punarchakran

punaraavartan mein sambhaavit upayog mein aane waali saamagriyon ke apashisht ki rokathaam kar nae utpaadon mein sansaadhit karne ki prakriya taaje kachche maalon ke upabhog ko kam karne ke liye, urja ke upayog ko ghataane ke liye vaayu-pradooshan ko kam karne ke liye (bhasmeekaran se) tatha jal pradooshan (kacharon se jameen ki bharaai se) paaramparik apashisht ke niptaan ki aavashyakta ko kam karne ke liye, tatha aprayukt vishuddh utpaad ki tulana mein greenahaaus gas ke utsarjan ko kam karne ke liye punaraavartan mein prayukt padaarthon ko nae utpaadon mein prasanskaran ki prakriyaaen sammilit hain.[1][2] punaraavartan aadhunik apashisht ko kam karne mein pramukh tatha apashisht ko "kam karne, pun: prayog karne, punaraavartan karne" ki kram parampara ka teesara ghatak hai.

punaraavartaneeya padaarthon mein kai kism ke kaanch, kaagaj, dhaatu, plastic, kapde, evam electronics shaamil hain. haalaanki prabhaav mein ek jaisa hi lekin aamtaur par jaivik vikrutiyon ke apashesh se khaad banaane athva anya pun: upayog mein laane - jaise ki bhojan (pake ann) tatha baag-bageechon ke kacharon ko punaraavartan ke laayak naheen samjha jaata hai.[2] punaraavartaneeya saamagriyon ko ya to kisi sangrah shaala mein laaya jaata hai athva uchhist sthaan se hi utha liya jaata hai, tab unhein nae padaarthon mein utpaadan ke liye chhantaai, safaai tatha punarvineekaran ki jaati hai.

sahi maayane mein, padaarth ke punaraavartan se usi saamagri ki taaja aapoorti hogi, udaaharanaarth, istemaal mein aa chuka kaagaj aur adhik kaagaj utpaadit karega, athva istemaal mein aa chuka fom poleestaaireen se adhik poleestaaireen paida hoga. haalaanki, yeh kabhi-kabhaar ya to kathin athva kaafi kharcheela ho jaata hai (doosare kachche maalon athva anya sansaadhanon se usi utpaad ko utpann karne ki tulana mein), iseeliye kai utpaadon athva saamagriyon ke punaraavartan mein anya saamagriyon ke utpaadan mein (jaise ki kaagaj ke board banaane mein) badle mein unakein hi apne hi pun: upayog shaamil hain. punaraavartan ka ek aur doosra tareeka mishr utpaadon se, bache hue maal ko ya to unki niji keemat ke kaaran (udaaharanaarth gaadiyon ki baitari se sheesha, ya computer ke upakaranon mein sona), athva unki jokhimi gunavatta ke kaaran (jaise ki, anek vastuon se paare ko alag nikaalkar use punarvyavhaar mein laana) fir se ubaarakar vyavahaar yogya banaana hai.

punaraavartan ki prakriya mein I laagat ke kaaran aalochakon mein nivl aarthik aur paryaavaraneeya laabhon ko lekar matabhed hain aur unke sujhaav ke anusaar punaraavartan ke prastaavak padaarthon ko aur bhi badatar bana dete hain tatha anubhodan evam pushtikran ke pakshapaatapoorn poorvagrah jhelana padta hai. vishesharoop se, aalochakon ka is maamale mein tark hai ki sangraheekaran evam dhulaai mein lagne waali laagat evam urja utpaadan ki prakriya mein bachaai gayi laagat aur urja se ghat jaati (tatha bhaari pad jaati hain) aur saath hi yeh bhi ki punaraavart ke udyog mein utpann naukriyaan lakdi udyog, khadaan evam anya maulik utpaadanon se jude udyogon ki naukriyaan ko nikrusht sakajha jaati hai; aur saamagriyon jaise ki kaagaj ki lugdi aadi ka punaraavartak saamagri ke apakarshan se kuchh hi baar pehle ho sakta hai jo aur aage punaraavartan ke liye baadhak hain. punaraavartan ke prastaavakon ke aise pratyek daave mein vivaad hai aur is sandarbh mein donon hi pakshon se tark ki praamaanikta ne lambe vivaad ko janm diya hai.

anukram

itihaas

praarambhik punaraavartan

maanav sabhyata ke itihaas mein punaraavartan ek aam dastoor raha hai, jiske 400 isaapoorv se pleto jaise himaayati rahein hain. ऎsi avadhiyon mein jab sansaadhanon ka abhaav raha hai apashisht koode karkaton ke praacheen puraataatvik adhyayanon se pata chalta hai ki gharon ke koode karkat (jaise ki raakh, toote-foote aujaar evam bartan ityaadi) kam hotein the — jisse yeh pramaanit hota hai ki nae ke abhaav mein jyaada se jyaada koode-karkat ko punaraavartit kar liya jaata tha.[3]

aise bhi pramaan hai ki praak audyogik kaal mein, Europe mein kaanse evam anya dhaatuon ki kataranon ko ekachitr kar fir se istemaal mein laane ke liye galaaya jaata tha.[4] Britain mein kooda-karkat batorane vaalon ko koyale ki aag se ikaththa ki gayi raakh aur dhool ko mool saamagri ke roop mein istemaal kar it banaane mein punaraavrut kar liya jaata tha. in punaraavruti ke ke prabhedon mein pramukh parichaalak punaraavrut punanirvesh

yogya saamaan ke stock ki aarthik anukoolata thi, na ki kachche suddh saamaan ki upalabdhata saath hi saath dhani aabaadi vaale ilaakon mein kooda-karkat ki safaai mein kami bhi thi.[3] varsh 1813 mein, betali, yaurkashaair beinjaamin kaanoon ne chithdon ko "mote kapadon" tatha 'maango' uni vastron mein badal dene ki prakriya viksit ki. is padaarth mein punaraavrut reshon ke saath shuddh oon ko mishrit kar diya gaya. pashchimi yaurkashaayar ke shaharon maran mote khuradare kapadon ke udyog udaaharanaarth betali aur dyoosabari, 19veen sadi se aarambh kar kam se kam pratham vishv yuddh tak barkaraar rahe.

America elyoomeeniym nistaaran abhiyaan ke liye photo ka prachaar, 1942

yuddhakaaleen punaraavartan

vishvayuddhon ke samay sansaadhanon ke abhaav, evam aise hi vishv-parivrtaneeya ghatnaaon ne punaraavartan ko protsaahit kiya.[5] vishvayuddh dvitteeya mein shaamil harek desh mein sarkaari star par punaraavart ka vyaapak roop se protsaahan hetu prachaar-prasaar kiya gaya, naagrikon se desh bhakti bhaavana pradarshan karne hetu yeh nivedan kiya gaya ki ve dhaatuon aur istemaal ho chuke vastron ko daan kar dein. yuddh ke dauraan sansaadhanon ke sanrakshan hetu pariyojanaaen laagoo ki gain jo kuchh deshon mein jahaan praakrutik sansaadhanon ke praachurya ka abhaav tha jaise ki Japan mein, yuddh ki samaapti ke baad bhi jari rahi.

yuddhottar punaraavartan

urja ke laagat mein vruddhi ke kaaran, punaraavartan mein sabse bada nivesh 1970 ke dashakon ke dauraan hua. elyoomeeniym ke punaraavartan mein shuddh utpaadan hetu keval 5 pratishat urja ki hi aavashyakta hoti hain; kaanch, kaagaj tatha dhaatuon mein naatakeeya roop se kam kintu bahut hi ullekhaneeya roop se urja ki bachat hoti hai, jab punaraavartit jame sansaadhan ke stock ko upayog mein laaya jaata hai.[6]

samooche sanyukt raajya mein nyoojarsi vudbari hi punaraavartan ko adhideshaadheen karne wala ekamaatr pratham shahar tha.[7] roj rovaane ke netrutv[8] mein 1970 ke aaranbhik dashakon mein, apashisht prabandhan ki gaadi ke peechhe punaraavartan trailer ko kheenchne ka khyaal aaya taaki kachare tatha jamane waali punaraavartaneeya saamagri ko saath hi saath sangruheet bhi kiya ja sake. is padyati ka anukaran doosare kasbon aur shaharon ne bhi kiya aur aaj sanyukt raajya mein kai shahar punaraavartan ke liye aavashyak saamagri juta lete hain.

varsh 1987 mein, mobro 4000 jalayaan kooda-karkat ke bhandaar ko New York se dakshini kerolina dho kar le gaya; jahaan use lene se mana kar diya gaya. tab ise beleej bhej diya gaya; vahaan bhi isi tarah ise lene se mana kar diya gaya. jalayaan New York laut aaya aur kooda-karkat ke us ambar ko jalaakar bhasm kar diya gaya. is ghatna se apashisht ke nishpaadan tatha punaraavartan ko lekar media mein garamaagaram bahas chhid gayi. yeh aksar 1990 ke dashakon ki punaraavartan ke "paagalapan" ko prajjvalit karne waali ghatna ke roop mein maani jaati hai.[4]

kaanoon

aapoorti

half moon beya, California mein ek punaraavartan bin.

punaraavartan ki pariyojana ko kaaragar banaane mein, vyaapak roop se, punaraavartaneeya padaarth ki satat aapoorti kathin hai. aisi aapoorti ki srushti ke liye teen vaikalpik vidhaan prayog mein laae jaate hain: anivaarya (aadeshaatmak) punaraavartan sangrahan, paatr (kanektar) mein jama karne ka kaanooni aadesh, tatha apashisht par pratibndh. anivaarya (aadeshaatmak) sangrahan kaanoonon ne saharon mein paraavartan ke uddeshyon ko aamtaur par nishchit tithi tak sahar ke kachare ka nirdhaarit pratishat avashya hi visthaapit kar diye jaane ko lakshya banaaya. tab shahar is lakshya ko poora karne ke liye uttaradaayi ho gaye.[2]

sangraahak paatr (kantenar) mein jama karne ke kaanoon mein kuchh kantenaron ko lautaane ke evaj mein kuchh raashi lautane ki peshakash ki gayi, khaastaur par kaanch, plastic aur dhaatu. aise kantenar mein jab koi utpaad khreeda jaata tha, ek alp atirikt shulk uske moolya par dhaarya hota tha. agar kantenar ko sangrah-kendra par lauta diya jaata tha to upabhokta dvaara yeh atirikt shulk vaapas maang liya ja sakta tha. ye pariyojanaaen aksar 80% punaraavartan ke parinaam ke dar se kaafi safal raheen. aise parinaamon ke baavajood, sangrahan aanchalik sarkaaron se hatkar udyog tatha upabhoktaaon ke paas sthaanaantarit ho jaane ke kaaran kuchh kshetron mein ऎsi yojanaaon ko sashatt pratirodh ka saamana karna pada.[2]

punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ki aapoorti mein vruddhi ki teesari padyati kuchh padaarthon ko apashisht ke roop mein kooda-karkat mein nishpaadan par pratibndh lagaana hai, jinmein aksar istemaal ho chuke tel, puraani baitariyaan, tyres tatha baag-bageechon ke koode-karkat shaamil hain. pratibandhit utpaadon ke uchit nishpaadan ke liye vyavahaarya aarthik sthiti utpann karna hi is padyati ka pramukh uddeshya hai. is baare mein saavadhaani baratani chaahiye ki aisi paraavartaneeya sevaaen adhikaadhik sankhya mein maujood na hon, athva aise pratibandh gairkaanooni tareeke se koode-karkat ka bahut bada ambaar na khada kar de.[2]

sarkaari adhideshaadheen maang

punaraavartatit padaarthon ke liye maang ko badhaane evam barkaraar rakhane ke liye bhi kaanoon ka prayog kiya gaya. aisi chaar kaanooni paddhatiyaan maujood hain: kam-se-kam punaraavartit maatra ke adhidesh, upayogita ki darein, adhipraapti ki neetiyaan, punaraavartit utpaad ke vargeekaran evam naamakaran.[2]

kam se kam punaraavartit maatra ke adhidesh tatha upayogita ki daron ne utpaadakon ko unke prachaalan mein paraavartan ko shaamil karne ko seedhe baadhya kar diya. maatra ke adhideshon mein yeh saaf-saaf jaahir hai ki nae utpaad ke kuchh nishchit pratishat mein punaraavartit padaarth ka hona aavashyak hai. upayogita ki darein adhik lacheele vikalp hain; prachaalan ke kisi bhi bindu par athva yahaan tak ki vipneeya rinon ke liye vinimay mein paraavartan ke lakshya ki praapti ke liye udyogon ko anubandh ki bhi anumati de di gayi hai. in donon hi paddhatiyon ke virodhiyon ka nishaana unli aavashyakataaon ko baadha-chadhaakar pesh karne aur yeh daava karne ki ki ve udyogon se unke jaruri lacheelepan ko jabaradasti le lete hain.[2][9]

sarkaaron ne unki apni kruya, kshamata ka prayog paraavartaneeya mog ko badhaane ke liye jis jariye kiya hai use "praapan prabandh" neeti kehte hain. in neetiyon ko ya to "dar kinaar" kar diya gaya hai, jo punaraavrut utpaadon mein poori tarah kharch karne ke ek nishchit parimaan par apni chhaap chhodta hai, athva "moolya ki praathamikta" ki pariklpanaaen karta hai jo punaraavrut saamanon ke khareed jaane par bade bajat ka praavadhaan karta hai. atirikt adhiniyam vishisht maamalon ko hi apna lakshya nirdhaarit kar sakte hain: sanyukt raajya America mein, udaaharanaarth, paryaavaraneeya sanrakshan agency ke tel, kaagaj, tyre tatha punaraavrut athva yathaasanbhav pun: sanshodhit aavaas mein istemaal hue rodhan (insuleshan) ki khareed par adhidesh jaari karti hai.[2]

antim roop se sarkaari adhiniyam punaraavrut utpaad ki lebaling (pruthakkaran aur naamakaran) ki badhti hui bhaag ko lekar hai. jab utpaadakon ko unki punaraavrut padaarthon ke utpaad ke parinaam ke saath paikejing par lebaling (pruthakakaran evam naamakaran ki jarurat hoti hai paikejing ke saath) upabhokta hi uchit samajhadaari wala chunaav kar sakte hain. kraya karne ki prachur kshamata vaale upabhokta tab adhik paryaavarananeeya sachetan vikalp ka chunaav kar sakte hain, utpaadakon ko unke utpaadon mein punaraavrut padaarth ke parimaan mein vruddhi ke liye tatpar karte hain, tatha paroksh roop se maang mein vruddhi karte hain. paraavartan ke pruthakkaran evam naamakaran ke stareekaran mein bhi punaraavarteeya aapoorti ke ghanaatmak prabhaav ho sakte hain agar lebaling mein ve soochanaaen bhi shaamil ho ki kaise aur kahaan utpaadon ko punaraavartit kiya ja sakta hai.[2]

prakriya

ekatreekaran

chitr:DeutscheBahnRecycling20050814 CopyrightKaihsuTai Rotated.jpg
jarman railway station par punaraavartan aur kooda-karakat ke bin.

punaraavarteeya padaarthon ko aam apashisht ki bikhri hui silsilevaar kataar se sangrah kar ekatrit karne ki kai alag-alag pranaaliyaan laagoo ki gayi hain. ye pranaaliyaan aam janta ki suvidha aur sarkaari aasaani evam kharch ke beech vyaavasaayik pratibimb banaati hain. ekatreekaran ki teen pramukh shreniyaan "kachara feinke jaane vaale kendra", pun: khareede jaane vaale kendra evam niyantrit kshetr ke ekatreekaran hain.[2]

jahaan kachara giraae jaate hain aise kendron mein apashisht utpaadakon ko punaraavarteeya padaarthon ko keindreeya ilaake mein, ya to sthaapit ya fir bhraamyamaan sangrahan station athva khud pun: parichaalit sanyatr tak dhokar le jaana padta hai. ekatreekaran ke sabse aasaan tareeke to ye maan liye gaye hain, lekin apekshit kaaryakalaap se anbhigya aur kam hone ke kaaran sahana padta hai. pun: khreede jaane vaale kendra punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ki khareed aur safaai ke maamale mein choonki bhinn hain, at: ke nirantar aapoorti evam istemaal ke liye spasht protsaahan pradaan karti hai. tab sansaadhanon paraant padaarth ko becha ja sakta hai, is aasha ke saath ki isse laabh hoga. durbhaagyavash sarkaari aarthik sahaayataaen pun: khareed jaane vaale kendron ko upayogi laabhaprad udyog banaane ke liye sarkaari aarthik sahaayataaen aavashyak hain, jaisa ki United states nation saulid vests management ke anusaar ek tan saamagri ko proses (sansaadhit) karne mein iski laagat ausatan 50 ameriki dollar ke aaspaas aati hai, jise keval 30 ameriki dollar par hi fir se becha ja sakta hai.[2]

pratibandhit kshetr se ekatreekaran

pratibandhit kshetr se ekatreekaran mein kai pranaaliyaan hain jinmein sookshm antar visheshakar is baat ko lekar hai ki punaraavarteeya padaarthon ko kahaan alag-alag kar saaf kiya gaya hai. mishrit apashisht ke ekatreekaran ki pramukh shreniyaan mishrit punaraavartaneeya tatha srot se hi pruthakkaran hai.[2] apashisht ko ekatrit kar dhone waali gaadi aamtaur par kooda-karkat uthaati hai.

Canberra, Australia mein ek punaraavartan truck punaraavartan bin ki saamagri ka sangrah karte hue

is pratibimb ke ek chhor par mishrit apashisht ka ekatreekaran hai, jismein sabhi punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ko baaki bache doosare kooda-karkat ke saath hi mishrit roop mein hi ekatrit kiya jaata hai aur tab baanchhit padaarthon ke ek keindreeya chhaantane vaale suvidhaajanak sthaan par alag-alag kar saaf kar liya jaata hai. iske falasvaroop ek badi maatra mein punaraavartaneeya apashisht, khaaskar kaagaj itne adhik sad jaate hain ki fir se sansaadhit ho hi naheen sakte, bach jaate hain, lekin iske faayde bhi hain; shahar ko punaraavartani padaarthon ko alag se ekatrit karne ke liye na to kuchh bhugataan hi karna padta hai, naheen iske liye aam logon ko kuchh sikhaane ki jarurat hi padti hai. jo padaarth punaraavartaneeya hain unamein koi bhi parivartan laagoo karna aasaan hai kyonki chhaantane ki prakriya ek nirdhaarit kendreeya sthal par hi hoti hai.[2]

ek mishrit athva ekal-dhaara waali pranaali mein, ekatrit kiye jaane vaale sabhi punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ko ek saath mila diya jaata hai lekin doosare apashisht se alag hi rakha jaata hai. isse ekatreekaran ke uparaant pariskrut kiye jaane ki aavashyakta kaafi kam to ho jaati hai kintu aam logon ko yeh sikhaane ki jarurat pad jaati hai ki kaun-kaun se padaarth punaraavartaneeya hai.[2][4]

doosari padyati srot se alag-alag kar dene ki hai, jismein ekatreekaran se poorv hi pratyek padaarth ko alag-alag kar saaf kar liya jaata hai. is padyati mein ekatreekaran ke pashchaat sabse kam chhaantan ki jarurat padti hai tatha uttam punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ki utpatti hoti hai, lekin pratyek alag-alag chhaante gaye padaarth ke ekatreekaran ke liye atirikt parichaalan laagat aati hai. ismein vishd roop se logon ko prashikshit karne ki pariyojana ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hai jiska safal hona avashya hi anivaarya hai agar punaraavartaneeya padaarth mein milaavat se bachana hai to.[2]

srot se hi chhaantan ki padyati ko sarvaadhik praathamikta pradaan ki gayi hai kyonki mishrit ekatreekaran mein alag karne mein kaafi laagat aati hai. chhaantane aur alag-alag karne ki takaneek mein vikaas ke kaaran (neeche chhaantan dekhein), haalaanki inmein kaafi ullekhaneeya giraavat aa gayi hai-kai kshetron mein jahaan srot se alagaav ki parikalpana viksit ki ja chuki hai, mishrit ekatreekaran ki aur mud gaye hain.[4]

chhaantan

arli sorting of punaraavartan materiyls: glaas aur plastic bautls (Poland)

ek baar jab mishrit paraavartaneeya padaarth ekatrit kar liye jaate hain aur keindreeya ekatreekaran suvidha ko supurd kar diye jaate hain tab vibhinn prakaar ke padaarthon ko avashya hi alag-alag chhaant lena chaahiye. yeh kai staron ki shrrunkhala mein ki jaati hai, jismein kai svachaalit prakriyaaen bhi shaamil hain jaise ki padaarth se bhari ladi truck ki ek ghante se bhi is samay mein chhantaai kar li ja sakti hai.[4] kuchh sanyatr aise hain jo padaarthon ko svachaalit tareeke se alag-alag chhaant sakte hain, jinhein ekal-padyati ka punaraavartan kaha ja sakta hai. punaraavartan dar mein 30 pratishat ki vruddhi un kshetron mein dekhi gayi hai jahaan ye sanyatr maujood hain.[10]

praarambh mein punaraavartaneeya padaarth ekatreekaran vaale vaahanon se alag kar liye jaate hain aur unhein vaahak patto par ek star mein faila kar rakh diya jaata hai. gatte ke bade-bade tukade aur plastic ke thailiyon ko haath se is charan mein alag kar liya jaata hai kyonki ve baad mein chalakar machine ko jaam kar sakte hain.[4]

