pruthveeraaj raaso

pruthveeraaj raaso hindi bhaasha mein likha ek mahaakaavya hai jismein pruthveeraaj chauhaan ke jeevan aur charitra ka varnan kiya gaya hai. iske rachayita chand baradaai pruthveeraaj ke bachapan ke mitr aur unke raajakavi the aur unki yuddh yaatraaon ke samay veer ras ki kavitaaon se sena ko protsaahit bhi karte the. 1165 se 1192 ke beech jab pruthveeraaj chauhaan ka raajya Ajmer se Delhi tak faila hua tha.

pruthveeraajaraaso dhaai hajaar prushthon ka bahut bada granth hai jismein 69 samay (sarg ya adhyaaya) hain. praacheen samay mein prachalit praay: sabhi chhandon ka ismein vyavahaar hua hai. mukhya chhand hain - kavitt (chhappaya), dooha(doha), tomar, trotak, gaaha aur aarya. jaise kaadanbari ke sambandh mein prasiddh hai ki usaka pichhla bhaag baan bhatt ke putr ne poora kiya hai, vaise hi raaso ke pichhle bhaag ka bhi chand ke putr jalhan dvaara poorn kiya gaya hai. raaso ke anusaar jab shahaabuddeen gori pruthveeraaj ko kaid karke gjni le gaya, tab kuchh dinon peechhe chand bhi vaheen gaye. jaate samay kavi ne apne putr jalhan ke haath mein raaso ki pustak dekar use poorn karne ka sanket kiya. jalhan ke haath mein raaso ko saunpe jaane aur uske poore kiye jaane ka ullekh raaso mein hai -

pustak jalhan hatth dai chali gajjan nrupakaaj.
raghunaathanacharit hanumantakrut bhoop bhoj uddhariya jimi.
pruthiraajasujas kavi chand krut chandanand uddhariya timi.

raaso mein diye hue sanvaton ka aitihaasik tathyon ke saath anek sthaanon par mel na khaane ke kaaran anek vidvaanon ne pruthveeraajaraaso ke samasaamayik kisi kavi ki rachana hone mein sandeh karte hai aur use 16veen shataabdi mein likha hua granth thaharaate hain. is rachana ki sabse puraani prati Bikaner ke raajakeeya pustakaalaya me mili hai kul 3 pratiyaaain hai. rachana ke ant me prathaveeraaj dvaara shabd bhedi baan chala kar Gauri ko maarane ki baat bhi ki gayi hai.

