pruthvi

pruthvi पृथ्वी का खगोलीय प्रतीक
"अपोलो १७ चन्द्रयान द्वारा लिया गया पृथ्वी का द ब्लू मार्बल" चित्र। अरबी प्रायद्वीप, अफ़्रीका और मेडागास्कर चकती के उपरी अर्द्ध भाग में हैं, जबकि अंटार्कटिका नीचले भाग में।
1972 mein Apollo 17 chandrayaan dvaara liya gaya pruthvi ka "the blue maarbal" chitr.
yug je2000[sa 1]
upasaur 151930000 kimi
(1.01559 AU)[sa 2]
apasaur 147095000 kimi
(0.9832687 AU)[sa 2]
ardh mukhya aksh 149598261 kimi
(1.00000261 AU)[1]
vikendrata 0.01671123[1]
parikraman kaal 365.256363004 din [2]
1.00001742096 varsh)
ausat parikraman gati 29.78 kimi/sai॰[3]
(107200 kimi/ghanta)
maadhya konaantar 358.617 degree
jhukaav soorya ki vishuvat rekha par 7.155 degree;
achar samatal se 1.57869 degree[4]
je2000 sooryapath se 0.00005 degree
aaroh paat ka anulamb je2000 sooryapath se -11.26064 degree[3]
Argument of perihelion 102.94719 degree[3]
upagrah
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya 6371.0 kimi[6]
vishuvateeya trijya 6378.1 kimi[7][8]
dhruveeya trijya 6356.8 kimi[9]
sapaatata 0.0033528[10]
1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)
paridhi
tal-kshetrafal
  • 510072000 varg kimi[11][12][sa 4]
  • (148940000 varg kimi (29.2%) bhoomi
  • 361132000 varg kimi (70.8%) jal)
aayatan 1.08321×a1012 ghan kimi[3]
dravyamaan 5.97219×a1024 kigra[13]
(3.0×a10-6 saur dravyamaan)
maadhya ghanatv 5.514 gram/ghan semi[3]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 9.807 mee॰/varg sai॰[14]
(1 g)
palaayan veg 11.186 kimi/sai॰[3]
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
0.99726968 din[15]
(23 ghante 56 minute 4.100 saikand)
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 1,674.4 kimi/ghanta (465.1 mi/sek)[16]
aksheeya naman 23 degree 26 minute 21.4119 sai॰ [2]
albedo
  • 0.367 jyaamitik[3]
  • 0.306 baund[3]
satah ka taapamaan
kelvin
celcius
nyoon maadhya adhi
184 ke॰[17] 288 ke॰[18] 330 ke॰[19]
−89.2 °aC 15 °aC 56.7 °aC
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 101.325 kilo paaskal (maasat)
sanghatan

pruthvi, jise vishv athva the world bhi kaha jaata hai (tatha kam prachalan mein bhoomi athva gaiya athva letin mein tera[21]), soorya ka teesara grah hai. yeh saur mandal mein vyaas, dravyamaan aur ghanatv ki drushti se sabse bada paarthiv grah hai. iska pruthvi, pruthvi grah, bhoomi, sansaar aur tera[22] ke roop mein bhi ullekh hota hai.rediyomeetrik samayaankan ki vidhi dvaara khoje gaye vaigyaanik pramaan sanket detein hai ki pruthvi ki aayu 4.54 arab varsh (4.54 billion years) pehle,[23][24][25][26]

pruthvi na keval maanav (human) ka apitu anya laakhon prajaatiyon (species) ka bhi ghar hai[27] aur saath hi brahmaand mein ekamaatr vah sthaan hai jahaaain jeevan (life) ka astitv paaya jaata hai. iski satah par jeevan ka prasfutan lagbhag ek arab varsh pehle prakat hua. pruthvi par jeevan ki utpatti ke liye aadarsh dashaaeain (jaise soorya se sateek doori ityaadi) na keval pehle se upalabdh thi balki jeevan ki utpatti ke baad se vikaas kram mein jeevadhaariyon ne is grah ke vaayumandal (the atmosphere) aur anya ajaivakeeya (abiotic) paristhitiyon ko bhi badla hai aur iske paryaavaran ko vartamaan roop diya hai. pruthvi ke vaayumandal mein aakseejan ki vartamaan prachurata vastut: jeevan ki utpatti ka kaaran naheen balki parinaam bhi hai. jeevadhaari aur vaayumandal donon anyonyaashraya ke sambandh dvaara viksit hue hain. pruthvi par shvashanajeevi jeevon (aerobic organisms) ke prasaaran ke saath ojon parat (ozone layer) ka nirmaan hua jo pruthvi ke chumbakeeya kshetr (Earth's magnetic field) ke saath haanikaarak vikirn ko rokane waali doosari parat banti hai aur is prakaar pruthvi par jeevan ki anumati deta hai.[28]