baad mein, svaachaalit machine paraavartaneeya padaarthon ko vajan ke aadhaar par alag-alag kar deti hai, jismein bhaari vajani kaanch aur dhaatu se halke vajan-vaale kaagaj tatha plastic alag kar liye jaate hain. gatton ko mile-jule kaagajon se alag kar liya jaata hai aur sabse adhik saamaanya prakaar ke plastic, PET (#1) aur HDPE (#2), ekatrit kiye jaate hain. yeh chhantaai aamtaur par, haath se hi ki jaati hai, lekin kuchh chhantaai kendron mein ab yeh svachaalit ho gayi hai: aatmasaat tarangadairya ke aadhaar par spekteroskopik skainar yantr ke jariye vibhinn prakaar ke kaagaj aur plastic alag-alag kar liye jaate hain aur saath hi saath pratyek padaarth ko tadanusaar alag-alag dishaaon mein ekatreekaran ke sahi channelon mein bhej diya jaata hai.[4]

lohamaya (feras) dhaatuon ko alag karne ke liye shaktishaali chumbakon ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jaisa ki loha, isyaat evam tin-ke pattar lage ispaat ke paatr ("tin kains"). gair lauhamaya dhaatuon ko chumbakeeya chakravaateeya pravaahon ke bal se baahar nikaal liya jaata hai jisse elyumeeniym ke paatron ke charon aur ghoorni chumbakeeya kshetr vaidhutik tarang utprerit karte hain, jo badle mein, patron ke bheetar chumbakeeya chakraavaateeya tarang paida karte hain. ye chunbakeeya chakraavaateeya tarang ek bade chumbakeeya kshetr ke dvaara vikrshit ho jaate hain aur paatr baaki bache paraavarteeya pravaah se rikt ho jaata hai.[4]

ant mein, kaanch ko bhi haath se hi bhoora, kahuruva, hara athva svachh paaradarshi rangon mein alag-alag chhaant diya jaata hai.[4]

laagat-laabh vishleshan

+ paraavartan ke paryaavaraneeya prabhaav[11]
saamaan oorja ki bachat vaayu pradooshan mein bachat
elyumeeniym 95%[2][6] 95%[2][12]
gatta 24% -
kaanch 5-30% 20%
kaagaj 40%[6] 73%
plastic 70%[6] -
ispaat 60%[4] -

paraavartan kya aarthik drushti se prabhaavi hai ya naheen, is baare mein kuchh virtak hain. nagarapaalikaaen punaraavartan ki pariyojana ko laagoo karne mein aksar raajakosheeya laabh dekhti hain, vyaapak roop se jameen ki bharaai mein kram laagat aane ke kaaran.[13] tekneekal university of Denmark ke dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan se pata chala ki 83% maamalon mein ghareloo koode-kacharon ko niptaane ke liye punaraavartan hi sabse adhik prabhaavi padyati hai.[4][6] haalaanki, denish invaairanmental asesameint insteetyut dvaara varsh 2004 mein kiye aakalan ke aadhaar par yeh nishkarsh nikla ki jalaakar bhasmeekaran kar dena hi peya paatron, yahaan tak ki elyuminiym tak ko nipta kar nast kar dene ka sabse kaaragar tareeka hai.[14]

raajakosheeya kshamata aarthik kshamata se sarvatha alag hai. paraavartan ke aarthik vishleshan ke arthashaastriyon ki bhaasha mein bahimurkhata ya baahareepan samaavisht hain, jo niji len-denon se baahar vyaktiyon ke laabhaarth naheen aanki gayi laagat hai. udaaharanon mein shaamil hain: ghatata hua vaayu-pradooshan tatha jalaakar bhasmeekaran ki prakriya se green house gaison ka utsarjan jameen ki bharaai se jokhimi apashisht ka vikshaalan (ghulakar bah jaana), urja ki ghatati khapat, ghatata hua apashisht evam sansaadhanon ki khapat, jo antat: khanan evam lakdi ke kriyaakalaap ki paryaavaraneeya kshati mein kami laati hai. lagbhag 4000 khanijon ki pehchaan ki ja chuki hai, jinmein se 100 ke aaspaas aam hain, doosare kai sau tulanaatmak roop se apekshaakrut aam aur saadhaaran hai aur baaki bache durlabh hain.[15] adhikaadhik punaraavartan ke bina, varsh 2037 tak hi jaste ka hona sambhav hai, indiyn evam haafaniym varsh 2017 tak poori tarah kharch ho jaaenge aur tarbiym to varsh 2012 se pehle hi ja chuka hoga.[16] mekaneejms ke bina jaise ki kar evam aarthik sahaayataaen baahypan ko aantarik karne mein agar lagaain jaati hain to samaaj par lagaae gaye laagaton ke baavajood vyaapaar unki anadekhi kareinge. aise gair vitteeya laabhon ko aarthik drushti se praasangik banaane ke liye, samarthan karne vaale adhivttaaon ne vidyaayi (kaanooni) kaaryavaai par jor daalne ko kaha hai taaki punaraavarti padaarthon ki maang mein vruddhi ho.[2] sanyukt raajya America paryaavaran sanrakshan agency (EPA) ne punaraavartan ke paksh mein nishkarsh nikaala hai, yeh kehte hue ki punaraavartan ke prayaason se desh ke kaarban utsarjan mein 2005 mein nivl 49 million metriktan tak ki kami aa gayi hai.[4] United Kingdom mein, apashisht aur sansaadhan kaarya pariyojana (vest aind risorses aikshan program) ke kathaanusaar great Britain ke punaraavartan prayaason ne kaarban daaioksaaid (CO2) ke utsarjan ko prativrsh 10 se 15 million tan tak kam kar diya hai.[4] ghani aabaadi vaale ilaakon mein punaraavartan adhik prabhaavashaali hai, kyonki vahaan ki aarthik vyavastha paimaane par aadhaarit hai.[2]

punaraavartan ko aarthik roop se vyavahaarya aur paryaavaran ki drushti se kaareegar banaane ke liye kuchh nishchit aavashyakataaon ki poorti avashya ki jaani chaahiye. inmein punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ka paryaapt srot, kachare ki kataar se punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ko baahar nikaalne ki pranaali, aaspaas hi kaarkhaane ki avasthiti jo punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ke punarsansaadhan mein saksham ho, tatha punaraavartit utpaadon ki sambhaavit maang shaamil hain. in antim do aavashyakataaon ki aksar anadekhi kar di jaati hai - sangrahit padaarthon ko utpaadan ke upayog mein lase vaale audyogik baajaar ke bina evam utpaadit maal ke liye upabhokta baajaar ke bina, punaraavartan adhoora hai aur vaastav mein keval "ekatreekaran" hai.[2]

punaraavartaneeya ki sevaaen muhaiya karaane ke liye kai arthashaastri maadhyam star par sarkaari hastakshep ke paksh mein hain. is maanasikta vaale arthashaastriyon ki sambhaavit drushti mein utpaad niptaan utpaadan ka baahareepan hai aur saath hi saath mein unka tark hai ki aisi duvidha waali sankatapoorn sthiti ko samaapt karne mein sarvaadhik saksham hai. haalaanki, nagarapaalika ke punaraavartan ke prati aise ahastkshep vaale drushtikon ke liye seva ke roop mein utpaad nishpaadan dekhein jiska moolyaankan upabhokta karte hain. ek mukt baajaar ki drushtimangi upabhoktaaon ki praathamikta ke saath adhik mel khaati hai choonki sarkaar ki tulana mein laabhaarjan talaashane vaale vyavasaaya gunavatta sampann utpaadon ke utpaadan ya seva par adhik bal dete hain. iske alaava, arthashaastri hamesha kisi bhi baajaar mein thoda athva ekdam hi baahareepan naheen ke saath sarkaari ghuspaith ke khilaaf salaah dete hain.[17]

punaraavartaneeya padaarthon mein vyaapaar

olanpiya, Washington aur sanyukt raajya America mein ek pikap ghatna mein kampyootars ko punaraavartan ke liye ekatr karte hue.

kuchh desh asansaadhit paraavartaneeya padaarthon ka vyavasaaya karte hain. kuchh ne shikaayat ki hai ki doosare deshon ko bech diye gaye punaraavartit padaarthon ka antim bhavishya agyaat hai aur punarsansaadhan ke badle mein unki antim niyti jameen ki bharaai hi hai. ek report ke anusaar, America mein, 50-80% kampyootars jinki niyti punaraavartit hone mein hai ve vaastav mein punaraavartit hote hi naheen.[18][19] cheen ke liye avaidh apashisht aayaat ki khabarein bhi hain, jahaan maudrik laabh ke liye unhein upakaranon ko poori tarah alag-alag kar punaraavartit kiya jaata hai, shramikon ke svaasthya athva paryaavaraneeya kshati ke baare mein vichaar kiye bina. haalaanki cheen ki sarkaar ne in prathaaon par pratibandh laga diya hai, fir bhi poori tarah se unmoolit karne mein vah saksham naheen hai.[20] varsh 2008 mein, punaraavartaneeya apashisht ki keematein varsh 2009 mein takaraakar I hui geind ki tarah achaanak gir gayi. san 2004 se 2008 ke beech kaardabord ausatan 53 pound tan se girkar 19 pound tan tak pahunch gaya aur fir May 2009 mein 59 tan tak oopar uth gaya. PET plastic ausatan lagbhag £a156/tan se £a75/tan tak gir kar fir May 2009 mein £a195/tan tak oopar uth gaya.[21] kuchh anchalon mein jitna punaraavartan kar paate hain utana hi padaarth niryaat kar paane mein kathinaai hai. yeh samasya sabse adhik kaanch ke saath pehle se hi judi hui hai Britain aur sanyukt raajya America donon hi desh hare rang ki kaanch ki botalon mein prachur parimaan sharaab aayaat karte hain. yadyapi is kaanch ki aadhikaarik maatra punaraavartan ke liye bhej di jaati hai, America ke madhya pashchim mein itne saare pun: sansaadhit vastuon ko upayog mein la paane jitni sharaab ka utpaadan naheen kar paate hain. aavashyakta se adhik ko bhavan-nirmaan mein pun: punaraavartit kar liya jaata hai athva fir se niyamit apashisht ki dhaara mein chhod diya jaata hai.[2]

theek isi prakaar, akhbaaron ke punaraavartan ke liye baajaar talaashane mein uttari pashchim sanyukt raajya mein kathinaai ka saamana karna padta hai, jabki in anchalon ko kaagaj ki lugadi banaane ke kaarkhaane badi sankhya mein bana diye gaye hain saath hi saath Asiaee baajaaron ki sabhi pata bhi mil gayi hai. sanyukt raajya ke doosare anchalon mein, haalaanki istemaal ki ja chuki akhabaari kaagaj ki maang mein kaafi utaar-chadhaav dikhaai bhi deta hai.[2]

sanyukt raajya ke kuchh raajyon mein, reesaaikal bank ke naam se jaane jaane wala kaaryakram logon ko reesaaikal ke koopan diye jaate hain jo sthaaneeya nagarapaalikaaon se jameen ki bharaai mein chhoot ke liye, jise khareed liya jaana jaruri hai arth (mudra) paane ke liye. ismein ekal dhaara ki prakriya kaam mein laai jaati hai jsimein sabhi saamaanon ko svachaalit tareeke se chhaant kar alag-alag kar liya jaata hai.[22]

sameeksha

punaraavartan mein aanevaali kathinaai ka adhikaansh is tathya mein nihit hai ki adhikaansh is tathya mein nihit hai ki adhiktar utpaad punaraavartan ko dimaag mein rakhakar design naheen kiye jaate. sarvada upalabdh hone waali design ki avadhaarana ka lakshya is samasya ko sulajhaana hai aur ise pehli baar ek pustak mein "Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things " bhavan shilpkaar (aarkitekt) William maikadono tatha saayaanavid maaikel braaunagart ne ullekh kiya hai. unakein paraamarshaanusaar pratyek utpaad (evam sabhi prakaar ki paikejing jsiki unhein aavashyakta hoti hai) ko paripoorn "band-loop" pratyek ansh ke liye laga hona chaahiye yeh ek aisa taaraka hai jismein pratyek ang ya to jaivik ksharan athva anishchit roop se punaraavartit praakrutik paryaavaraneeya pranaali mein laut jaaega.[4]

jaisa ki paryaavaran ke arth-shaastr ke saath laagat aur hone vaale laabhon ke drushtikon se saavadhaani avashya baratani chaahiye. udaaharan ke liye, khaadya padaarthon ki paikejing ke liye gatte (kaardabord) ko plastic ki tulana mein aasaani se punaraavartit kar diya ja sakta hai, lekin ise ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par bhejane mein vajani ho jaata hai aur nast hokar adhik kachara paida kar sakta hai.[23]

sameeksha hetu punaraavartan mein prayukt ye kai vichaaraneeya bindu hain.