anukram

parichay

pruthveeraajaraaso raasak parampara ka ek kaavya hai. jaisa iske naam se hi prakat hai, Delhi ke antim hindu samraat pruthveeraaj ke jeevan ki ghatnaaon ko lekar likha gaya hindi ka ek granth jo chand ka likha maana jaata raha hai. pehle is kaavya ke ek hi roop se hindi jagat‌ parichit tha, jo sanyog se rachana ka sabse adhik vishaal roop tha ismein lagbhag gyaarah hajaar roopak aate the. uske baad rachana ka ek usase chhota roop kuchh pratiyon mein mila, jismein lagbhag saadhe teen hajaar roopak the. uske bhi baad ek roop kuchh pratiyon mein praapt hua jismein kul roopakasankhya baarah sau se adhik naheen thi. tadanantar do pratiyaaain usaki aisi bhi praapt hui jinmein kramash: chaar sau aur saadhe paaainch sau roopak hi the. ye sabhi pratiyaaain rachana ke vibhinn poorn roop prastut karti theen. rachana ke kuchh khandon ki pratiyaaain bhi praapt hui hain, jinka sambandh uparyukt pratham do roopon se raha hai. at: svabhaavat: yeh vivaad utha ki uparyukt vibhinn poorn roopon ka vikaas kis prakaar hua. kuchh vidvaanon ne isse sarvatha bhinn mat prakat kiya. unhonne kaha ki sabse bada roop hi rachana ka mool roop raha hoga aur usi se uttarottar adhikaadhik chhote roop sankshepon ke roop mein banaakar prastut kiye gaye honge. inhonne iska pramaan yeh diya ki rachana ka koi roop, yahaaain tak ki sabse chhota roop bhi, anaitihaasikta se mukt naheen hai. kintu is vivaad ko fir yaheen par chhod diya gaya aur isko hal karne ka koi prayaas bahut dinon tak naheen kiya gaya. iska pratham ullekhaneeya prayaas 1955 mein hua. jab ek vidvaan ne pruthveeraaj raaso ke teen paathon ka aakaar sambandh (hindi anusheelan, jalan-March 1955) sheershak lekh likr yeh dikhaaya ki pruthveeraaj aur uske vipaksh ke balaabal ko soochit karanevaali jo sankhyaaeain rachana ke teen vibhinn paathon : sabse bade (bruhat‌), usase chhote (madhyam) aur usase bhi chhote (laghu) mein milti hain unamein samaanata naheen hai aur yadi samagr roop se dekha jaaya to in sankhyaaon ke sambandh mein atyukti ki maatra bhi uparyukt kram mein hi uttarottar kam milti hai. yadi ye paath bruhat‌amadhyamalaghulaghutam kram mein viksit hue hote, to sankshep kriya ke kaaran balaabal soochak sankhyaaon mein koi antar na milta. isaliye yeh prakat hai ki praapt roopon ke vikaas ka kram laghutamalaghumadhyamabruhat‌ hai. prabandh ki drushti se yadi ham rachana ki uktishrrunkhalaaon aur chhandashrankhalaaon tatha prasangashrrunkhalaaon par dhyaan dein to vahaaain bhi dekheinge ki ye shrrunkhalaaeain laghutamalaghumadhyamabruhat‌ kram mein hi uttarottar adhikaadhik tooti hain aur beech beech mein isi kram se adhikaadhik chhand aur prasang prakshepakartaataaon ke dvaara rakhe gaye hain. kintu rachana ka praapt sabse chhota (laghutam) roop bhi in shrrunkhalaatrutiyon se sarvatha mukt naheen hai, isaliye spasht gyaat hota hai ki 'raaso' ka mool roop praapt laghutam roop se bhi chhota raha hoga.

katha

'pruthveeraajaraaso' ki katha sankshep mein is prakaar hai : pruthveeraaj jis samay Delhi ke sinhaasan par tha, kannauj ke raaja jayachand ne raajasooya yagya karne ka nishchaya kiya aur isi avsar par usane apni kanya sanyogita ka svayanvar bhi karne ka sankalp kiya. raajasooya ka nimantran usane door door tak ke raajaaon ko bheja aur pruthveeraaj ko bhi usamein sammilit hone ke liye aamantrit kiya. pruthveeraaj aur uske saamanton ko yeh baat khali ki bahuvachanon ke hote hue bhi koi anya raajasooya yagya kare aur pruthveeraaj ne jayachand ka nimantran asveekaar kar diya. jayachand ne fir bhi raajasooya yagya karna thaanakar yajnyaamandap ke dwaar par dvaarapaal ke roop mein pruthveeraaj ki ek pratima sthaapit kar di. pruthveeraaj svabhaavat: is ghatna se apamaan samajhakar kshubdh hua. isi beech use yeh bhi samaachaar mila ki jayachand ki kanya sanyogita ne pita ke vachanon ki upeksha kar pruthveeraaj ko hi pati roop mein varan karne ka sankalp kiya hai aur jayachand ne ispar kruddh hokar use alag gangaatatavarti ek aavaas mein bhijva diya hai.