pruthvi ka bhoopatal (outer surface) kai kathor khandon ya vivrtanik pleton mein vibhaajit hai jo bhoogarbhik itihaas (geological history) ke dauraan ek sthaan se doosare sthaan ko visthaapit hue hain. kshetrafal ki drushti se dharaatal ka kareeb 71% namakeen jal (salt-water) ke saagar se aachhaadit hai, shesh mein mahaadveep aur dweep; tatha meethe paani ki jheelein ityaadi avasthit hain. paani sabhi gyaat jeevan ke liye aavashyak hai jiska anya kisi brahmaandeeya pind ke satah par astitv gyaat nahi hai.

pruthvi ki aatanrik rachana teen pramukh paraton mein hui hai bhoopatal, bhoopraavaar aur krod. ismein se baahya krod taral avastha mein hai aur ek thos lohe aur nikal ke aatanrik kor (inner core) ke saath kriya karke pruthvi me chunbakatv ya chunbakeeya kshetr ko paida karta hai.

pruthvi baahya antariksh (outer space), mein soorya aur chandrama samet anya vastuon ke saath kriya karta hai vartamaan mein, pruthvi mote taur par apni dhuri ka kareeb 366.26 baar chakkar kaatati hai yeh samay ki lanbaai ek naakshatr varsh (sidereal year) hai jo 365.26 saur diwas (solar day)[29] ke baraabar hai pruthvi ki ghoornan ki dhuri iske kaksheeya samatal (orbital plane) se lambavat (perpendicular) 23.4 ki doori par jhuka (tilted) hai jo ek ushnakatibandheeya varsh (tropical year) (365.24 saur dinon mein) ki avadhi mein grah ki satah par mausami vividhta[30] paida karta hai.

pruthvi ka ekamaatr praakrutik upagrah chandrama (natural satellite) hai, jisne iski parikrama 4.53 billion saal pehle shuroo ki. yeh apni aakarshan shakti dvaara samudri jvaar paida karta hai, dhuriya jhukaav ko sthir rakhata hai aur dheere-dheere pruthvi ke ghoornan ko dheema karta hai.

grah ke praarambhik itihaas ke dauraan ek dhoomaketu ki bamabaari ne mahaasaagaron[31] ke gathan mein bhoomika nibhaaya. baad mein chhudragrah (asteroid) ke prabhaav ne satah ke paryaavaran par mahatvapoorn badlaav kiya.

anukram

naam

pruthvi athva pruthivi naam pauraanik katha par aadhaarit hai jiska maharaaj pruthu se hai. anya naam hain - dhara, bhoomi, dharitri, rasa, ratnagarbha ityaadi. angreji mein arth aur laateen bhaasha mein tera.

raasaayanik sanrachana

pruthvi ki rachana mein nimnalikhit tatvon ka yogadaan hai

  1. 34.6% aayaran
  2. 29.5% aakseejan
  3. 15.2% silikn
  4. 12.7% maigneshiym
  5. 2.4% nikel
  6. 1.9% salfar
  7. 0.05% taaiteniym
  8. shesh anya

dharati ka ghanatv poore sauramandal me sabse jyaada hai. baaki chattaani grah ki sanrachana kuchh antaro ke saath pruthvi ke jaisi hi hai. chandrama ka kendrak chhota hai, budh ka kendra uske kul aakaar ki tulana me vishaal hai, mangal aur chandrama ka maintal kuchh mota hai, chandrama aur budh me raasaayanik roop se bhinn bhoopatal nahi hai, sirf pruthvi ka ant: aur baahya maintal parat alag hai. dhyaan de ki graho (pruthvi bhi) ki aantarik sanrachana ke baare me hamaara gyaan saiddhaantik hi hai.

aantarik sanrachana

pruthvi ki aatanrik sanrachana shalkeeya arthaat paraton ke roop mein hai jaise pyaaj ke chhilke paraton ke roop mein hote hain. in paraton ki motaai ka seemaankan raasaayanik visheshataaon athva yaantrik visheshataaon ke aadhaar par kiya ja sakta hai. pruthvi ki oopari parat bhooparpati ek thos parat hai, madhyavarti maintal atyadhik gaadhi parat hai aur baahya krod taral tatha aatanrik krod thos avastha mein hai.