oorja ki bachat hoti hai

is baare mein vivaad hai ki punaraavartan ke maadhyam se kitni urja bachaai ja sakti hai. oorja soochana prashaasan (the enarji infaurmeshan edaministreshan EIA) ke iske apne vebasaait par ullekh karne ke anusaar "kaagaj ki ek mil punaraavartit kaagaj se kaagaj banaane mein 40 pratishat kam oorja ka upayog karti hai tulanaatmak roop se naye roop se kaagaj ki lugdi se kaagaj banaane mein jitni urja lagti hai".[24] sameekshak aksar yeh tark dete hain ki poori prakriya mein punaraavartit utpaadon ke utpaadon ke utpaadan mein adhik urja ki khapat hoti hai jitni ki unhein paramparaagat jameen ki bharaai mein raddi ke roop kachara banaakar feink dene ki padyati mein. punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ke koodedaanon ke kinaare se ekatreekaran ne hi is tark ko janm diya hai, jise sameekshakon ke anusaar aksar kachare ko kinaare se doosare truckon se uthaaya jaata hai. punaraavartan ke prastaavakon ka maanana hai ki doosari lakdi ki athva bade-bade kundon ko dhone vaale truck ko hata diya jaata hai jab punaraavartan ke liye kaagaj ko ekatrit kiya jaata hai.

urja ki khapat athva apashisht ke nispaadan ki prakriya mein utpaadan ki sahi maatra ka nirdhaaran karna kathin hai. punaraavartan mein kitni urja ka istemaal hua yeh vyaapak roop se punaraavartit padaarthon ke prakaar par tatha aisa karne ke liye istemaal mein laai gayi prakriya par nirbhar karta hai. aamtaur par sabhi is baat se sahamat hain ki khurachanon se ailyumeeniym ke utpaadan mein oorja ki khapat ki tulana mein ailyumeeniym punaraavartan mein kam oorja lagti hai. EPA ke vaktavyaanusaar "udahaaran ke liye elyoomeeniym ke paatron ke punaraavartan se 95 pratishat oorja ki bachat hoti hai jo itne hi parimaan mein apne praakrutik srot bauksaait se elyumeeniym ke utpaadan mein lagti hai.[25]

arthashaastri steven laindsabarg ne salaah di hai ki jameen ki khaali jagah ki bharaai mein kabhi se ekamaatr laabh oorja ki aavashkata tatha punaraavartan ki prakriya mein pratiflit pradooshan hai.[26] haalaanki doosaron ne to fir bhi jeevan-chakr ke maadhyam se ganana karte hue yeh aakalan kiya hai, ki punaraavartit kagaaj ke utpaadan mein kheteebaari fasal ki kataai-bunaai, lugdi banaai, prasanskaran tatha moolaroop se maujooda pedon aadi ki parivhan mein dhulaai ki tulana mein kam urja aur jal ka vyavahaar kam kiya jaata hai.[27] kam punarnaveeneekaran kiye gaye kaagaj ka upayog kar ke, faarming (krushi dvaara ugaae gaye) vanon ke srujan evam rakh-rakhaav ke liye tab tak atirikt oorja ki aavashyakta padti hai jabatak ki ye van kore praakrutik roop se viksit vanon ki tarah aatm-nirbhar evam svat: sanposhit naheen ho jaate.

krushi anya jangalon ke srujan aur rakh-rakhaav mein atirikt urja ki aavashyakta hoti hai, janta ki neeti ke vishleshak James vi, delaaaing ne ishaara kiya hai ki punaraavartan nirmaan ki ek prakriya hai aur kai paddhatiyon mein to jitna bachaate hain usase kaheen adhik urja ka istemaal hota hai. oorja ke upayog ke atirikt, unhonne is baat par gaur kiya hai ki punaraavartan mein poonji aur shram ki jarurat hoti hai jab bhi apashisht se kuchh utpaadan karna hota hai. in prakriyaaon ko maulik kachche padaarth tatha/athva punaraavartan ke liye paaramparik kacharon ke niptaan mein adhik unnat saksham aur kaaragar padyati ki jarurat hai.[28]

mudra ki bachat hoti hai

punaraavartan se vaastav mein jis mudra ki jitni rakam bachati hai vah punaraavartan mein prayukt program ki kaaryakaari kshamata par nirbhar karti hai. the insteetyut for lokal self-rilaayens ka tark hai ki punaraavartan mein laagat punaraavartan karne vaale kisi samudaaya vishesh ke chaturdik kai kaarakon par nirbhar karti hai, jaise ki jameen ki bharaai shulk evam punaraavartan karne vaale samudaaya ke niptaan ka parimaan. iske kathanaanusaar, samudaaya ke log jab punaraavartan ko apni paaramparik apashisht pranaali ke sthaanaapann ke roop mein maanane lagte hain to ve mudra ki bachat karne lagte hai na ki apne kaam ke saath jud jaane wala ek atirikt kaam maanate hain tatha apne ekatreekaran ke niyat kaaryon tatha/athva truckon ka punarvinyaas karte hain."[29]

kai maamalon mein, punaraavartaneeya padaarthon ki laagat bhi kachche maalon ki keemat se kaafi adhik badh jaati hai. punaraavartit rejeen ki keemat se shuddh aprayukt plastic rejeen ki keemat 40% kam hai.[30] iske atirikt, sanyukt raajya paryaavaraneeya sanrakshan agency (EPA) ke ek adhyayan ke anusaar jisne 15 July se 2 August 1991 ke beech toote-foote saaf kaanch ke tukadon ki keemat ki lagaataar parakh karta raha, paaya ki pratitn ausat laagat 40 ameriki yu.S se 60 dollar tak pahunchakar seemaabaddh raha[31] jabki USGS report yeh darshaata hai ki san 1993 se san 1997 ke beech apariskrut silika ke reteele buraade ki prati tan ki mat 17.33 yooes dollar aur 18.10 yooes dollar ke beech gir gayi.[32]

san 1996 ke the New York times ke ek lekh mein, John taayarni ne tark dete hue yeh kaha ki New York city ke kooda-kacharon ko punaraavartit karne ke liye jameen ki bharaai mein ise niptaan karne ki tulana mein adhik maudrik laagat aati hai. taayarni ne tark dete hue yeh bhi kaha ki punaraavartan ki prakriya mein atirikt apashisht niptaan, chhantaai, jaanch-parakh ki khaatir adhik logon ko kaam par lagaaya jaata hai tatha kai prakaar ke shulk dhaarya hote hain kyonki utpaad ko antim roop dene ke liye prasanskaran ki laagat utpaad ki bikri ke laabh se aksar adhik aati hai.[33] taayarni ne saulid vest association of North America (SWANA) ke dvaara chalaae gaye adhyayan ko bhi sandarbhit kiya jisne chh: samudaayon ke logon ke beech chalaae gaye adhyayan mein paaya ki, nukkadon ya koodaadaanon ke aaspaas chalaae gaye punaraavartan ki yojana ke alaava sab mein aur sabhi kooda-khaad banaane ke opareshanon tatha apashisht niptaan ki lagat mein vruddhi kar di.[34]

taayarni is baat ki or sanket dete hain ki "ki kati-chhanti (skaip) saamagri ke liye bhugataan ki gayi keematein punaraavartaneeya ke roop mein apne paryaavaraneeya moolya ke liye upaaya svaroop hain. elyoominiym ke kate-chhante se oonchi keematein milti hain kyonki punaraavartan ki prakriya mein nae elyoomeeniym ki menoofaikchyuring mein aayi oorja par laagat ki tulana mein bahut kam aati hai.

kaaryapranaali ki anukoolanata

aalochak aksar yeh tark dete hain ki jab punaraavartan rojagaar ke mauke paida kar sakta hain, lekin aise rojagaar jinmein majadoori to kam milti hi lekin kaaryapranaali anukoolanata bhayankar roop se vipreet pai jaati hai.[35] in naukariyon ko kabhi-kabhi un logon ke liye samjha jaata hai, jo utana utpaadan naheen dete jitne ke liye unhein tanakhvaah di jaati hai. aise anchalon mein jahaan paryaavaraneeya viniym naheen laagoo hote hain tatha/athva majadooron ki suraksha gaurtalab naahinn hoti hain, punaraavartan se sanbadhit kaamon mein jaise ki jahaaj ko todne mein karmachaariyon aur aaspaas ke nivaasi samudaayon ke beech dukhad paristhatiyaan paida ho sakti hain.

punaraavartan ke prastaavakon ne iska virodh karte hue kaha hai ki samaan parimaan mein kachche shuddh maal ko jutaane-batorane mein isse bhi badtar kaam paida hote hain. lakdi ki kataai tatha ayask ka khanan kaagaj ke punaraavartan evam dhaatu ke punaraavartan se adhik khatarnaak hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

vrukshon ko bachaata hai

arthashaastri steven laindsabarg ne yeh daava kiya hai ki kaagaj ke punaraavartan se pedon ki aabaadi ghatati hai. unhonne tark diya hain ki kaagaj ki companiyon ko unke apne jangalon ko fir se pedon se bhi dene ke liye protsaahan raashiyaan pradaan ki jaati hain. kyonki kaagaj ki vishaal maang vishaal jangalon ki kam maang ki aapoorti ke liye chhote-mote "krushijnya" jangalon ki jarurat padti hai.[36] ऎsi hi tark the free market ke ek lekh mein san 1995 mein abhivyakt kiye gaye.[37]

jab jungle ka rakh-rakhaav karne waali companiyon ne pedon ko kaat kar gira diye, un jagahon par unase adhik ki sankhya mein, ped lagaae gaye. adhikaansh kaagaj lugdi ke jangalon se aate hain jo kaagaj ke utpaadan ke liye khaastaur se lagaae gaye hain.[28][34][37][38] kai paryaavaranavid yeh sanket detein hain ki, kai maayanon mein krushijnya (ugaaye gaye) jungle praakrutik roop svat: janmein jangalon ki tulana mein nimnatar kotike hain. kheti-baari kar taiyaar kiye gaye (krushijnya) jungle praakrutik jangalon ki tarah gaddhon mitti ko utani jaldi bharakar marammat kar dene mein saksham naheen hai, jisse vyaapak paimaane par kataav (bhoomi-skhalan) paida hota aur aksar isse bachane ke liye badi maaya mein khaad ki aavashyakta hoti hai jabki chhote-chhote aakaar ke pedon vaale tatha vanya jeevan mein, jevi vividhta banaae rakhane ke liye praakrutik jangalon ki tulana mein jarurat padti hai.[39] iske alaava, nae ped jo lagaae gaye ve un pedon jitne bade naheen hain jo kaat diye gaye aur yeh tark ki aur bhi "adhik sankhya mein ped" lagaae jaayeinge, jungle ke pakshadhar samarthakon ko sahamati par majaboor naheen kar paate hain jab ve nae lagaaen gaye paudhon ki ginti karte hain.

kaagaj ki punaraavartan ko ushnakatibandheeya jungle ki raksha ke saath bhramit naheen kiya jaana chaahiye. kai logon ko yeh galat dhaarana hai ki kaagaj banaane ke kaaran hi ushnakatibandheeya varshon vaale vanon ki kataai ho rahi hai lekin shaayad hi kaagaj ke liye kisi ushnakatibandheeya jungle ki kheteebaari ho rahi hai. jangalon ki kataai ka ek maatr kaaran hai janasankhya ka dabaav jaise ki krushi evam kaas-sthaan nirmaan ke liye adhik bhoomi ki maang. isliye, kaagaj ka punaraavartan, haalaanki pedon ki maang ko kam karta hai, ushnakatibandheeya varsha vaale jangalon ko isse koi laabh naheen pahunchata hai.[40]

sambhaavit aay mein kshati evam saamaajik laagat

sansaar ke kuchh samruddh aur kai kam samruddh deshon mein, punaraavartan ka paaramparik peshe ko gareeb udyamiyon dvaara anjaam diya jaata hai jaise ki kaarung guni, jaibeleen, koode-karkat aur haddiyaan batorane vaale, apashisht chunane vaale tatha kabaadi. bade paimaane par punaraavartan ke pratishthaanon ke janm ke kaaran vidhi-vyavastha athva aarthik paimaane par laabhaprad ho sakte hain,[41][42] gareebon ko punaraavartan evam punautpaadan ke baajaar se baahar nikaal diye jaane ki adhik sambhaavana ho jaati hai. gareebon ke aay mein hone vaale nuksaan ki bharpaai ke liye, kisi society ko gareebon ke sahaayataarth atirikt saamaajik kaaryakramon ki srushti karne ki aavashyakta hai.[43] tooti khidki ki neeti-katha ki tarah isse gareebon ke liye nivl nuksaan hai aur sanbhavat: poori ki poori society ko bhi punaraavartan ko krutrim roop se vidhismmat tareekein se laabhaprad banaane mein.


punaraavartan ke kaam mein lage gareebon ke aay mein nuksaan ki tulana mein kisi desh ka saamaajik samarthan kam hone ke kaaran, is baat ki adhik sambhaavana ho jaati hai ki gareeb punaraavartan ke bade pratishthaanon ke saath sangharsh ke liye utaanroo ho jaaenge.[44][45] iska matlab yeh hai ki kam hi log is baat ka nirnaya le sakeinge ki kya kuchh khaas apashisht apne maujooda roop mein aarthik drushti se adhik pun: prayojya hain bajaay punaraavartit hone ke. gareebon ke dvaara punaraavartan ke viruddh ho sakta hai unke punaraavartanaki dakshata kuchh saamagriyon ke liye vaastav mein unchi ho kyonki 'apashisht' samajhi jaane waali saamagriyon par vyakti vishesh ka niyantran adhik hota hai.[43]

ek shram saadhya avyavaht apashisht electronic evam computer hai. choonki yeh apashisht ab bhi vyavahaar mein aane yogya ho sakta hai aur visheshakar gareebon dvaara iski maang bani rahati hai isliye gareeb bechaaron ko ise bech sakane athva ise kaam mein laane ki kshamata punaraavartakon se adhik hai.

punaraavartan ke kai pakshadharon ka maanana hai ki yeh ahastakshep vyakti vishesh par aadhaarit punaraavartan poore samaaj ke punaraavartan ki jarooraton ko poora naheen karta hai. is prakaar, yeh suvyasthit punaraavartan ke kaaryakram ko naheen nakaarata hai.[43] sthaaneeya sarkaar aksar gareebon ke punaraavartan ki gatividhiyon ko sampatti ki kshati poorti ke roop mein vichaar karti hai.

akhabaari kaagaj

sansaar mein punaraavartit faaibar (reshon) se akhabaari kaagaj ke nim utpaadan ki pratishat ki uchchatam seema hai. punaraavartan ki prakruti ne hi svat: sabse spasht upari seema nirdhaarit kar di hai. kuchh aise faaibar (reshe) hain jo lugdi banaane ke kaarkhaane mein lugdi banaane ki prakriya mein hi nast ho jaate hain, kaaran prakriya mein nihit akshamata hoi hai. freinds of the arth ke United Kingdom chaiptar ki vebasaait ke anusaar[46] keval lakdi ke faaibar ka saamaanya roop se faaibar ki kshati ke prati apne anubhav ke kaaran paanch baar punaraavartan kiya ja sakta hai. is prakaar, jabatak akhabaari kaagaj ki maatra vishvabhar mein vyavahht hoti hai utani kho diye gaye faaibar ki maatra ko pratibandhit karne mein asveekaar karti hai, nae (avyavahht) faaibar ki nishchit maatra ki vishvabhar mein prativrsh jarurat padti hai, haalaanki yeh bhi ho sakta hai ki kuchh akhabaari kaagaj ke kaarkhaane shat-pratishat punaraavartit faaibar ka hi upayog jaari rakhein.

iske atirikt, kuchh puraane akhbaar kabhi bhi punaraavartan ke plant mein naheen bheje jaate, kyonki vibhinn prakaar ke ghareloo aur audyogik anuprayogon mein athva keval jameen ki bharaai ke hi kaam aakar samaapt ho jaate hain. punaraavartan ki dar (vaarshik akhabaari kaagaj ki khapat ka pratishat jo fir se punaraavartit hoti hai) ek desh se doosare desh mein tatha, deshon ke bheetar bhi, ek shahar se graameen kshetron mein saath hi saath ek shahar se doosare shahar mein bhi ghatati badhti rahati hai. the American faurest end pepar association ka anumaan hai ki 72% se adhik akhabaari kaagaj jo 2006 mein uttari America mein utpaadit hua use fir se upayog mein laane ke liye ya niryaat ke liye uddhaar kiya gaya jiska 58% pun: prayog ke liye kaagaj ki mil athva pepar board ke kaarkhaane mein bhej diya gaya, 16% ka upayog lugdi ki milon mein (ande ke kaartoons jaise utpaad banaane ke liye) kiya gaya aur baaki bachi maatra ko samudri raaste se doosare deshon ko bhej diya gaya. uttari America ki kaagaj milon athva pepar board ki milon dvaara punavyvahht ka pratishat AFPA ke anumaan se lagbhag ek truteeyaansh akhabaari kaagaj ke mainufaikchyar ke liye vaapas jaata hai. punaraavartan ki dar bhi samayaanusaar puraane akhbaaron ke liye baajaar dvaara diye gaye moolya jo kaafi asthir ho sakte hain, badalti rahati hai. udaaharan ke liye, haal-filhaal ke varshon mein cheen ke vibhinn prakaar ke kaagaj aur paikejing ke utpaadan ke roop mein ubharane ke saath-saath ullekhaneeya maatra mein punaraavartit faaibar ko sanyukt raajya athva anya kaheen se bhi aayaatit kar - puraane akhabaari kaagajon ki iski maang ek samay kaafi oopar uth gayi jisne vishvabhar mein punaraavartit faaibar ki keematon par kaafi asar daala. haalaanki punarnaveeneekaran vaale faaibar ki oonchi keematein jameen ki bharaai ki maatra ko kam karne ke lakshya ki disha mein achhi khabar ke roop mein hain, ve punarnaveeneekaran kiye gaye faaibar ka upayog karne vaale kaagaj-milon ke munaafe ko prabhaavit kar sakte hain.

akhabaari kaagaj ke milon dvaara laagat ke alaave faaibar ke chayan mein ek mahatvapoorn soch-vichaar faaibar ke chayan mein akhbaar chhaapane ki aadhunik masheenon tatha aadhunik samaachaar patra ke mudran press ki uchch gati ko lekar kiya jaata hai. sanyukt raajya mein akhbaar chhaapane ki aisi bhi masheenein hain, jo 1400 meter prati minute ki gati tak pahunchakar parichaalit hoti hain, udyog samooh ki jaankaari waali sanstha, RISI ink. ke anusaar, sansaar ki naveenatam masheenon mein (jinmein se kuchh ko haal hi mein cheen mein sthaapit kiya gaya) 1800 meter pratimint ki gati ki oonchaai bhi chhu sakti hai. aadhunik akhbaar ke press prati ghante 90,000 pratiyaan chhaap sakane ki gati tak parichaalit ho sakte hain (prakaashan udyog sangh IFRA ke anusaar), jabki kuchh to 1,00,000 pr.pr.dh ki gati tak bhi pahunch jaati hain.

aisi oonchi gati-sampannata ko sahane ke liye kaagaj falak (panne) ki mainufaikchyuring ki prakriya ke dauraan kaagaj ki machine par tatha mudran ke dauraan press par donon hi sthitiyon mein kshamata ki maang karta hai. vishvabhar mein ek badi sankhya mein akhabaari kaagaj ki milein 100% punaraavartaneeya faaibar (reshon) ka istemaal karte hue vaanijyik taur par sveekaarya gunavatta vaale akhabaari kaagaj ka utpaadan karti hain. haalaanki, aisi milon ke oparetar ko apashisht ki shuddhata ke baare mein kaafeechayanaatmak hona chaahiye, yeh sunishchit karte hue ki ve kam-se-kam nyoonatam milaavaton ko kaam mein laga rahe hain tatha jitni sambhav ho utane lambe akhabaari reshon ko shaamil kar rahe hain. vishuddh (avyavhht) akhabaari kaagaj lambe faaibar (reshon) vaale (naram lakadiyon) pedon jaise ki davaadaaroo, mokha (gulamehandi) aur cheed (paain) se bante hain, jabki kuchh kaagaj aur pepar board (gatton) ke utpaad chhote faaibar waali sakht lakadiyon se utpaadit hote hain. akhabaari kaagaj chhaapane ki milein puraane akhbaaron, athva puraane akhbaaron aur puraani patrikaaon ke mishran ko pasand karte hain na ki doosare gred ke kaagaj ka punaraavartan ko. jaisa ki sanyukt raajya America ki nagarapaalikaaon ne haal hi mein "ekal streem" ke punaraavartan ki or kadam badhaaya hain - anek prakaar apashisht utpaadon ko ek vaahan ke ek dabbe mein ekatrit karte hue - milon ko baadhya kar diya gaya hai ki ve svachh, uchit apashisht ki dhaara ko hi lugdi banaane ke uddeshyon ki praapti ke liye adhik raashi kharch karein.

