punarjaagaran

floreins punarjaagaran ka kendra tha

punarjaagaran ya rinainsa Europe mein madhyakaal mein aaye ek sanskrutik aandolan ko kehte hain. yeh aandolan Italy se aarambh hokar poore yorap mein fail gaya. is aandolan ka samay chaudahaveen shataabdi se lekar satrahaveen shataabdi tak maana jaata hai.

  • is saanskrutik aandolan mein paramparaagat sroton (mukhyat: laitin evam greek) se jnyaaanaarjan ne jor pakada.
  • shiksha mein kramash: kintu sarvavyaapi sudhaar hua jisse logon ki sansaar ke cheejon ki samajh mein aamool parivartan aaya.
  • peinting mein rekheeya paridrushya (liniyr paraspektiv) ka vikaas hua. punarjaagaran kala ke vibhinn vidhaaon ke vikaas ke liye vishesh roop se jaana jaata hai.

anukram

vibhinn kshetron mein punarjaagaran

'rinaishaan' ka arth 'punarjanm' hota hai. mukhyat: yeh yoonaan aur rom ke praacheen shaastreeya gyaan ki pun:pratishtha ka bhaav prakat karta hai. Europe mein madhyayug ki samaapti aur aadhunik yug ka praarambh isi samay se maana jaata hai. Italy mein iska aarambh Francisco petraark (1304-1367) jaise logon ke kaal mein hua, jab inhein yoonaani aur laitin krutiyon mein manushya ki shakti aur gaurav sambandhi apne vichaaron aur maanyataaon ka samarthan dikhaai diya. 1453 mein jab kaanstetinopil par turkon ne adhikaar kar liya, to vahaaain se bhaaganevaale isaai apne saath praacheen yoonaani paandulipiyaaain pashchim lete gaye. is prakaar yoonaani aur laitin saahitya ke adhyetaaon ko apratyaashit roop se baaijeintaain saamraajya ki moolyavaan vichaarasaamagri mil gayi. Charles pancham dvaara rom ki vijay (1527) ke pashchaat punarjaagaran ki bhaavana aalps ke paar poore Europe mein fail gayi.

itaalavi punarjaagaran mein saahitya ki vishyavastu ki apeksha uske roop par adhik dhyaan diya jaata tha. Germany mein iska arth shram aur aatmasanyam tha, itaalaviyon ke liye aaraam aur aamod-pramod hi maanaveeya aadarsh tha. dach aur jarman kalaakaaron, ne jinmein haalven aur elbart dyoorar ullekhaneeya hain, shaastreeya saahitya ki apeksha apne aaspaas dainik jeevan mein adhik ruchi pradarshit ki. vaigyaanik upalabdhiyon ke kshetr mein Germany Italy se bhi aage nikal gaya. Italy ke panditon aur kalaakaaron ka fraanseesiyon par seedha aur pratyaksh prabhaav pada; kintu unhonne apni maulikta ko praacheenata ke prem mein vilupt naheen hone diya. angreji punarjaagaran John kole (1467-1519) aur sar taamas mor (1478-1535) ke vichaaron se prabhaavit hua.

maikiyaaveli ki pustak "the prince" mein raajaneetik punarjaagaran ki sachchi bhaavana ka darshan hota hai. Roger bekan ne apni kruti "saalaamanj house" mein punarjaagaran ki aadarshavaadi bhaavana ko abhivyakti pradaan ki hai. jyotish shaastr mein kraantikaari parivartan hue aur ganit, bhautiki, rasaayan shaastr, chikitsa, jeevavijnyaaan aur saamaajik vijnyaaanon mein bahumoolya yogadaan hue. kaarpaniks ne yeh siddhaant pratipaadit kiya ki pruthvi apni dhuri par ghumati hai aur anya grahon ke saath, jo swayam apni dhuriyon par ghoomate hain, soorya ki parikrama karti hai. keplar ne is siddhaant ko adhik spasht karte hue kaha ki pruthvi tatha anya grah soorya ke aaspaas vruttaakaar path ke bajaay deerghavruttaakaar path par parikrama karte hain. Pope gregari ne calendar mein sanshodhan kiya, koparaniks aur kolanbas ne kramash: jyotish tatha bhoogol mein yogadaan kiya. pratyek akshar ke liye alag-alag type ke aavishkaar se mudranakala mein kraantikaari parivartan hua.

lionaardo da vinchi ki prasiddh kalaakruti : 'the laast sapar'
chaitoo di chaimbord (Châateau de Chambord) punarjaagaran kaal ke sthaapatya ke sabse prasiddh udaaharanon mein se ek hai.

ek or saahitya puraatatvavedi praacheen greek aur laitin lekhakon ki nakal kar rahe the, doosari or kalaakaar, praacheen kala ke adhyeta prayogon mein ruchi le rahe the aur nai paddhatiyon ka nirmaan kar kuchh suprasiddh kalaakaar jaise lionaardo da vinchi aur Michael Angelo navodit yug ka pratinidhitv kar rahe the. lionaardo da vinchi moortikaar, vaigyaanik aavishkaarak, vaastukaar, engineer, baile (Ballet) nrutya ka aavishkaarak aur prakhyaat bahuvijnya tha. itaalaviyon ne chitrakala mein vishesh utkarsh pradarshit kiya. yadyapi prayukt saamagri bahut sundar naheen thi, tathaapi un chitrakaaron ki kala yathaarthata, prakaash, chhaaya aur drushya-bhoomika ki drushti se poorn hain. the vinsi aur maaikel Angelo ke atirikt raafel Italy ke shreshth chitrakaar hue hain. dyooyoores aur haalaven mahaan utkeernak hue hain. moortikla, yoonaani aur romani ka anusaran kar rahi thi. laareinjon givrti chitrashilpi punarjaagaranakaaleen shilpakala ka pratham mahaan agradoot tha. robiya apni chamakeeli meenaakaari ke liye vikhyaat tha to Angelo apne ko shilpakala mein mahaanatam vyakti maanata tha, yadyapi vah anya kalaaon mein bhi mahaan tha. itaalavi punarjaagaran kaaleen lalit kalaaon mein vaastukala ke utthaan ka ansh nyoonatam tha. fir bhi madhyayugeen aur praacheen roopon ke ek vishesh punarjaagaran shaili ka aavirbhaav hua.

yoonaani aur romani saahitya ka anusheelan, punarjaagaran ka mukhya visheshata thi. pratyek shikshit yooropavaasi ke liye yoonaani aur laitin ki jaankaari apekshit thi aur yadi koi sthaaneeya bhaasha ka prayog karta bhi tha, to vah use klaisikl roop ke sadrush klaisikl naamon, sandarbhon aur uktiyon ko jodta aur homar, maigasthaneej, varajil ya sisro ke alankaaron, udaaharanon se karta tha. klesisijm ke punarutthaan ke saath maanavavaad ki bhi panapa. maanavavaad ka siddhaant tha ki laukik maanav ke oopar alaukikta, dharm aur vairaagya ko mahatva naheen milna chaahiye. maanavabaad ne svaanubhooti aur paryaavaran ke vikaas ant mein vyaktivaad ko janm diya. 15veen shati mein ek teekshn maanavavaadi itihaasakaar laareinjo vaila (Lorenzo Valla) ne yeh siddh kiya ki samraat kaanstaitaain ka church ko tathaakathit daan (Donation of Constantine) vaastav mein jaalsaaji tha.

punarjaagaran sachmuch vartamaan yug ke aarambh ka pradhaan vishay hai. saaimon (Symonds) ke anusaar yeh manushyon ke mastishk mein parivartan se utpann hua. ab yeh vyaapak roop se maanya hai ki saamaajik aur aarthik moolyon ne vyakti ki jeevanadhaara ko modte hue Italy aur Germany mein ek nae aur shaktishaali madhyavruttavarg ko janm diya aur is prakaar bauddhik jeevan mein ek kraanti paida ki. punarjaagaran aur sudhaar aandolan ke vishay mein charcha karte hue saaimon ne in donon ke beech ghanishth sambandh siddh kiya; kintu laard aiktan ne saaimon ki aalochna karte hue donon ki mool bhaavana ke beech antar ki or sanket kiya. donon aandolan praacheen panraparaaon se prerana karte the aur nae saanskrutik moolyon ka nirmaan karte the.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • param punarutthaan kaal
  • Europeeya jnyaaanodaya
  • Europeeya dharmasudhaar
  • yuropeeya dharmasudhaar-virodhi aandolan
  • audyogik kraanti

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain