prerani motor

skvairel kej preran motor ke stetar aur rotar

prerani motor (indakshan motor) pratyaavarti dhaara se chalne waali motor hai jiske rotar ki koneeya chaal stetar vaainding dvaara paida kiye gaye ghoorni chumbakeeya kshetr ki koneeya chaal se kam hoti hai. isi kaaran is motor ko 'atulyakaalik motor' (asynchronous motor) kaha jaata hai (tulyakaalik motor, dekhein). ise 'preran motor' is kaaran kaha jaata hai kyonki iske rotar mein preran ke dvaara dhaara utpann hoti hai kyonki rotar tatha ghoorni chumbakeeya kshetr ki chaal alag-alag hoti hai.

yeh motor sabse adhik upayog mein aata hai jiske kaaran ise udyogon ka varkahaurs kehte hain. ismein ghisne wala koi avayav naheen hai jisse yeh bina marammat ke bahut dino tak chal sakta hai. yeh kai prakaar ka hota hai-

  • teen feji preran motor
  • skvairel kej
  • slip-ring
  • ek feji preran motor
  • split-phase preran motor (ya Permanent-split capacitor motor))
  • kaipesitr-staart preran motor,
  • kaipesitr-staart kaipesitr run preran motor,
  • resistains split-phase preran motor,
  • sheded pol preran motor (Shaded pole induction motor)

gharon mein saamaanya kaaryon evam kam shakti ke liye prayukt adhikaansh motarein ek-feji preran motor hi hoteen hain inhein fraikshanal haurshapauvar motor bhi kehte hain. udaaharan ke liye pankhon, dhulaai ki masheenon ke motor aadi.

anukram

parichay

pratyaavarti dhaara motaron mein bhi disht dhaara motaron ki bhaaainti hi kshetrakundaliyaaain tatha aarmechar hote hain, parantu kuchh vibhinn roop mein. inmein do mukhya bhaag hote hain : ek to stetar (stator), jo sthir rahata hai aur doosra rotar ko ghoomta hai. pratyaavarti dhaara motarein bhi vibhinn praroopon ke hote hain.

skvairel kej rotar waali preran motor ka enimeshan

sabse-saamaanya pratyaavarti dhaara motor preran motor (induction motor) hai, jo preran ke siddhaant par kaarya karta hai. preran motaron mein stetar kundalan trikla sanbharan se sambaddh hota hai, jiske kaaran ek ghoorni chunbakeeya kshetr (rotating magnetic field) utpann hota hai. rotar ke chaalak aapas mein trikleeya kundalan ke roop mein bhi ho sakte hain, jo donon siron par taaainbe ke valaya dvaara laghu paripthit (short circuited) hon. aisi rachana vastut:, gilhari ke pinjare ki bhaaainti hoti hai. at: aise motaron ko saamaanyat: 'gilhari panjar preran motor', athva keval 'panjar motor' hi kehte hain. ye motor banaavat mein bahut sudrudh hote hain tatha saath hi saath saral tatha saste bhi hote hain. inki dakshata bhi usi aakaar ke doosare motaron ki apeksha ooainchi hoti hai. ataev in motaron ka prayog praaya: saarvatrik hai. parantu in motaron ka prachaalan, ek prakaar se, rotar ki banaavat se anusaar nishchit hota hai aur usamein aavashyakta ke anusaar parivartan naheen kiya ja sakta. inka aaranbhik balaaaghoorn (starting torque) bahut kam hota hai, jise sudhaarane ke liye rotar paripth mein kuchh pratirodh nivisht (insert) karna aavashyak hota hai, parantu sthir praroop ki rachana ke kaaran aisa sambhav naheen ho paata. saath hi sthaayi taur par rotar chaalakon ka pratirodh bhi adhik naheen kiya ja sakta, kyonki aisa karne par haani adhik badh jaaegi aur motor ki dakshata ghat jaaegi. adhik aaranbhik, balaaghoorn praapt karne ke liye dvipanjar (double cage) motor prayukt kiye jaate hain, jinmein ek ke sthaan par do panjar hote hain. rotar ke khaaainchon ke praroop tatha unki sthiti ke anusaar prachaalan lakshanon mein kuchh vibhinnata praapt ki ja sakti hai aur unhein vividh prayojanon ke yogya banaaya ja sakta hai.

tulyakaalik chaal

kisi AC motor (preran motor, tulyakaalik motor aadi) ki tulyakaalik chaal se aashay uske stetar ke ghoorni chumbakeeya kshetr ki chaal se hai. iska maan nimnalikhit sootr se nikaala ja sakta hai-