pruthvi ki aatanrik sanrachana ke baare mein jaankaari ka sroton ko do hisson mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai. pratyaksh srot, jaise jvaalaamukhi se nikle padaartho ka adhyayan, vedhan se praapt aankade ityaadi, kam gaharaai tak hi jaankaari upalabdh kara pate hain. doosari or apratyaksh srot ke roop mein bhookampeeya tarangon ka adhyayan adhik gaharaai ki visheshataaon ke baare mein jaankaari deta hai.

yaantrik lakshanon ke aadhaar par pruthvi ko sthalamandal, durbalata mandal, madhyavarti maintal, baahya krod aur aatanrik krod me banaata jaata hai. raasaayanik sanrachana ke aadhaar par bhooparpati, oopari maintal, nichla maintal, baahya krod aur aatanrik krod mein baaainta jaata hai.

pruthvi ki aatanrik sanrachana
gaharaai paratein
kilometer meal
0–60 0–37 sthalamandal (sthaanik roop se 5 aur 200 kimi ke beech parivrtanasheel)
0–35 0–22 bhooparpati (parivrtanasheel 5 se 70 kimi ke beech)
35–60 22–37 … sabse oopari maintal
35–2,890 22–1,790 maintal
100–200 62–125 … durbalata mandal (esthenosfiyr)
35–660 22–410 … oopari maintal
660–2,890 410–1,790 … nichla maintal
2,890–5,150 1,790–3,160 baahya krod
5,150–6,360 3,160–3,954 aatanrik krod


pruthvi ke antaratam ki yeh paratadaar sanrachana bhookampeeya tarangon ke sanchalan aur unke paraavartan tatha pratyaavartan par aadhaarit hai jinka adhyayan bhookanpalekhi ke aaainkadon se kiya jaata hai. bhookamp dvaara utpann praathamik evam dviteeyak tarangein pruthvi ke andar snel ke niyam ke anusaar pratyaavartit hokar vakraakaar path par chalti hain. jab do paraton ke beech ghanatv athva raasaayanik sanrachana ka achaanak parivartan hota hai to tarangon ki kuchh oorja vahaaain se paraavartit ho jaati hai. paraton ke beech aisi jagahon ko asaatatya (Discontinuity) kehte hain.

sthalamandal

roop badalti pruthvi

anya chattaani ke viprit pruthvi ka bhoopatal kuchh thos pleto me vibhaajit hai jo nichle drav maintal par svatantr roop se bahate rahati hai. is gatividhi ko plate tektaanik kehte hai. (vartamaan mein) aath pramukh plate:

  1. uttar ameriki plate – uttari America, pashchimi uttar atalaantik aur greenalaind
  2. dakshin ameriki plate – dakshin America aur pashchimi dakshin atalaantik
  3. antaarkatik plate – antaarkatika aur “adakshini mahaasaagara”
  4. yooreshiyaai plate – poorvi uttar atalaantik, Europe aur Bhaarat ke alaava Asia
  5. afreeki plate – Africa, poorvi dakshin atalaantik aur pashchimi hind mahaasaagar
  6. bhaarateeya -Australiaee plate – Bhaarat, Australia, New Zealand aur hind mahaasaagar ke adhikaansh
  7. naajka plate – poorvi prashaant mahaasaagar se sate dakshin America
  8. prashaant plate – prashaant mahaasaagar ke sabse adhik (aur California ke dakshini tat!)

pruthvi ka bhoopatal kaafi naya hai. khagoliya paimaane par yeh bahut chhote antaraal 500,000,000 varsh me bana hai. ksharan aur tektaaneek gatividhi pruthvi ke bhoopatal ko nasht kar naya karte rahati hai, is tarak aitihaasik bhaugolik gatividhiyo ke pramaan (kretar) nasht hote rahate hai. pruthvi ke shuruvaati itihaas ke pramaan nasht ho chuke hai. pruthvi ki aayoo 4.5 arab varsh se lekar 4.6 arab varsh hai lekin pruthvi ki sabse pooraani chatthaan 4 arab varsh pooraani hai, 3 arab varsh se pooraane chattaane doorlabh hai. jivit praaniyo ke jivaashm ki aayoo 3.9 arab varsh se kam hai. jivn ke praarambh ke samay ke koi pramaan upalabdh nahi hai.

jal ki upasthiti

pruthvi ki satah ka 70% hissa paani se dhanka hai. pruthvi akela grah hai jis par paani drav avastha me satah par upalabdh hai. (taaitan par drav ithen ya mithen ho sakti hai, yuropa ki satah ke niche drav paani ho sakta hai.) ham jaante hai ki jivn ke liye drav jal aavashyak hai. saagaro ki garmi sokhane ki kshamata pruthvi ke taapamaan ko sthaayi rakhane me mahatvapoorn hai. drav jal pruthvi satah ke ksharan aur mausam ke liye mahatvapoorn hai. (mangal par bhootakaal me shaayad aisi gatividhi huyi ho sakti hai.)

vaayumandal

pruthvi ke vaataavaran me 77% naayatrojan, 21% aakseejan, aur kuchh maatra me aargan, kaarban daaya aaksaaid aur jal baashp hai. pruthvi par nirmaan ke samay kaarban daaya aaksaaid ki maatra jyaada rahi hogi jo chatataano me kaarbonet ke roop me jam gayi, kuchh maatra me saagar dvaara avashoshit kar li gayi, shesh kuchh maatra jivit praaniyo dvaara prayog me aa gayi hogi. plate tektaanik aur jaivik gatividhi kaarban daaya aaksaaid ka thodi maatra ka uttsarjan aur avashoshan karte rahate hai. kaarbanadaaya aaksaaid pruthvi ke satah ka taapamaan ka green house prabhaav dvaara niyantran karti hai. green house prabhaav dvaara pruthvi satah ka taapamaan 35 deegri selseeyas hota hai anyatha vah -21 deegri selseeyas se 14 deegri selseeyas rahata; iske na rahane par samudra jam jaate aur jivn asambhav ho jaata. jal baashp bhi ek aavashyak green house gas hai.

raasaayanik drushti se mukt aakseejan bhi aavashyak hai. saamaanya paristhiti me aakseejan vibhinn tatvo se kriya kar vibhinn yaugik banaati hai. pruthvi ke vaataavaran me aakseejan ka nirmaan aur niyantran vibhinn jaivik prakriyaao se hota hai. jivn ke bina mukt aakseejan sambhav nahi hai.

chandrama

chandrama pruthvi ka ekamaatr praakrutik upagrah hai. yeh sauramandal ka paachavaaain sabse vishaal praakrutik upagrah hai jiska vyaas pruthvi ka ek chauthaai tatha dravyamaan 1/81 hai | bruhaspati ke upagrah lo ke baad chandrama doosra sabse adhik ghanatv wala upagrah hai | soorya ke baad aasmaan mein sabse adhik chamakadaar nikaaya chandrama hai | samudri jvaar aur bhaata chandrama ki gurutvaakarshan shakti ke kaaran aate hai | chandrama ki taatkaalik kaksheeya doori, pruthvi ke vyaas ka 30 guna hai iseeliye aasmaan mein soorya aur chandrama ka aakaar hamesha saamaan najar aata hai |pruthvi ke madhya se chandrama ke madhya tak ki doori 384,403 kilometer hai. yeh doori pruthvi ki paridhi ke 30 guna hai. chandrama par gurutvaakarshan pruthvi se 1/6 hai. yeh pruthvi ki parikrama 27.3 din me poora karta hai aur apne aksh ke chaaro or ek poora chakkar bhi 27.3 din mein lagaata hai| yahi kaaran hai ki ham hamesha chandrama ka ek hi pahaloo pruthvi se dekhte hain| yadi chandrama par khade hokar pruthvi ko dekhe to pruthvi saaf-saaf apne aksh par ghoornan karti hui najar aaegi lekin aasmaan mein usaki sthiti sada sthir bani rahegi arthaat pruthvi ko kai varsho tak nihaarate raho vah apni jagah se tas se mas naheen hogi | pruthvi- chandrama-soorya jyaamiti ke kaaran "chandr dasha" har 29.5 dinon mein badalti hai.

chunbakeeya kshetr

pruthvi ka apna chunbakiya kshetr hai jo ki baahya kendrak ke vidyut pravaah se nirmit hota hai. saur vaayoo, pruthvi ke chunbakiya kshetr aur upari vaataavaran meelakar aurora banaate hai. in sabhi kaarako me aayi aniymittaao se pruthvi ke chunbakiya dhruv gatimaan rahate hai, kabhi kabhi viprit bhi ho jaate hai. pruthvi ka chunbakiya kshetr aur saur vaayoo meelakar vaan endarasan vikirn patta banaate hai, jo ki plaajma se bani huyi donat aakaar ke chhallo ki jodi hai jo pruthvi ke chaaro ki valayaakaar me hai. baahya patta 19000 kimi se 41000 kimi tak hai jabki at: patta 13000 kimi se 7600 kimi tak hai.


itihaas

vaigyaanik grah ke bhootakaal ki jaankaari ke baare mein vistrut soochana ko ekatr karne mein safal rahe hain. saur mandal mein pruthvi aur anya grah ne 4.54 billion varsh[23] pehle saur nihaarika (solar nebula) ka gathan kiya, jo ek disk ke aakaar ka dhool aur gas ka gola tha, jo soorya ke nirmaan se shesh bacha tha. praarambh mein pighla hua (molten), jab paani vaataavaran mein ikattha ho gaya tab pruthvi ki baahari parat ek thos parat ke nirmaan ke liye thandi ho gayi. turant baad chandrama ka nirmaan hua, sanbhavat: pruthvi ke 10% dravyamaan ke saath[32] pruthvi ke tirchhe prahaar ke prabhaav ke saath mangal ke aakaar ki vastu ke parinaamasvaroop (kabhi thiya (Theia) kaha gaya)[33] is vastu ka kuchh dravyamaan pruthvi ke saath mil gaya hoga aur ek hissa antariksh mein pravesh kar gaya hoga, par kaksha mein chandrama ke nirmaan ke liye paryaapt saamagri bheja gaya hoga

adhik gas aur jvaalaamukhi ki kriya ne aadim vaataavaran ko utpann kiya. sanghanitjal vaashp (water vapor), kshudragrah aur bade aadya grah, dhoomaketu aur nepchoon ke paar se nishpaadit sanvardhit barf aur taral paani se mahaasaagar utpann hua (produced the oceans).[31] maana jaata hai ki uchch oorja rasaayan vigyaan ne kareeb 4 arab saal pehle swayam nakal anu ka utpaadan kiya aur aadhe arab saal baad pichhle aam jeevan ke sabhi poorvaj (last common ancestor of all life) astitv mein the.[34]

prakaash sanshleshan ke vikaas ne soorya ki urja ka pratyaksh jeevan mein upayog karne ki anumati di, parinaamat: okseejan vaataavaran mein sanchit hua aur ojon (oopari vaayumandal mein aanavik okseejan [o3] ka ek prakaar) ki ek parat ke roop mein parint hua .badi koshikaao ke saath chhoti koshikaaon ke samaavesh ke parinaamasvarup yukaaryotes (development of complex cells) kahe jaane vaale jatil koshikaaon ka vikaas mein hua.[35] koloniyon ke antargat sachche bahu koshikeeya jeevo ke roop mein vardhamaan vishesheekrut hota hai ojon parat (ozone layer) dvaara haanikaarak paraabaingani vikirn ke avashoshan se sahaayata praapt jeevan pruthvi par sanghanit hua[36]

bina kisi shushk bhoomi ki shuruaat ke samudra ke oopar satah ki kul maatra lagaataar badh rahi hai pichhle do arab saalon ke dauraan, udahaaran ke liye, mahaadeshon ka kul parimaan doguni ho gayi.[37] saikadon laakhon saal se adhik samay se swayam ko lagaataar dubaara aakaar diya, jisse mahaadesh bane aur toote .mahaadesh poore satah se kabhi kabhi ek vruhat mahaadesh (supercontinent) ke sanyojan ke nirmaan ke liye visthaapit hue.lagbhag 750 karod saal pehle mya (mya)), sabse pehle jan jaane wala sheersh mahaadesh, rodiniya (Rodinia) alag se prakat hone laga .mahaadesh baad mein 600 – 540 ;mya panosiya{ (Pannotia) ke nirmaan ke liye dubaara ekeekrut hue, tab antat: pangeya (Pangaea) 180 mya[38] alag se prakat hua

1960 ke baad se yeh man gaya ki 750 aur 580 lakh saal ke beech mein gambhir glaasial kriya niyoproterojoik (Neoproterozoic) ke dauraan adhikaansh satah ko ek barf ki chaadar mein dhak liya is parikalpana ko pruthvi himgola (Snowball Earth) kaha gaya aur yeh vishesh ruchi ka hai kyonki jab bahu koshikeeya jeevan praaroop prasaarit hua tab yeh kaimbriyn visfot (Cambrian explosion) se pehle hua .[39]

kaimbriyn visfot (Cambrian explosion) ke kareeb 535 mya ke baad paaainch vyaapak vinaash hue hain (mass extinctions)[40] vinaash ki antim ghatna 65 mya mein hua jab ek ulka ke takkar ne sanbhavat: (gair pakshi) daayanaasor aur anya bade sareesrup ke vinaash ko prerit kiya, par stanapaayi jaise chhote jaanvaron ko prasaarit kiya jo tab chhuchhundar se milte the. pichhle 65 lakh saal pehle se, stanapaayiyon ka jeevan vividhta poorn hai aur kai lakh saal pehle ek afreeki bandar ke samaan jaanavar ne seedha khada hone ki yogyata praapt ki[41] yeh yantr ka upayog kiya aur sanchaar saadhan ko prerit kiya jisne ek vruhat mastishk ke liye aavashyak poshan aur uttejana pradaan kiya. krushi ke vikaas ne aur tab sabhyata ne, maanav ko chhote kaal avadhi mein pruthvi ko prabhaavit karne ki anumati di,[42] jo prakruti aur anya jeevon ko prabhaavit kiya.

him yug (ice age) ka vartamaan svaroop kareeb 40 lakh saal pehle praarambh hua, tab kareeb 3 lakh saal baad abhinootan (Pleistocene) teevr hua dhruveeya kshetr tabase himaachhaadan aur galan ke kramik chakr ko pratyek 40 - 100,000 saalon mein duharaaya hai. antim him yug ki samaapti lagbhag 10,000 saal pehle hui[43]

sandarbh

  1. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; standish naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; IERS naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. a aa i E u oo A ai O sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; earth_fact_sheet naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  4. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Allen294 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  5. "UCS Satellite Database [yooseees saitelaait daataabes]" (angreji mein). 21 January 2015. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. http://web.archive.org/web/20150703030226/http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_weapons_and_global_security/solutions/space-weapons/ucs-satellite-database.html#.Vaj-ukvIUgo. abhigman tithi: 17 August 2015.
  6. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; hbcp2000 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  7. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; usno naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  8. a aa world jiyodetik system (WGS-84). national jiyo speshiyl-intelligence agency par online upalabdh
  9. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; cazenave_ahrens1995 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  10. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; iers naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  11. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Pidwirny_2006_8 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  12. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; cia naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  13. "Solar System Exploration: Earth: Facts & Figures [sauramandal anveshan: pruthvi: tathya evam aaainkade]" (angreji mein). naasa. 13 December 2012. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Earth&Display=Facts. abhigman tithi: 17 August 2015.
  14. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; NIST2008 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  15. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Allen296 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  16. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Cox2000 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  17. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; asu_lowest_temp naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  18. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; kinver20091210 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  19. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; asu_highest_temp naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  20. national oshanik end etamosfeyarik edaministreshan (5 December 2014). "vaataavaran mein kaarban daaioksaaid ki pravrutti". http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/#mlo.
  21. Oxford english dikshanari), pratham sanskaran "terra, n." Oxford university press (Oxford), 1911.
  22. dhyaan dein ki antararaashtreeya khagoleeya sangh (International Astronomical Union) sammelan ke dvaara " tera " shabd pruthvi grah ki apeksha vyaapak bhoomi ke naamakaran ke liye kiya jaata hai seeef
  23. a aa
  24. }} -->
  25. saur divson ki sankhya nakshatr divson (sidereal day) ki sankhya se ek kam hai kyonki soorya ke chaaron or pruthvi ki kaksheeya gati ke parinaamasvarup usaka parikraman kaal ek din badh jaata hai.
  26. ahareins, vaishvik pruthvi bhautiki : bhautik sthirta ki ek pustika, pi.8 .
  27. a aa
  28. ward aur brovanli (2002)
  29. }} -->
  30. }} -->

baahari kadiyaaain

the va b
saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
soorya · budh · shukr · pruthvi · mangal · seerees · bruhaspati · shani · Arun · varun · yam · haumeya · maakemaake · eris
grah · bauna grah · upagrah - chandrama · mangal ke upagrah · kshudragrah · bruhaspati ke upagrah · shani ke upagrah · Arun ke upagrah · varun ke upagrah · yam ke upagrah · eris ke upagrah
chhoti vastueain: ulka · kshudragrah (kshudragrah gheraa‎) · kinnar · varun-paar vastueain (kaaipar gheraa‎/bikhra chakr) · dhoomaketu (aurt baadal)


sandarbh truti: "sa" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="sa"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.