sanyukt raajya America mein

san 1996 mein the New York times ke ek lekh mein, John taayarni ne yeh daava kiya ki sarkaar ne yeh janaadesh jaari kiya ki punaraavartan mein bachaane ki tulana mein sansaadhanon ka kharch adhik hota hai.[23] lekh ke vishisht ansh is prakaar hain:

  • kuchh maamalon mein jismein punaraavartan sachmuch sansaadhanon ko bachaata hai, jaise ki bade paimaane par elyumeeniym ke skraip, isse baajaar ke moolya par asar dikhaai dega, evam punaraavartan svechhyaan hi apni jagah bana lega. is prakaar, is baare mein sarkaar ko koi jana aadesh jaari naheen karni hogi.
  • "jitna feinkon utana bhugataan karo" ki yojana ko apnaane se log is baat se prerit ho jaaenge ki "punaraavartan ke koodedaan mein feinkein jaane yogya kya hai" at: punaraavartan ke liye kaanooni niyamon ki jarurat hi naheen hogi. ise saath hi, paryaavaran se jude kuchh dalon ne samarthan diya hai.
  • ped-paudhe ki kheti karne vaale kisaan jitne ped kaatate hain usase adhik paudhe lagaate hain.
  • sarkaar ne yeh janaadesh jaari kiya ki kacharon se gaddhon ki bharaai ki tulana mein punaraavartan adhik kharcheela hain.
  • kuchh chhote-chhote shahar jahaan gaddhon ki bharaai hoti hai ve kooda-kacharon ko doosare shaharon se aayaatit kar kaafi ko rojagaar milta hai aur raajasv se aay hoti hai.
  • aajkal jameen ki aadhunik bharaai tulanaatmak roop se adhik svachh aur surakshit hain, tatha ateet mein adhik gaddhon ki bharaai ki tulana mein risaav evam pradooshan ki sambhaavana kam hai.
  • punaraavartan jitni urja bachaata hai usase adhik urja nirdaahak (kacharon ko jalaane vaale) utpann kar lete hain. iske alaava, kuchh cheejein, jaise ki paulish kiye chamakadaar kaagajon ko punaraavartit naheen kiya ja sakta evam urja ke liye aisi saamagriyon ko jalaana hi behtar hain.
  • is daave ke maamale mein ki sanyukt raajya ke paas jameen ki bharaai ke liye ab gaddhe hi naheen hain, taayarni ne likha, "Washington spoken ke gonjaaga vishvavidyaalaya ke arthashaastri, A. Clark vaaijmain ne ganana kiya ki, agar ameriki maujooda dar par 1000 saalon tak kachara utpann karte rahe aur agar unke poore kachare ko gahari jameen ki bharaai mein daala jaata raha,100 gaj (91 mi) to 3000 saalon mein yeh raashtreeya kachare ka dher varg jameen ke tukade ko donon hi taraf se bhar dega.35 meal (56 kimi) America jaise aakaar vaale desh par yeh laagoo hona bada naheen lagta. paryaavaranavidon dvaara prastaavit raashtreeya sarani ke saur painalon ke liye aavashyak kshetr ke liye yeh kachara keval 5 pratishat anchal par hi apna kabja kar paaega. hajaar saal ki jameen ki bharaai mahaadveepeeya sanyukt raajya America mein chaaraagaah ke liye upalabdh bhoomi ke ek pratishat ke dasvein hisse mein hi fit hota hai. aur agar yeh ab bhi aapko bhaavi peedhi ko us varg se vanchit karne ke liye sochane par 35 meal (56 kimi) majaboor karta hai, to yaad rakhein ki yeh nuksaan keval asthaayi hai. aakhirkaar, pichhli jameen ki bharaai jaisi hi, kacharon ke teele ghaas se dhak jaaenge aur raashtreeya 1,50,000 varg meal (3,90,000 kimi2) udyaan ki bhoomi mein atirikt laghu sanskaran ho jaaenge.

taayarni ke lekh ko paryaavaran suraksha kosh se sandarbhit samaalochana ki salaah mili, jismein yeh darshaaya gaya ki "yeh lekh evam chintanasheel logon aur salaahakaaron ke ek varg se praapt uddharanon evam soochanaaon par poori tarah nirbharasheel hai jo paraavartan ke baare sashakt vaichaarik aapatti rakhate hain.[47] san 2003 mein, California ke Santa klaarita shahar $28 ameriki dollar pratitn kachare se jameen ki bharaai ke liye bharpaai kar raha tha. tab is shahar ne punaraavartan kaaryakram ke liye ek anivaarya daayaapar (naipakin) ke istemaal ko apnaaya jisse pratitn $1800 ameriki dollar ki laagat I.[48] Duke yunivrseeti ke raajaneeti vigyaan ke pradhaan, Michael munger ne san 2007 mein apne ek lekh mein likha "...naye saamaanon ke upayog karne ki tulana mein agar punaraavartan adhik kharcheela hai to, yeh kisi bhi prakaar kaaragar ho hi naheen sakta, koi bhi saaman sansaadhan hai... ya keval kachara hi hai ise nirdhaarit karne ka ek saadhaaran-sa pareekshan hai... kisi saaman ke liye agar aapko koi bhugataan karta hai, to yeh sansaadhan hai.. lekin agar koi saaman aapke paas se le jaane ke liye aapko kisi ko bhugataan karna padta hai, to samajh leejiye vah saamaan kachara hai."[49] kaito insteetyut mein praakrutik sansaadhan adhyayan ke nideshak, jeri Taylor, ne the haartalaind insteetyut ke liye san 2002 ke ek lekh mein likha, "agar baajaar mein nai utpaadit plastic ko vitrit karne ke liye laagat X aati hai, udaaharan ke liye, lekin fir se istemaal ki ja chuki plastic ko baajaar mein vitrit karne ke liye 10X laagat aaegi, isse ham yeh niskarsh nikaal sakte hain ki vyavahht plastic ke punaraavartan ke liye jin sansaadhanon ki jarurat hoti hai ve toote-foote tukadon se plastic banaane ke jaruri sansaadhanon ki tulana mein das guna jyaada durlabh hain aur kyonki punaraavartan ko sansaadhanon ke sanrakshan ke roop mein maan liya gaya hai, isliye un paristhitiyon punaraavartan ke liye janaadesh jaari karna achha karne se adhik nukasaanadeh ho sakta hai."[50] san 2002 mein, WNYC ne apni ek report mein ullekh kiya ki New York shahar ke nivaasi punaraavartan ke liye kachare ka 40% jo chhaant kar alag karte hain vah dar asal jameen ki bharaai mein hi samaapt ho jaata hai.[51]

aam punaraavartaneeya saamagriyaan

aisi kai alag-alag tarah ki saamagreeyaan hain jo punaraavartit ho sakti hain lekin har prakaar ke liye alag-alag takaneek ki aavashyakta hai.

ekatrit saamoohik saamagri aur thos saamaan

kankreet block

vidhvans ko dhaal dene vaale ilaakon se ekatrit kul thos saamagriyon ko choor-choor kar peesane waali machine (chakki) se gujaara jaata hai, jismein aksar aisfault, int, gandagi ke gubaar evam chattaanein shaamil hoti hain. nae nirmaan ki pariyojanaaon ke liye bajari ke roop mein kankreet ke chhote-chhote tukadon ka istemaal hota hai. peese hue punaraavartit kankreet ka bhi istemaal ekdam se nai kankreet ke saath sookha sookha milaakar bhi kiya ja sakta hai agar yeh milaavati se mukt hai to. yeh doosare chattaanon ke khod kar nikaale jaane ki jarurat ko kam karta hai, jisse badle mein ped-paudhon aur paryaavaran ki raksha hoti hai.[52]

baitariyaan

kuchh baitari vishaakt bhaari dhaatuon ke hote hain, punaraavartan ya uchit niptaan ek uchch praathamikta hai

baitariyon ke aakaar aur prakaar mein vyaapak bhinnata unke punaraavartan ko behad mushkil bana deti hai: sabse pehle unhein ek prakaar mein chhaant kar avashya alag-alag kar lena chaahiye aur har prakaar ke liye punaraavartan ki alag prakriya ki aavashyakta hoti hai. iske atirikt, puraani baitariyon mein paara aur kaidamiym hote hain, jo haanikaarak padaarth hain jinki dekhbhaal rakharakhaav sanbhaal kar ki jaani chaahiye. paryaavaraneeya kshati karne ki unki kshamata ke kaaran, kai anchalon mein istemaal ki ja chuki baitariyon ke uchit niptaan ke liye kaanooni niyamon ki aavashyakta hai. durbhaagyavash, is janaadesh ko laagoo kiya jaana kaafi dushkar ho gaya hai.[53]

sheesha-aml (led-esid) waali baitariyaan, jaise ki automobile mein istemaal mein aane waali baitariyon ki tarah, punaraavartan karne mein apekshaakrut aasaan hain evam kai anchalon mein vikretaaon ko istemaal mein aa chuke utpaadon ko sveekaar karne ke maamale mein kaanoon ki jarurat hogi. sanyukt raajya America mein, 80% tak punaraavartit saamagri dhaaran karne waali nai baitariyon ki punaraavartan dar 90% hai.[53]

praakrutik tareeke se sadnasheel apashisht

khaad ke liye garden vest

rasoighar, bageecha, evam anya hare apashishton ko sadaakar upayogi khaad mein punaraavartit kiya ja sakta hai. yeh prakriya praakrutik vaayujeevi baikteriya ko apashisht vikhandit hone deti hai jo mitti ki urvar ke upari satah ka nirmaan karti hai. sadaakar khaad banaane ka kaam adhiktar ghareloo paimaane par hi hota hai, lekin iske saath hi saath nagarapaalika dvaara bhi hare apashisht ke ekatreekaran ka kaaryakram bhi maujood hai. utpaadit upari urvar mitti ko bechakar in kaaryakramon ke poorak ke liye nidheeyan ho sakta hai.

vastr

preshan athva gamaagaman ke jariye vastron ka punaraavartan kaafi teji se lokapriya ho raha hai. vastron ke gamaagaman (svaip) mein, logon ka ek samooh ek niyat sthaan par ekatrit, hokar aapas mein vastron ka aadaan-pradaan karte hain. klothing svaip inka jaisi sansthaaon mein laavaaris kapadon ko sthaaneeya daan karne ke liye daan svaroop de diya jaata hai.

electronics upakaranon ke puraje alag karna evam uddhaar karna

ek parityakt computer mauneetar

bijli ke upakaranon ke pratyaksh niptaan-jaise ki computer aur mobile phone- kuchh androoni ghatakon ke vishaakt hone ke kaaran - kai anchalon mein pratibandhit kar diye gaye hain. punaraavartan ki prakriya dhaatuon, plastic tatha sarkit bords jo un upakaranon mein nihit hain unhein svat: yantravat alag karti hai. jab yeh ek apashisht punaraavartan sanyantr mein bade paimaane par kar liya jaata hai ghatak ko uddhaar karne ka kaarya laagat-prabhaavi tareeke se sanpaadit kiya ja sakta hai.

lauh dhaatuen

punaraavartan ke liye ispaat kuchal aur baled

loha aur ispaat sansaar ke sarvaadhik punaraavartit padaarth hain, evam punaraavartan kiye jaane vaale saamaanon mein sabse aasaan, kyoki chumbak ka istemaal kar unhein apashisht ke dher se alag kiya ja sakta hai. ispaat ke kaarkhaane se hokar punaraavartan ki prakriya gujarati hai: vaidhutik bhatti mein (90-100% skraip) ko ya to fir se gala diya jaata hai athva besik okseejan ki bhatti mein (lagbhag 25% skraip) ka istemaal chaarj ke ek ansh ke roop mein kar liya jaata hai.[54] kisi bhi daraje ke ispaat uchch koti ke naye dhaatu, mein punaraavartit kiya ja sakta hai, gunavatta ke lihaaj se oonche dar ne se neeche daraje mein jiski padaavanati naheen hoti hai kyonki ispaat ka baar-baar punaraavartit kiya ja sakta hai. utpaadit kachche ispaat ka 42% punaraavartit padaarth hi to hai.[55]

alauh dhaatuen

elyoominiym vyaapak roop se punaraavartit padaarthon mein se sarvaadhik saksham hai.[56][57] elyoomeeniym ko kasakar dabaakar chhote-chhote tukadon mein pees liya jaata hai, athva gaathon ke roop mein kuchal diya jaata hai. in tukadon ya gaathon ko pighle elyoomeeniym ka utpaadan karne ke liye elyoomeeniym pighlaane waali ek bhatti pighlaaya jaata hai. is charan tak punaraavartit elyoomeeniym ki vishuddh elyoomeeniym ki alag se pehchaan naheen ho paati hai aur donon ke liye hi aage chalakar sansaadhan ek samaan hi hota hai. is prakriya se dhaatu mein koi parivartan naheen paida hota hai; at: elyuminiym anishchitkaal tak ke liye punaraavartit ho sakta hai.

nae elyoomeeniym ke sansaadhan karne ki tulana mein elyoomeeniym ke punaraavartan se 95% urja ke laagat ki bachat hoti hai.[6] yeh keval is kaaran ki punaraavartit lagbhag shuddh, elyoomeeniym ko pighlaane mein 600 °aC taapamaatra ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jabki elyoomeeniym ke ayask se khanij elyoomeeniym ke nishkarshan ke liye 900 °aC taapakram ki jarurat padti hai. itne oonche taapamaan tak pahunchane ke liye adhik se adhik urja ki aavashyakta hoti hai jisse elyoomeeniym ke punaraavartan se oonche paryaavaraneeya laabh ki or pahuncha jaata hai. ameriki prativrsh prachur parimaan elyoomeeniym feink dete hain taaki poore vaanijyik havaai bade ka punanirmaan kar sakein. iske alaava ek elyoomeeniym ke paatr ke punaraavartan se bachaai gayi urja ek teleevijn-set ko teen ghante tak chalaane ke liye kaafi hai.[12]

kaanch

pablik glaas vest kalekshan point for separeting kliyr, green aur ambar glaas

nukkadon par rakhe koodedaanon se kaanch ki botalein aur martabaan (jaar kantenar) ikatthe kar sangrah karne vaale truck tatha botal-bankon mein ekatrit kar liye jaate hain jahaan kaanch ko rangon ke vargeekaran ke anusaar chhaant kar alag-alag kar liya jaata hai. toote-foote kaanch ke tukadon ko kaanch ke punaraavartan sanyantr mein le jaaya jaata hai jahaan iski shuddhata par najar rakhi jaati hai aur milaavat ki gandagiyon ko hata diya jaata hai. kaanch ke tukadon ko kuchal diya jaata hai aur kachche maal ke ek mishran ke saath milaakar pighlaane waali matti mein daal diya jaata hai. tab ise yaantrik tareeke se hava se fulaakar athva pighla kar nae aakaar ke joron ya botalon mein gaadha jaata hai. kaanch ke toote-foote tukadon ka bhi istemaal samagr aur glaasafault ke roop mein nirmaan udyog mein kiya jaata hai. glaasafault sadak par bichhaaya jaane wala ek padaarth hai jismein punaraavartit kaanch ka 30% shaamil hai. kaanch ka punaraavartan anishchitkaal tak kiya ja sakta hai jaisa ki jab iska punasansaadhan kiya jaata hai iski sanrachana nast hokar vikrut naheen hoti.

rang

rang aksar sarkaar parichaalit ghareloo khatarnaak apashisht ki suvidhaaon se ikattha kiya jaata hai. vahaan se, ise peint punarchakran sanyantron mein le jaaya jaata hai, jahaan gunavatta ke aadhaar par alag kiya jaata hai. rang ke upayog jinhein pun: sansaadhit naheen kiya ja sakta aur fir se becha naheen ja sakta punarchakran dvaara iski bhinnataaen nirdhaarit hoti hain.

kaagaj

kaagaj ka punaraavartan ise lugdi banaakar tatha nai kataai waali lakdi ki lugdi ke saath milaakar kiya ja sakta hain. jaisa ki punaraavartan ki prakriya kaagaj ke reshon ko todti jaati hai, at: jitni baar kaagaj ka punaraavartan hota ahi, iski gunavatta mein kami aati jaati hai. iska matlab yeh hai ki ya to oonche pratishat mein nae reshon ko jarur joda jaana chaahiye ya kaagaj ko neechi gunavatta vaale utpaadon mein punaraavartit kar dena chaahiye. koi lekhan ya kaagaj par rang sarvapratham deeinking ke dvaara hata diya jaana chaahiye, jo filrs, mitti, tatha reshon (faaibar) ke tukadon ko bhi hata deta hai.[58]

aaj to lagbhag sabhi kaagaj punaraavartit kiye ja sakte hain, kintu aise bhi prakaar ke kaagaj hai jinhein doosaron ki tulana mein punaraavartit karna kathin hai. kaagaj jo plastic koted hote hain ya elyoomeeniym fauyal, tatha aise kaagaj jinpar mom ka lepan hota hai, pested ya gond lage hote hain unka aamtaur par punaraavartan naheen hota hai kyonki yeh prakriya kaafi mahangi hai. upahaar-saamagriyon ko lapetne vaale kaagaj bhi apni khraab gunavatta ke kaaran punaraavartit naheen ho sakte.[58]

kabhi kabhi punaraavartak akhbaaron se chamakeele aaveshan ko hata dene ko kehte hain kyonki ve ek alag hi prakaar ke kaagaj hain. chamakeele aaveshanon par mitti ki ek bhaari parat hoti hai jise kuchh kaagaj ki milein sveekaar naheen karti hain. punaraavartit kaagaj ki lugdeese adhikaansh mitti ko hata diya jaata hai jiska jarur hi niptaan kar diya keechad ke rrop mein kiya jaana chaahiye. agar parat chadhe kaagaj (koted pepar) mitti ke vajan ke kaaran 20% adhik hai to chamakadaar kaagaj ke prati tan se 200 kilogram se bhi adhik keechad aur 800 kilogram se bhi kam faaibar paida hoga.[58]

plastic

plastic shiping khaancha

plastic ka punaraavartan skraip athva apashisht plaastikon ko ubaarane tatha padaarth ko upayogi utpaadon mein punarsansaadhit karne ki prakriya hai. kaanch athva dhaatu ke saamaanon se tulana ki jaaya to plastic ko apoorv chunautiyon ka saamana karna padta hai. plastic ke prakaaron ki vishaal sankhya hone ke kaaran, pratyek prakaar ke paas rejeen ka pehchaan code hota hai aur punaraavartan se poorv unhein avashya hi chhaant kar alag lena chaahiye. ho sakta hai yeh mahanga ho, kyonki vaidyutik chumbakon ka upayog kar dhaatuon ko jab alag-alag kiya ja sakta hai aisi koi 'aasaan chhantaai' waali kshamata-sampann upaaya ya saadhan plastic ke liye upalabdh naheen hai. iske atirikt, punaraavartan ke liye botalon se lebalon ko hata di jaane ki jarurat naheen hoti lekin dhakkan aksar alag tarah ke apravartaneeya plastic se bane hote hain.

vibhinn prakaar ke plastic ke saamaanon mein padaarthon ki alag-alag pehchaan kar paane ke sahaayataarth, chh: aam prakaar ke punaraavartaneeya plastic rejins ki pehchaan ke liye 1 se 6 tak ke rejins aaideinteefikeshan code nanbars aavantit kiye gaye hain. pratyek rejeen code ko sammilit karte hue maanakeekrut prateek upalabdh hain.

vastr

kapde ya vastr ke punaraavartan ka khyaal aate hi yeh avashya samajh lena chaahiye ki yeh kis padaarth se bana hain. adhiktar kapde rui (praakrutik tareeke se svat: sadnasheel padaarth) evam sinthetik plastic ke sanyojan hain. kapde ki sanrachana iske tikaaupan aur punaraavartan ki paddhati ko prabhaavit karegi.

shramik ekachitr kapadon ko chhaantate aur achhi kvaaliti ke vastron tatha jooton ko jinka dobaara istemaal ho sakta ya jo pahane ja sakte hain, unhein alag karte hain. aisi suvidhaaon ko viksit deshon se vikaasasheel deshon tak ya to daan ki khaatir ya sasti keematon par bech diye jaane ke liye muhaiya karne ki pravruti hai.[59] kai antaraashtreeya sangathan istemaal kiye ja chuke vastron ko daan-svaroop ikaththa karte hain aur unhein teesari duniya ke deshon ko daan mein de dete hai. punaraavartan ki is aadat ko protsaahit kiya jaata hai kyonki yeh avaanchhit ko kam karne mein madad deti hai saath hi saath jarurat mandon ko vastr muhaiya karaati hai.[60] nast ho gaye vastron ko aage chalakar gredon mein chhaant liya jaata hai jinse audyogik jhaadn-ponchhan ke kapde banaae jaate hain tatha kaagaj ke vinirmaan mein ya faaibar uddhaar ke liye upayogi saamagri mein tatha bharaai ke utpaadon ke upayog mein laate hain. agar teksataail ke punarsansaadhak sanyantr jeele athva sade-gale kapde paate hain, haalaanki inhein fir bhi jameen ki bharaai mein nipta diya jaata hai, kyonki chhaantan ikaaiyon mein dhone aur sukhaane ki suvidhaaen maujood naheen hain.[61]

reshon ke punaruddhaar ki milein, faaibar ke prakaar aur rang ke aadhaar par vastron ko chhaantati hain. rang ki chhantaai punaraavartit vastron ko fir se rangane ki aavashyakta ko kam karti hai. vastron ko "ghatiya" faaibar mein kasakar baandh diya jaata hai aur doosare chayanit faaibaron ke saath ekasaath mila diya jaata hai punaraavartit soote ke antim upayog ke iraade par nirbhar hokar. ekasaath mila hua yeh mishran ghunakar saaf kar diya jaata hai tatha bunaai silaai ke liye kaatkar taiyaar kar diya jaata. in faaibaron sankuchit kar gadde ka utpaadan bhi kiya jaata hai. in kapadon ko gaddon mein bharne vaale udyogon ke liye kasakar dabaakar bhej diya jaata hai jo gaadiyon ke insuleshan mein bharne waali saamagri ke roop mein chhat ke felts, laaudaspeekar ke kon, painel ki lining tatha furniture ki paiding ke kaam mein laaya jaata hai.

lakdi

staik of vuden pailets pun:prayog ya risaaikiling ka intajaar kar raha hai.

paryaavaran ki drushti se upayogi utpaad hone ki apni chhavi ke kaaran lakdi ka punaraavartan lokapriya ho gaya hai, upabhoktaaon ke is aamavishvaas ke saath ki punaraavartit lakdi ki khareed se hari lakdi ki maang mein kami aaegi aur antatogatva paryaavaran laabhaanvit hoga. greenapees bhi punaraavartit lakdi ko paryaavaran ke liye mitravat upayogi utpaad ki drushti se dekhta hai, unki apni vebasaait par ise lakdi ke pasandeeda behtar srot ke roop mein havaala dete hue. nirmaan ke utpaad ke utpaad ke roop mein punaraavartit lakdi ka aagaman ubharate hue udyog tatha jungle ki kataai evam lakdi meelon ko badhaava dene tatha paryaavaran ke prati mitravat sahayog ke abhyaas ko apnaane ki disha mein mahatvapoorn hain.

lakdi ka punaraavartan ek aisa vishay hai jisne haal ke varshon mein hamaare jeevan mein sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn bhoomika apna li hai. haalaanki, samasya yeh hai ki, yadyapi kai sthaaneeya adhikaari punaraavartan ke vichaar ko pasand to karte hin, lekin ve poori tarah iska samarthan naheen karte hain. anginat udaaharanon mein se ek jo samaachaaron ki surivryon mein bana raha vah sachmuch lakdi ke punaraavartan ki avadhaarana hai jo shaharon mein badhti ja rahi hai. udaaharan ke liye lakdi ke punaraavartan, pedon evam anya sroton ke naam liye ja sakte hain.[62]

anya takaneekein

kai doosari saamagriyaan bhi aamtaur par punaraavartit ki ja sakti hain, aksar ek audyogik star par.

jahaaj ko todna ek aisa udaaharan hai jo paryaavaraneeya, svaasthya, tatha suraksha ke jokhimon se us anchal ke liye juda hai jahaan yeh operation (kaarya sanchaalan) sanpaadit hota hai, in sab vichaaron mein santulan ek paryaavaraneeya nyaaya ki samasya hai.

tyre ka punaraavartan bhi aam baat hai. istemaal mein aa chuke taayaron ko esafault ke saath milaakar sadak ki satahon par bichhaane mein athva rabad ke nakali ghaas-paat banaane ke kaam mein aa sakte hain jo khel ke maidaanon ki suraksha ke liye vyavahht hote hain. inka insuleshan evam taap ke avashoshan nirgaman saamagriyon mein khaaskar mitti ke jahaaj kahe jaane vaale nirmit gharon mein aksar istemaal bhi hoya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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  • jaiv-vividhta
  • paryaavaran ke liye design
  • sone ki Khan mein kaam karanevaala
  • electronic apashisht punaraavartan shulk
  • I-reesaaikil
  • iska punaraavartaneeya karein! feinkein naheen!
  • punaraavartani aalochna
  • sthirta
  • bakavaas ke asabaab
  • kasbaai lakadhaaraapan
  • kantenar-dipojit
punaraavartan ke prakaar
  • rachanaatmak pun:prayog
  • poorn gaharaai mein risaaikling
  • panadubbi jahaaj punaraavartan kaaryakram
  • ekal-streem punaraavartan
  • tharmal depoleemeraaijeshan
  • raasaayanik uddhaar, udaaharan ke liye haaidroklorik esid punarjanan
saamaanya vishay
  • invaayarameintalijm
  • apashisht padaanukram
    • oorja sanrakshan
    • apashisht nyooneekaran
    • pradooshan nivaaran
    • pun:upayog
      • reegiving
      • fpunaraavartaneeya
    • kachara prabandhan
      • vistaarit nirmaata jimmedaari
      • feinkane ke liye bhugataan karein
vyaapaar sangh
  • international saulid vest association
  • uttari America ki saulid vest association
  • chaartard insteetyut of vest management

sandarbh

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  2. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya t th The League of Women Voters (1993). The Garbage Primer. New York: Lyons & Burford. pp. 35–72. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1558218507.
  3. a aa Black Dog Publishing (2006). Recycle : a source book. London, UK: Black Dog Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1904772366.
  4. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh "The truth about recycling". The Economist. June 7, 2007. http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9249262.
  5. out of the gaarbej- pel inatoo the faaiyar: fyool briks naau eded too the list of things sailvejd baai science fraum the nation's vest, popular science manthali, fravari 1919, prushth 50-51, Google books dvaara jaanch: http://books.google.com/books?id=7igDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA50
  6. a aa i E u oo "The price of virtue". The Economist. June 7, 2007. http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9302727.
  7. rovan end esosiyets go green: 18 July 2007 press release - NJBiz.com. 22 July 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  8. promotional prodakts buteek rovan end esosiyets ke varttamaan ke prachaarak adhyaksh
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  10. saainsadeli. (2007). punaraavartan without saurting engineers kriyet punaraavartan plant dait rimuvs the need too saurt.
  11. anles adaravaaij indeeketed, yeh deta The League of Women Voters (1993). The Garbage Primer. New York: Lyons & Burford. pp. 35–72. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1558218507. se liya gaya hai, jo gun, "gaarbej saulyushans: a pablik ofishiyls guide too risaaikaling aind oltaranetiv saulid vest management tekanaulojis, enerji sevings fraum punaraavartan shahar mein, January/fravari 1989; aur varldavauch 76 maaining urban vests: the poteinshiyl for punaraavartan, April 1987."
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  15. "khanij aur nyaayik vigyaan" (PDF). maisaachusets lovel ke vishvavidyaalaya, paryaavaran ka vibhaag, pruthvi aur vaayumandaleeya vigyaan.
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  18. jyaadaatar teesari duniya mein computer vest lainds
  19. cheen mein paryaavaran aur svaasthya ka nuksaan
  20. svaasthya aur paryaavaran ke liye avaidh kshepan aur kshatipoorti
  21. haug M. vest aautashaains gold ej praaises sarj. saaaincha:Registration requiredfinancial times .
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  24. oorja soochana prashaasan pepar aur glaas ki punaraavartan. 18 October 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  25. paryaavaran sanrakshan agency punaraavartan aur apashisht prabandhan mein aksar poochhe jaane vaale prashn. 18 October 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  26. laindsabarg, steven A. the aarmacheyar ikaunomist . prushth. 86.
  27. selke 116
  28. a aa viniyaamak neeti kendra WASTING AWAY: nagarapaalika thos apashisht ka bigdna. 4 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  29. punaraavartan ke baare mein paanch sabse khatarnaak mith vest too velth 18 October 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  30. sanyukt raajya America ke oorja vibhaag oorja sanrakshan - punaraavartan plastic. 10 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  31. paryaavaran sanrakshan agency maarkets for rikvard glaas. 10 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  32. sanyukt raajya America bhoovaijnyaaanik sarvekshan mineral kamoditi samarij. 10 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  33. punarchakran achaanak mahanga ho jaata hai: NPR
  34. a aa New York times punarchakran...kachara hai (nytimes.com 30 June 1996 ko prakaashit) punarchakran...kachara hai (lekh dikhaana) punarchakran...kachara hai (lekh dikhaaya). 18 October 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  35. haartalaind insteetyut punarchakran: yeh New York mein bura vichaar hai. 18 October 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  36. laindsabarg, steven A. the aarmacheyar ikaunomist . prushth. 81.
  37. a aa the free market dont risaaikal: throw it ave!. 4 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  38. jevish world riviyu the vest of punaraavartan. 4 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  39. baird, kaulin (2004) enavaayarameintal kemestri (3rad Ed.) dablyoo. H. freemain ISBN 0-7167-4877-0
  40. "All About Paper". Paper University. http://www.tappi.org/paperu/all_about_paper/faq.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-02-12.
  41. NRDC: tu gud too throw ave - apeindiks A
  42. mission polis station
  43. a aa i PBS nyoojhaur, 16 fravari 2010. jbaleen par report
  44. the news heraald - skraip metal a steel
  45. reds on punaraavartan bins kaustali too beya area : NPR
  46. freinds of the arth
  47. Richard A. Dension, Ph.D.; John F. Ruston (July 16, 1996). "Anti-Recycling Myths". Environmental Defense Fund. http://www.edf.org/documents/611_ACF17F.htm.
  48. daaipar punaraavartan in California the free libral, 8 sitmbar 2003
  49. "think globali, aikt ireshnaali: punaraavartan
  50. punaraavartan: its a baid idea in New York the haartalaind insteetyut, 1 May 2002
  51. city kaaunsil holds hiyring on seving punaraavartan, WNYC, 18 April 2002
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  56. DRLP faikt sheets
  57. paryaavaran sanrakshan agency punaraavartan aur apashisht prabandhan mein aksar poochhe jaane vaale prashn.
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  59. UK in 'frightening' reliance on foreign textile sorting "www.letsrecycle.com". http://www.letsrecycle.com/materials/textiles/news.jsp?story=6232 UK in 'frightening' reliance on foreign textile sorting. abhigman tithi: 2006-11-08. [mrut kadiyaaain]
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  61. Councils "need to understand" importance of textile quality "www.letsrecycle.com". http://www.letsrecycle.com/materials/textiles/news.jsp?story=6294 Councils "need to understand" importance of textile quality. abhigman tithi: 2006-11-24. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  62. , www.citywood.co.uk. 24 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.

aage padhne ke liye

  • ekaramain, Frank. (1997). vaai doo vi risaaikal?: maarkets, vailyooj, end pablik paulisi . aailaind press. ISBN 1-55963-504-5, 9781559635042
  • porter, richrd si. (2002). the ikaunomiks of vest . bhavishya ke liye sansaadhan. ISBN 1-891853-42-2, 9781891853425

baahari link

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punarchakran ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

saaaincha:RecyclingByRegion saaaincha:Waste management