(RPM / chakkar prati minute),

jahaaain motor ki saplaai ki aavrutti (harts mein) tatha chumbakeeya dhruvon ki sankhya hai[1][2] udaaharan ke liye, 50 hartj ki saplaai tatha, 6 pol vaale teen-feji motor ke liye = 6 tatha = 1,000 RPM

slip

teen feji preran motor ki slip-taurk vaishishtya : yahaaain slip ko 'g' se darshaaya gaya hai.

slip ko praay: nimnalikhit prakaar se paaribhaashit kiya jaata hai-

jahaaain sinkronas speed, rotar ki chaal[3][4] yadi rotar sinkronas chaal se ghoom rahi ho to slip ka maan shoonya hoga, yadi rotar bilkul na chal rahi ho to slip ka maan 1 hoga. motor dvaara utpann balaaghoorn ka maan uske rotar ki slip par nirbhar karta hai. jisko 'slip-taurk vaishishtya' kaha jaata hai. spasht hai ki preran motor 'lagbhag' sthir chaal par chalte hain. bhaar ke saath unka chaal vichran bahut kam hota hai. at:, jin bhaaron ke liye sthir chaal ki aavashyakta hoti hai, vahaaain ve bahut upayogi hote hain. parantu jahaaain vichranasheel chaal ki aavashyakta ho, vahaaain panjar motor saamaanyat: prayukt naheen kiye jaate. inki chaal tulyakaalik chaal se kuchh hi kam hoti hai, jo dhruv sankhya tatha aavrutti par nirbhar karti hai. at: chaal vichran karne ke liye ya to dhruv sankhya mein parivartan karna aavashyak hai, athva aavrutti ka hi vichran karna aavashyak hai.

chaar vibhinn prakaar ke preran motaron ke balaaghoorn-chaal vakra_
A) ek-feji preran motor
B) teen-feji ekal pijra preran motor
C) teen-feji ekal-pijra preran motor, jiski chhadein rotar mein gahari dhasi hui hain
D) teen-feji dvi-pijra preran motor

aavrutti vichran karne ka taatparya hai ki alag aise sanbharan ki vyavastha karna jiski aavrutti badli ja sake. iske liye aajkal char aavrutti drive aa rahe hain. dhruv sankhya ko ek vishisht anupaat mein, kundalan ke sanbandhan mein parivartan karke badla ja sakta hai, jaise ek 4 dhruvi motor ko 8 dhruvi athva 6 dhruvi motor mein parivrtit karna sambhav hai. is prakaar in dhruv sankhyaaon ke tatsanbandhi veg bhi praapt kiye ja sakte hain. 50 chakreeya aavrutti par 4 dhruvi motor ki tulyakaalik chaal 1,500 RPM aur 6 dhruvi tatha 8 dhruvi ka kramash: 1,000 tatha 750 RPM hai. is tarah aisi motor ki dhruv sankhya mein parivartan kar, inki tatsanbandhi chaal praapt ki ja sakti hai. par ye keval do ya teen kramon mein hi ho sakte hain. is vidhi se vistrut paraas mein chaal vichran praapt karna sambhav naheen hai. kuchh nishchit kramon mein chaal vichran ki ek doosari vidhi "sopaaneepat niyantran" (Cascade Control) kahalaati hai. yeh vidhi belan milon (rolling mills) mein adhiktar prayukt ki jaati hai. vibhinn prakaar ke machine aujaaron (machine tools) mein bhi vichranasheel chaal ki aavashyakta hoti hai, parantu unamein saamaanyat:, chaal vichran geeyar kramon ko badalkar kiya jaata hai.

niyat V/f par vibhinn aavruttiyon ke liye preran motar ka balaaghoorn-chaal vakr ; isi aadhaar par parivrti aavrutti drive kaarya karte hain.
preran motor ka tulya paripth

sandarbh

  1. Electric Motors Reference Center by Machine Design magazine. "Induction Motors". Penton Media, Inc.. http://www.electricmotors.machinedesign.com/guiEdits/Content/bdeee11/bdeee11_7.aspx.
  2. "Motor Formulas". elec-toolbox.com. http://www.elec-toolbox.com/Formulas/Motor/mtrform.htm. abhigman tithi: 1 January 2013.
  3. Srivastava, Avinash; Kumar, Ravi. "Torque Slip Characteristics of Induction Motor". Course notes (Malnad College Of Engineering).
  4. NEMA Standards Publication (2007). Application Guide for AC Adjustable Speed Drive Systems. Rosslyn, Virginia US: NEMA. pa॰ 6. http://www.nema.org/stds/acadjustable.cfm. abhigman tithi: 2 December 2012.

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