in samaachaaron se santapt hokar vah rajdhani ke baahar aakhet mein apna samay kisi prakaar bita raha tha ki usaki anupasthiti se laabh uthaakar uske mantri kaivaas ne usaki ek karanaati daasi se anuchit sambandh kar liya aur ek din raat ko uske kaksh mein pravisht ho gaya. pattaraajnyai ko jab yeh baat gyaat hui, usane pruthveeraaj ko tatkaal bulava bheja aur pruthveeraaj raat ko hi do ghadiyon mein Rajbhavan mein aa gaya. jab use ukt daasi ke kaksh mein kaivaas ko dikhaaya gaya, usane raatri ke andhakaar mein hi unhein lakshya karke baan chhode. pehla baan to chook gaya kintu doosare baan ke lagte hi kainvaas dharaashaayi ho gaya. raato raat donon ko ek gaddhe mein gadvaakar pruthveeraaj aakhet par chala gaya, fir doosare din rajdhani ko lauta. kainvaas ki stri ne chand se apne mrut pati ka shav dilaane ki praarthana ki to chand ne pruthveeraaj se yeh nivedan kiya. pruthveeraaj ne chand ka yeh anurodh is shart par sveekaar kiya ki vah use apne saath le jaakar kannauj dikhaaega. donon mitr kasakar gale milte or roe. pruthveeraaj ne kaha ki is apamaanapoorn jeevan se maran achha tha aur uske kavimitr ne usaki is bhaavana ka anumodan kiya. kainvaas ka shav lekar usaki vidhva sati ho gayi.

chand ke saath thavaaitt (taanboolapaatravaahak) ke shesh mein pruthveeraaj ne kannauj ke liye prayaan kiya. saath mein sau veer rajput saamanton sainikon ko bhi usane le liya. kannauj pahuainchakar jayachand ke darbaar mein gaya. jayachand ne usaka bahut satkaar kiya aur usase pruthveeraaj ke vaya, roop aadi ke sambandh mein poochha. chand ne usaka jaisa kuchh vivran diya, vah uske anuchar thavaaitt mein dekhkar jayachand kuchh sashankit hua. shankaanivaaranaarth usane kavi ko paan arpit karaane ke bahaane anya daasiyon ke saath ek daasi ko bulaaya jo pehle pruthveeraaj ki seva mein rah chuki thi. usane pruthveeraaj ko thvaaitt ke vesh mein dekhkar sir dhaink liya. kintu kisi ne kaha ki chand pruthveeraaj ka abhinn sakha tha isaliye daasi ne use dekh sir dhaink liya aur baat vaheen par samaapt ho gayi. kintu doosare din praat: kaal jab jayachand chand ke dere par usase milne gaya, thavaaitt ko sinhaasan par baitha dekhkar use pun: shanka hui. chand ne bahaane karke usaki shanka ka nivaaran karna chaaha aur thavaaitt se use paan arpit karne ka kaha. paan dete hue thavaaitt veshi pruthveeraaj ne jo vakr drushti feinki, usase jayachand ko bhali bhaaainti nishchaya ho gaya ki yeh swayam pruthveeraaj hai aur usane pruthveeraaj ka saamana datakar karne ka aadesh nikaala.

idhar pruthveeraaj nagar ki parikrama ke liye nikla. jab vah ganga mein machhaliyon ko moti chuga raha tha, sanyogita ne ek daasi ko usako theek theek pahachaanane tatha uske pruthveeraaj hone par apna (sanyogita ka) premanivedan karne ke liye bheja. daasi ne jab yeh nishchaya kar liya ki vah pruthveeraaj hi hai, usane sanyogita ka pranayanivedan kiya. pruthveeraaj tadanantar sanyogita se mila aur donon ka us gangaatatavarti aavaas mein paanigrahan hua. us samay vah vahaaain se chala aaya kintu apne saamanton ke kehne par vah pun: jaanakar sanyogita ka saath liva laaya. jab usane is praka sanyogita ka apaharan kiya, chand ne lalakaakar jayachand se kaha ki usaka shatru pruthveeraaj usaki kanya ka varan kar ab usase daayaj ke roop mein yuddh maaaing raha tha. parinaamat: donon pakshon mein sangharsh praarambh ho gaya.

do dinon ke yuddh mein jab pruthveeraaj ke anek yoddha maare gaye, saamanton ne use yuddh ki vidha badalne ki salaah di. unhonne sujhaaya ki vah sanyogita ko lekar Delhi ki or badhe aur ve jayachand ki sena ko Delhi ke maarg mein aage badhne se rokate rahein jab tak vah sanyogita ko lekar Delhi na pahuainch jaae. pruthveeraaj ne is sveekaar kar liya aur anek saamanton tatha shoor veeron yauddhaaon ki bali ne anantar sanyogita ko lekar Delhi gaya. jayachand apni sena ke saath kannauj laut gaya.

Delhi pahuainchakar pruthveeraaj sanyogita ke saath, vilaasamagn ho gaya. chhah maheene tak aavaas se baahar nikla hi naheen, jiske parinaamasvaroop uske guru, baandhav, bhatya tatha lok mein uske prati asantosh utpann ho gaya. praja ne raajaguru se kasht ka nivedan kiya to raajaguru chand ko lekar sanyogita ke aavaas par gaya. donon ne milkar pruthveeraaj ko gori ke aakraman ki soochika patrika bheji aur sandeshavaahika daasi se kahala bheja : 'gori rattatuadhara too gori anuratt.' raaja ki vilaasanidra bhang hui aur vah sanyogita se vida hokar yuddh ke liye nikal pada.

shahaabuddeen is baar badi bhaari sena lekar aaya hua tha. pruthveeraaj ke anek shoor yoddha aur saamant kannoj yuddh mein hi maare ja chuke the. parinaamat: pruthveeraaj ki sena ranakshetr se laut padi aur shaahabuddeen vijayi hua. pruthveeraaj bandi kiya gaya aur gajani le jaaya gaya. vahaaain par kuchh dinon baad shahaabuddeen ne usaki aaainkhein niklava leen.

jab chand pruthveeraaj ke kashton ka samaachaar mila, vah gajani apne mitr tatha svaami ke uddhaar ke liye avadhoot ke vesh mein chal pada. vah shahaabuddeen se mila. vahaaain jaane ka kaaran poochhane par usane bataaya ki ab vah badarikaashram jaakar tap karna chaahata tha kintu ek saadh uske ji mein shesh thi, isaliye vah abhi vahaaain naheen gaya tha. usane pruthveeraaj ke saath janm grahan kiya tha aur ve bachapan mein saath saath hi khele koode the. usi samay pruthveeraaj ne usase kaha tha ki vah singini ke dvaara bina fal ke baadh se hi saat ghadiyaalon ko ek saath bedh sakta tha. usaka yeh kaushal vah naheen dekh saka tha aur ab dekhkar apni vah saadh poori karna chaahata tha. gori ne kaha ki vah to andha kiya ja chuka hai. chand ne kaha ki vah fir bhi vaisa sandhaanakaushal dikha sakta hai, use yeh vishvaas tha. shahaabuddeen ne usaki yeh maaaing sveekaar kar li aur tatsanbandhi saara aayojan karaaya. chand ke protsaahit karne par jeevan se niraash pruthveeraaj ne bhi apna sanghaan kaushal dikhaane ke bahaane shatru ke vadh karne ka usaka aagrah sveekaar kar liya. pruthveeraaj se sveekruti lekar chand shahaabuddeen ke paas gaya aur kaha ki vah lakshyavedh tabhi karne ko taiyaar hua hai jab vah (shahaabuddeen) swayam apne mukh se use teen baar lakshavedh karne ka aahvaahan kare. shahaabuddeen ne ise bhi sveekaar kar liyaa1 shaah ne do farmaan diye, fir teesara usane jyon hi diya pruthveeraaj ke baan se viddh hokar vah dharaashaayi hua. pruthveeraaj ka bhi ant hua. devataaon ne us par pushpavrushti ki aur pruthvi ne mlechha gori se traan paakar harsh prakat kiya.

yahaaain par 'pruthveeraajaraaso' ki katha samaapt hoti hai.

aitihaasikta

'raaso' ki aitihaasikta ko lekar, vishesh roop se jab se prasiddh vidvaan‌ aur puraatatvajnya vyoolar ko 'pruthveeraaj vijay' naamak sanskrut kaavya ki khandit prati mili, bada vivaad chala hai. yeh vivaad uske bruhat‌ paath ko lekar chala hai, kintu rachana ka laghutam paath tak aisa naheen hai jo anaitihaasikta se sarvatha mukt ho. udaaharanaarth jayachand ke dvaara daahal ke karn ko do baar paraajit aur bandi kiye jaane ka ullekh milta hai, kintu vah jayachand se lagbhag sava sau varsh poorv hua tha. jayachand se hue kahe gaye pruthveeraaj ke yuddh ke sambandh mein koi nishchit aitihaasika samarthan abhi tak naheen praapt ho saka hai. pruthveeraaj Ajmer ka shaasak tha; Delhi ka shaasak koi govindaraaya ya khaanderaaya tha jo pruthveeraaj ki or se donon yuddhon se lada tha or doosare yuddh mein maara gaya tha. musalmaan itihaasakaaron ke anusaar gori se pruthveeraaj ke keval do yuddh hue the, 'raaso' ke anusaar kam se kam chaar yutr hue the¾ jinmein se teen mein shahaabuddeen paraajit hua tha aur bandi kiya gaya tha. musalmaan itihaasakaaron ke anusaar pruthveeraaj paraajit hone ke anantar sarasvati ke nikat pakada gaya aur maara gaya tha, jabki 'raaso' ke anusaar vah shhaabuddeen ko gajani mein uparyukt prakaar se maarkar mara tha. ye anaitihaasik ullekh aur vivran 'pruthveeraajaraaso' ke samast roopon mein paae jaate hain aur inmein se adhikratar uske taane baane ke hain, isaliye uske kisi bhi punarnimit roop mein bhi paae jaan‌aaeainge. isaliye yeh maanana hi padega ki usaka koi bhi roop pruthveeraaj ki samakaaleen rachana naheen ho sakta hai.

prashn yeh hai ki 'raaso' kis samay ki rachana maani ja sakta hai. kuchh samay hua, prasiddh anveshi vidvaan‌ muni jinvijya ko jain bhaandaron mein do 'jain prabandh' sangrahon ki ek ek prati mili, jinmein 'pruthveeraaj prabandh' aur 'jayachand prabandh' sakalit the. in prabandhon mein jo chhand uddhrut the unamein se kuchh 'pruthveeraaj raaso' mein bhi mile, yadyapi in uddharanon ki bhaasha mein 'raaso' ki bhaasha ki apeksha praacheenata adhik surakshit thi. donon pratiyon mein 'pruthveeraaj prabandh' praaya: abhinn tha aur ek prabandhasangrah ki prati san. 1528 ki thi. inse muniji ne yeh parinaam nikaala ki chand avashya hi pruthveeraaj ka samakaaleen aur usaka raajakavi tha. kintu itne se hi yeh parinaam nikaalan tarkasanmat na hoga. in tathyon ke aadhaar par ham itna hi kah sakte hein ki chand ko rachana ka koi na koi roop sanvat 1528 ke pehle praapt tha, jisse lekar ve chhand ukt 'pruthveeraajaprabandh' mein uddhrut kiye gaye. vah roop san. 1528 ke kitne poorv nirmit hua hoga iske sambandh mein kuchh anumaan se hi kaha ja sakta hai, jiske liye nimnalikhit aadhaar liye ja sakte hain :

  • (1) donon sangrahon ki pratiyaaain unke sangrahakaaron ke hastalekhon mein naheen hain, isliye sangrahakaaron ki krutiyon unki pratiyon ke poorv ki hogeen.
  • (2) donon sangrahon mein 'pruthveeraajaprabandh' praaya: samaan paath ke saath milta hai, isaliye donon prabandhasangrahon mein use kisi poorvavarti saamaanya aadhaarbhoot prabandhasangrah se liya gaya hoga.
  • (3) jis kaavya se uparyukt chhand liye gaye honge, vah is saamaanya aadhaarbhoot prabandhasangrah ke poorv kabhi racha gaya hoga.

uddhrut chhandon mein se ek 'raaso' ke laghutam paath ki pratiyon mein naheen milta hai usamein kainvaas ko 'vyaas' (buddhimaan) aur vashishth (shreshth) kaha gaya hai, jabki 'raaso' ke samast roopon mein uske karnaati daasi ke saath anuchit prem ki katha di gayi hai, jisse prakat hai ki yeh chhand mool rachayita uparyukt aadhaarbhoot prabandhalekhak ko praapt thi, vah prakshipt tha; rachana ka mool roop uske bhi poorv ka hona chaahiye.

yadi maan liya jaaya ki rachana ka ukt prakshipt roop uske mool roop ke lagbhag 50 varsh baad ka hoga, aadhaarbhoot poorvaj sangrah uske bhi lagbhag 25 varsh baad taiyaar kiye gaye honge aur praapt pratiyaaain ukt donon prabandhasangrahon ke taiyaar hone ke bhi lagbhag pachees varsh baad ki hongi, to mool kaavyarachana san. 1400 ke lagbhag ki maani ja sakti hai. samay ke is anumaan mein kaheen par udaarata naheen barati gayi hai, isaliye mool rachana ki tithi iske bahut baad naheen tal sakti hai. rachana ki bhaasha ka jo roop prabandhasangrahon ke udaaharanon mein tatha rachana ke laghutam roopon ki pratiyon mein milta hai, vah bhi san. 1400 ke aas paas ka gyaat hota hai, isaliye bhaasha ka saakshya bhi uparyukt parinaam ki pushti karta hai.

kaavyagat visheshataaeain

'pruthveeraajaraaso' veer ras ka hindi ka sarvashreshth kaavya hai. hindi saahitya mein veer charitron ki jaisi vishd kalpana is kaavya mein mili vaisi baad mein kabhi naheen dikhaai padi. paathak rachana bhar mein utsaah ki ek umadti hui sarita mein bahata chalta hai. kannauj yuddh ke poorv sanyogita ke anuraag aur virh tatha ukt yuddh ke anantar pruthveeraaj sanyogita ke milan aur keli vilaas ke jo chitr rachana mein milte hain, ve atyant aakarshak hain. anya rason ka bhi kaavya mein abhaav naheen hai. rachana ka varnanavaibhav asaadhaaran hai; naayak naayika ke sanbhog samay ka shadritu varnan kaheen kaheen par sanshlisht prakrutichitran ke sundar udaaharan prastut karta hai. bhaashaashaili sarvatr prabhaavapoorn hai aur varnya vishay ke anuroop kaavya bhar mein badalti rahati hai. rachana ke in samast gunon par drushtipaat kiya jaae to vah ek sundar mahaakaavya pramaanit hota hai aur ni:sandeh aadhunik bhaarateeya aaryabhaasha saahitya ke aadi yug ki vishisht kruti thaharati hai.

sandarbh granth

  • pruthveeraaj raaso : kuchh khand, Bengal eshiyaatik society, Calcutta;
  • pruthveeraajaraaso : san. mohanalaal vi. pandya, naagareeprachaarini sabha, kaashi;
  • sankshipt pruthveeraajaraaso: san. hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi tatha naamavar Singh, saahitya bhavan li., prayaag;
  • pruthveeraajaraaso : san. kaviraaya mohan, saahitya sansthaan, sansthaan, Rajasthan vishv vidyaapeeth, Udaipur.
  • vipinbihaari trivedi : chand baradaayi aur unka kaavya, hindustaani ekedemi ekedemi prayaag;
  • raaso sameeksha : sadaashiv Dixit, Motilal banaaraseedaas, naipaali khapada, Varanasi.
  • pruthveeraaj-vijay : san. gaureeshankar heeraachand ojha, Ajmer ;
  • puraatan prabadh sangrah : san. muni jinvijya, bhaarateeya vidyaabhavan, Mumbai ;
  • hammeer mahaakaavya (jayachandr soorikrut), san. neelakath janaardan keertane : education society press, Mumbai;
  • surjan charit mahaakaavya (chandrashekhar krut) san. dau॰ chandradhar sharma, hindu vishvavidyaalaya, Varanasi;
  • pruthveeraaj raasau : san. maata prasaad gupt : saahitya sadan, chirgaaainv, jhaaainsi.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain