boli par aadhaarit hai, jo aitihaasik maajha kshetr ki bhaasha hai.

anukram

parichay

punjabi bhaasha Punjab ki aadhunik bhaarateeya aaryabhaasha hai. griyrsan ne (lingvistik sarve bhaag 1,8 tatha 9 mein) poorvi punjabi ko "punjabi" aur pashchimi punjabi ko "lahainbra" kaha hai. vaastav mein poorvi punjabi aur pashchimi punjabi punjabi ki do upabhaashaaeain hai jaise poorvi hindi aur pashchimi hindi hindi ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein] yeh alag baat hai ki Pakistan ban jaane ke kaaran donon bhaashaaon ka vikaas itni bhinn dishaaon mein ho raha hai ki inke alag alag bhaashaaeain ho jaane ki sambhaavana hai. punjabi ki ek teesari upabhaasha "dogari" hai jo Jammu-Kashmir ke dakshin-poorvi pradesh aur kaaaingada ke aaspaas boli jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] saahitya mein madhyakaal mein lahaindi ka mulataani roop aur aadhunik kaal mein amrutasar aur uske aaspaas prachalit poorvi punjabi ka maajhi roop vyavahrut hota raha hai. amrutasar sikkhon ka pradhaan dhaarmik teerth aur kendra hai. isaai mishnariyon ne ludhiyaana-Patiala ki malabai boli ko tankasaali banaane ka prayatn kiya. usaka parinaam itna to hua hai ki malavai ka prabhaav sarvatr vyaapt hai, kintu aadarsh saahityik bhaasha ke roop mein maajhi hi sarvamaanya rahi hai. pashchimi Punjab ki boliyon mein mulataani, deraavaali, avaanakaari aur pothohaari, ev poorvi punjabi ki boliyon mein pahaadi, maajhi, dooaabi, puaadhi, malavai aur raathi prasiddh hain. pashchimi punjabi aur poorvi punjabi ki seemaarekha raavi nadi maani gayi hai.

"punjabi" naam bahut puraana naheen hai. is pradesh ka praacheen naam 'saptasindhu' aur fir 'panchanad' ka hi anuvaad roop mein "Punjab" bataaya jaata hai. bhaasha ke liye "punjabi" shabd 1670 E. mein haafij barakhudaar (kavi) ne pehli baar prayukt kiya; kintu iska saadhaaran naam baad mein bhi "hindi" ya "hindavi" raha hai, yahaaain tak ki ranajeetasinh ka darabaari kavi haashim mahaaraaj ke saamane apni bhaasha (punjabi) ko hindi kehta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] vastut: 19veen sadi ke ant tak hindu aur sikkhon ki bhaasha ka jhukaav brajabhaasha ki or raha hai. yeh avashya hai ki musalmaan jo is desh ki kisi bhi bhaasha se parichit naheen the, lokabhaasha aur visheshat: lahaindi ka prayog karte rahe hain. musalmaan kaviyon ki bhaasha sada arabi-faarasi lahaindi-mishrit punjabi rahi hai.

pichhle varshon mein saahityik punjabi ne nae mod liye hain. 20veen sadi ke poorvaardh mein punjabi ne faarasi aur aaingareji shabdaavali aur prayogon ka grahan kiya, svatantrata praapti ke baad se hindi ke raajabhaasha ho jaane ke kaaran ab ismein adhikaadhik sanskrut hindi ke shabd aa rahe hain.

punjabi aur hindi khadi boli mein bahut antar hai. punling ekavan shabdon ki aakaaraant rachana aur inse visheshan aur kriya ka saamanjasya, sanjnyaaaon aur sarvanaamon ke pratyaksh aur tiryak roop, kriyaaon kaalaadi bhed se judnevaale pratyaya donon bhaashaaon mein praaya: ek se hain. punjabi ke kaarakachihr is prakaar hain - ne; nooain (hin. ko); thon ya on (hin se); da, de, di (hin. ka, ke, ki); vich (hin. mein). punling aur streeling shabdon ka bahuvachan tiryak roop - aaain hota hai, baataaain, kudiyaaain, mudyaaain, patharaaain, saadhuaaain. yeh svarasaamanjasya sanjnyaa, visheshan aur kriya mein baraabar bana rahata hai, jaise chhotyaaain moondyaaain, dyaaain maapyaaain noon (hin. chhote ladkon ke maaain baap ko), chhatiyaaain kudiyaaain jaaain diyaaain hain (hin. chhoti ladkiyaaain jaati hain).

dhvanivikaas ki drushti se punjabi abhi tak apni praakrut avastha se bahut aage naheen badhi hai. tulana keejiye punjabi hatth, kann, jangh, satt, kattana, chhadana aur hindi haath, kaan, jaaaingh, saat, kaatana, chhodna aadi. poorvi punjabi mein saghosh mahaapraan dhvaniyaaain (gh, jh, dh, dh, bh) aghosh aarohi sur ke saath boli jaati hain. yeh punjabi ki apni visheshata hai. punjabi bolanevaalon ki kul sankhya karod hai.

bhaugolik kshetr

Countries where Punjabi is spoken.png

punjabi Pakistan mein sab se badi bhaasha hai. yeh 45 feesad pakistaaneeon ki maatrubhaasha jab ki 70 feesad Pakistani is ko bolna jaate nein. punjabi ki kayi boliyon bhi nein parantu A ek doosare se itne alag nein aur bana kisi madad ke koi bhi banda har boli ko samajh leta hai. Punjab ke saath A poore aajaad Kashmir mein boli aur samajhi jaati hai. is se alag Bhaarat ki sirf 3 feesad aabaadi punjabi bolti A, parantu punjabi ko Bhaarat ke sooba Punjab, Bhaarat mein sarkaari boli aur Delhi aur Haryana mein doosari boli ka darja hai.

punjabi, angrej ke aan aur Bhaarat aur mil maarane se pehle, Delhi se le kar pishaavar tak faile hue Punjab mein lahajo ke chhote chhote frkon saath boli jaane waali boli thi. 1901i. mein angrejon ne us samay par ke Punjab ke oopar vaale lete taraf ko kaat kar sooba sarhad bana diya aur fir 1947i. mein rahata Punjab bhi 2tukadon: chadhte Punjab aur utarate Punjab mein bainta gaya. 1960i. mein is chadhte ya baarati Punjab ke bhi 3tukade karke Himachal pradesh, Haryana aur Punjab mein baaaint diya gaya. aaainaj punjabi bhi bhaag gayi aur raajanaitik faide ke liye is ko Himachal pradesh mein hindi ka ek lahaja bataaya gaya jab ki Himachal pradesh mein boli jaane waali boli punjabi ka angeethi lahaja hai.

is samay par punjabi Pakistan ke sooba Punjab mein lahajo ke maamooli frk saath aur sooba sarhad mein kohaat, banega aur pishaavar ke aal aaspaas (hindako ke naam saath) dera ismaail Khan mein (deri ke naam saath) aur Abbottabad, hari parantu aur hajaara divijn ke doosare sthaanon mein (hindako ke naam saath), aajaad Kashmir de sthaanon mein (pahaadi aur gujri ke naam saath) aur sindh de Punjab saath lagte ilaaka mein aur Bhaarat mein panajaap, Himachal pradesh, Haryana de kaafi ilaaka mein Delhi aur Rajasthan de Punjab saath lagte jilein aur kabja kiya hua jamon aur Kashmir mein jamon de jilein mein boli jaati hai. is ke ilaava amareeka, kaineda, Australia aur barataaniya mein akaliyti jbaan ke taur aur boli jaati hai.

punjabi saahitya

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain