premachand

dhanapat rai shreevaastav
Premchand02.jpg
premachand
upanaam: premachand
janm: 31 July, 1880
gram lamahi, Varanasi, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 8 October, 1936
Varanasi, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: adhyaapak, lekhak, patrakaar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: kahaani aur upanyaas
vishay: saamaajik
saahityik
aandolan
:
aadarshonmukh yathaarthavaad
pragatisheel lekhak aandolan
pramukh kruti(yaaain): godaan, karmabhoomi, rangabhoomi, sevaasadan upanyaas
inse prabhaavit: renu, shreenaath Singh, sudarshan, yashapaal
hastaakshar: Hastakshar premchand.jpg

premachand (31 July, 1880 - 8 October 1936) hindi aur urdoo ke mahaanatam bhaarateeya lekhakon mein se ek hain.[1] mool naam dhanapat rai shreevaastav vaale premachand ko navaab rai aur munshi premachand ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.[2] upanyaas ke kshetr mein unke yogadaan ko dekhkar Bengal ke vikhyaat upanyaasakaar sharatachandr chattopaadhyaaya ne unhein upanyaas samraat kehkar sambodhit kiya tha.[3][4] premachand ne hindi kahaani aur upanyaas ki ek aisi parampara ka vikaas kiya jisne poori shati ke saahitya ka maargadarshan kiya. aagaami ek poori peedhi ko gaharaai tak prabhaavit kar premachand ne saahitya ki yathaarthavaadi parampara ki neenv rakhi. unka lekhan hindi saahitya ki ek aisi viraasat hai jiske bina hindi ke vikaas ka adhyayan adhoora hoga. ve ek samvedansheel lekhak, sachet naagrik, kushal vakta tatha sudhi sampaadak the. beesaveen shati ke poorvaarddh mein, jab hindi mein ki takaneeki suvidhaaon ka abhaav tha, unka yogadaan atulaneeya hai. premachand ke baad jin logon ne saahit‍aaya ko saamaajik sarokaaron aur pragatisheel mool‍aayon ke saath aage badhaane ka kaam kiya, unamein yashapaal se lekar muktibodh tak shaamil hain.

anukram

jeevan parichay

premachand ka janm 31 July 1880 ko Varanasi ke nikat lamahi gaaainv mein hua tha. unki maata ka naam aanandi devi tha tatha pita munshi ajaayabaraaya lamahi mein daakamunshi the.[5] unki shiksha ka aarambh urdoo, faarasi se hua aur jeevanayaapan ka adhyaapan se padhne ka shauk un‍aahein bachapan se hi lag gaya. 13 saal ki umr mein hi un‍aahonne tilisme hosharooba padh liya aur unhonne urdoo ke mashahoor rachanaakaar ratananaath 'sharasaar', mirja rusaba aur maulaana sharar ke upan‍aayaason se parichay praap‍aat kar liya[6]. 1898 mein maitrik ki pareeksha utteern karne ke baad ve ek sthaaneeya vidyaalaya mein shikshak niyukt ho gaye. naukri ke saath hi unhonne padhaai jaari rakhi 1910 mein un‍aahonne angreji, darshan, faarasi aur itihaas lekar intar paas kiya aur 1919 mein bi.A.[7] paas karne ke baad shiksha vibhaag ke inspector pad par niyukt hue.
saat varsh ki avastha mein unki maata tatha chaudah varsh ki avastha mein pita ka dehaant ho jaane ke kaaran unka praarambhik jeevan sangharshamaya raha.[8] unka pehla vivaah un dinon ki parampara ke anusaar pandrah saal ki umr mein hua jo safal naheen raha. ve aarya samaaj se prabhaavit rahe[9], jo us samay ka bahut bada dhaarmik aur saamaajik aandolan tha. unhonne vidhva-vivaah ka samarthan kiya aur 1906 mein doosra vivaah apni pragatisheel parampara ke anuroop baal-vidhva shivraani devi se kiya.[10] unki teen santaane huin- shreepat rai, amrut rai aur kamala devi shreevaastav. 1910 mein unki rachana soje-vatan (raashtra ka vilaap) ke liye hameerapur ke jila collector ne talab kiya aur un par janta ko bhadkaane ka aarop lagaaya. soje-vatan ki sabhi pratiyaaain jabt kar nasht kar di gain. collector ne navaabaraaya ko hidaayat di ki ab ve kuchh bhi naheen likheinge, yadi likha to jail bhej diya jaaega. is samay tak premachand, dhanapat rai naam se likhte the. urdoo mein prakaashit hone waali jmaana patrika ke sampaadak aur unke ajeej dos‍aat munshi dayaanaaraayan nigam ne unhein premachand naam se likhne ki salaah di. iske baad ve premachand ke naam se likhne lage. un‍aahonne aaranbhik lekhan jmaana patrika mein hi kiya. jeevan ke antim dinon mein ve gambhir rup se beemaar pade. unka upanyaas mangalasootr poora naheen ho saka aur lambi beemaari ke baad 8 October 1936 ko unka nidhan ho gaya. unka antim upanyaas mangal sootr unke putr amrut ne poora kiya.

kaaryakshetr

premachand aadhunik hindi kahaani ke pitaamah maane jaate hain. yon to unke saahityik jeevan ka aarambh 1901 se ho chuka tha[11] par unki pehli hindi kahaani sarasvati patrika ke December ank mein 1915 mein saut[12][13] naam se prakaashit hui aur 1936 mein antim kahaani kafan[14] naam se. bees varshon ki is avadhi mein unki kahaaniyon ke anek rang dekhne ko milte hain.[15] unase pehle hindi mein kaalpanik, eyyaari aur pauraanik dhaarmik rachanaaen hi ki jaati thi. premachand ne hindi mein yathaarthavaad ki shurooaat ki. " bhaarateeya saahitya ka bahut sa vimarsh jo baad mein pramukhata se ubhara chaahe vah dalit saahitya ho ya naari saahitya usaki jadein kaheen gahre premachand ke saahitya mein dikhaai deti hain."[16] premachand ke lekh 'pehli rachana' ke anusaar unki pehli rachana apne maama par likha v‍aayang‍aaya thi, jo ab anupalab‍aadh hai. unka pehla upalab‍aadh lekhan unka urdoo upanyaas 'asaraare maaabid'[17] hai. premachand ka doosra upan‍aayaas 'hamakhurma va hamasavaab' jiska hindi roopaantaran 'prema' naam se 1907 mein prakaashit hua. iske baad premachand ka pehla kahaani sangrah soje-vatan naam se aaya jo 1908 mein prakaashit hua. soje-vatan yaani desh ka dard. deshbhakti ki bhaavana se otaprot hone ke kaaran is par angreji sarkaar ne rok laga di aur iske lekhak ko bhavish‍aaya mein is tarah ka lekhan na karne ki chetaavani di. iske kaaran unhein naam badalkar likhna pada. 'premachand' naam se unki pehli kahaani bade ghar ki beti jmaana patrika ke December 1910 ke ank mein prakaashit hui. maranoparaant unki kahaaniyaaain maanasarovar naam se 8 khandon mein prakaashit hui. katha samraat premachand ka kehna tha ki saahityakaar deshbhakti aur raajaneeti ke peechhe chalne waali sachchaai naheen balki uske aage mashaal dikhaati hui chalne waali sachchaai hai. yeh baat unke saahitya mein ujaagar hui hai. 1921 mein unhonne mahaatma Gandhi ke aahvaan par apni naukri chhod di. kuchh maheene maryaada patrika ka bhaar sambhaala, chhah saal tak maadhuri naamak patrika ka sanpaadan kiya, 1930 mein banaaras se apna maasik patra hans shuroo kiya aur 1932 ke aarambh mein jaagaran naamak ek saaptaahik aur nikaala. unhonne Lucknow mein 1936 mein akhil bhaarateeya pragatisheel lekhak sangh ke sammelan ki adhyakshata ki. unhonne mohan dayaaraam bhavanaani ki ajanta sineton company[18] mein kahaani-lekhak ki naukri bhi ki. 1934 mein pradarshit majadoor[19] naamak film ki katha likhi aur kantrekt ki saal bhar ki avadhi poori kiye bina hi do maheene ka vetan chhodkar banaaras bhaag aaye kyonki Mumbai (aadhunik Mumbai) ka aur usase bhi zyaada vahaaain ki filmi duniya ka hava-paani unhein raas naheen aaya. un‍aahonne mool roop se hindi mein 1915 se kahaaniyaan likhna aur 1918 (sevaasadan) se upan‍aayaas likhna shuroo kiya. premachand ne kul kareeb teen sau kahaaniyaan, lagbhag ek darjan upanyaas aur kai lekh likhe. unhonne kuchh naatak bhi likhe aur kuchh anuvaad kaarya bhi kiya. premachand ke kai saahityik krutiyon ka angreji, roosi, jarman sahit anek bhaashaaon mein anuvaad hua. godaan unki kaalajayi rachana hai. kafan unki antim kahaani maani jaati hai. un‍aahonne hindi aur urdoo mein poore adhikaar se likha. unki adhikaansh rachanaaen mool roop se urdoo mein likhi gayi hain lekin unka prakaashan hindi mein pehle hua. taintees varshon ke rachanaatmak jeevan mein ve saahitya ki aisi viraasat saup gaye jo gunon ki drushti se amoolya hai aur aakaar ki drushti se aseemit.

krutiyaaain

premachand ki rachana-drushti vibhinn saahitya roopon mein pravrutt hui. bahumukhi pratibha sampann premachand ne upanyaas, kahaani, naatak, sameeksha, lekh, sampaadakeeya, sansmaran aadi anek vidhaaon mein saahitya ki srushti ki. pramukhataya unki khyaati kathaakaar ke taur par hui aur apne jeevan kaal mein hi ve 'upanyaas samraat' ki upaadhi se sammaanit hue. unhonne kul 15 upanyaas, 300 se kuchh adhik kahaaniyaaain, 3 naatak, 10 anuvaad, 7 baal-pustakein tatha hajaaron prushthon ke lekh, sampaadakeeya, bhaashan, bhoomika, patra aadi ki rachana ki lekin jo yash aur pratishtha unhein upanyaas aur kahaaniyon se praapt hui, vah anya vidhaaon se praapt na ho saki. yeh sthiti hindi aur urdoo bhaasha donon mein samaan roop se dikhaayi deti hai.

upan‍aayaas

premachand ke upan‍aayaas na keval hin‍aadi upan‍aayaas saahit‍aaya mein balki sampoorn bhaarateeya saahit‍aaya mein meal ke pat‍aathar hain. premachand katha-saahitya mein unke upanyaasakaar ka aarambh pehle hota hai. unka pehla urdoo upanyaas (apoorn) 'asaraare maaabid urf devasthaan rahasya' urdoo saaptaahik ''aavaaj-A-khalk'' mein 8 October, 1903 se 1 February, 1905 tak dhaaraavaahik roop mein prakaashit hua. unka doosra upan‍aayaas 'hamakhurma va hamasavaab' jiska hindi roopaantaran 'prema' naam se 1907 mein prakaashit hua. choonki premachand mool roop se urdu ke lekhak the aur urdoo se hindi mein aae the, isliye unke sabhi aaranbhik upan‍aayaas mool roop se urdoo mein likhe gaye aur baad mein unka hin‍aadi tarjuma kiya gaya. un‍aahonne 'sevaasadan' (1918) upan‍aayaas se hindi upan‍aayaas ki duniya mein pravesh kiya. yeh mool roop se un‍aahonne 'baajaare-hus‍aan' naam se pehle urdoo mein likha lekin iska hindi roop 'sevaasadan' pehle prakaashit karaaya. 'sevaasadan' ek naari ke vesh‍aaya banane ki kahaani hai. Dr raamavilaas sharma ke anusaar 'sevaasadan' mein v‍aayak‍aat mukh‍aaya samas‍aaya bhaarateeya naari ki paraadheenata hai. iske baad kisaan jeevan par unka pehla upan‍aayaas 'premaashram' (1921) aaya. iska masauda bhi pehle urdoo mein 'goshaae-aafiyt' naam se taiyaar hua tha lekin 'sevaasadan' ki bhaanti ise pehle hindi mein prakaashit karaaya. 'premaashram' kisaan jeevan par likha hindi ka sanbhavat: pehla upan‍aayaas hai. yeh avadh ke kisaan aandolanon ke daur mein likha gaya. iske baad 'rangabhoomi' (1925), 'kaayaakal‍aap' (1926), 'nirmala' (1927), 'gaban' (1931), 'karmabhoomi' (1932) se hota hua yeh safar 'godaan' (1936) tak poornata ko praap‍aat hua. rangabhoomi mein premachand ek andhe bhikhaari sooradaas ko katha ka naayak banaakar hindi katha saahit‍aaya mein kraantikaari badlaav ka sootrapaat kar chuke the. godaan ka hindi saahit‍aaya hi naheen, vish‍aav saahit‍aaya mein mahat‍aavapoorn s‍aathaan hai. ismein premachand ki saahit‍aaya sambandhi vichaaradhaara 'aadarshon‍aamukh yathaarthavaad' se 'aalochanaat‍aamak yathaarthavaad' tak ki poornata praap‍aat karti hai. ek saamaan‍aaya kisaan ko poore upan‍aayaas ka naayak banaana bhaarateeya upan‍aayaas parampara ki disha badal dene jaisa tha. saamantavaad aur poonjeevaad ke chakr mein fansakar hui kathaanaayak hori ki mrut‍aayu paathakon ke jahan ko jhakajhor kar rakh jaati hai. kisaan jeevan par apne pichhle upan‍aayaason 'premaashram' aur 'karmabhoomi' mein premanchad yathaarth ki pras‍aatuti karte-karte upan‍aayaas ke ant tak aadarsh ka daaman thaam lete hain. lekin godaan ka kaarunik ant is baat ka gavaah hai ki tab tak premachand ka aadarshavaad se mohabhang ho chuka tha. yeh unki aakhiri daur ki kahaaniyon mein bhi dekha ja sakta hai. 'mangalasootr' premachand ka adhoora upan‍aayaas hai. premachand ke upan‍aayaason ka mool kath‍aaya bhaarateeya graameen jeevan tha. premachand ne hindi upan‍aayaas ko jo oonchaai pradaan ki, vah paravarti upan‍aayaasakaaron ke liye ek chunauti bani rahi. premachand ke upan‍aayaas Bhaarat aur duniya ki kai bhaashaaon mein anudit hue, khaaskar unka sarvaadhik charchit upan‍aayaas godaan.

  • asaraare maaabid urf devasthaan rahasya' urdoo saaptaahik ''aavaaj-A-khalk'' mein 8 October, 1903 se 1 February, 1905 tak prakaashit.
  • sevaasadan 1918
  • premaashrama1922
  • rangabhoomi 1925
  • nirmalaa1925
  • kaayaakalpa1927
  • gaban 1928
  • karmabhoomi 1932
  • godaan 1936
  • mangalasootr (apoorn)

kahaani

inki adhiktar kahaaniyoain me nimn va madhyam varg ka chitran hai.dau॰ kamalakishor goyanaka ne premachand ki sampoorn hindi-urdoo kahaani ko premachand kahaani rachanaavali naam se prakaashit karaaya hai. unke anusaar premachand ne kul 301 kahaaniyaaain likhi hain jinmein 3 abhi apraapya hain.[20] premachand ka pehla kahaani sangrah soje vatan naam se June 1908 mein prakaashit hua. isi sangrah ki pehli kahaani duniya ka sabse anmol ratan ko aam taur par unki pehli prakaashit kahaani maana jaata raha hai. Dr goyanaka ke anusaar kaanapoor se nikalne waali urdoo maasik patrika jmaana ke April ank mein prakaashit saansaarik prem aur desh-prem (ishke duniya aur hubbe vatan) vaastav mein unki pehli prakaashit kahaani hai.[20] unke jeevan kaal mein kul nau kahaani sangrah prakaashit hue- 'sap‍aat saroj', 'navanidhi', 'premapoornima', 'prem-pacheesi', 'prem-pratima', 'prem-dvaadashi', 'samarayaatra', 'maanasarovar' : bhaag ek va do aur 'kafan'. unki mrut‍aayu ke baad unki kahaaniyaan 'maanasarovar' sheershak se 8 bhaagon mein prakaashit hui. premachand saahit‍aaya ke mudaraadhikaar se muk‍aat hote hi vibhinn sampaadkon aur prakaashakon ne premachand ki kahaaniyon ke sankalan taiyaar kar prakaashit karaae. unki kahaaniyon mein vishay aur shilp ki vividhta hai. unhonne manushya ke sabhi vargon se lekar pashu-pakshiyon tak ko apni kahaaniyon mein mukhya paatr banaaya hai. unki kahaaniyon mein kisaanon, majadooron, striyon, daliton, aadi ki samasyaaen gambheerta se chitrit hui hain. unhonne samaajasudhaar, deshaprem, svaadheenata sangraam aadi se sambandhit kahaaniyaaain likhi hain. unki aitihaasik kahaaniyaaain tatha prem sambandhi kahaaniyaaain bhi kaafi lokapriya saabit huin. premachand ki pramukh kahaaniyon mein ye naam liye ja sakte hain- 'panch paramesh‍aavar', 'gul‍aali danda', 'do bailon ki katha', 'idagaah', 'bade bhaai saahab', 'poos ki raat', 'kafan', 'thaakur ka kuaaain', 'sadgati', 'boodhi kaaki', 'taavaan', 'vidh‍aavans', 'doodh ka daam', 'mantra' aadi.

naatak

premachand ne 'sangraam' (1923), 'karbala' (1924) aur 'prem ki vedi' (1933) naatakon ki rachana ki. ye naatak shil‍aap aur samvedna ke s‍aatar par ach‍aachhe hain lekin unki kahaaniyon aur upan‍aayaason ne itni ooainchaai praap‍aat kar li thi ki naatak ke kshetr mein premachand ko koi khaas safalta naheen mili. ye naatak vas‍aatut: sanvaadaat‍aamak upan‍aayaas hi ban gaye hain.[21]

lekh/nibandh

premachand ek samvedansheel kathaakaar hi naheen, sajag naagrik va sampaadak bhi the. un‍aahonne 'hans', 'maadhuri', 'jaagaran' aadi patra-patrikaaon ka sanpaadan karte hue va tat‍aakaaleen an‍aaya sahagaami saahityik patrikaaon 'chaand', 'maryaada', 's‍aavadesh' aadi mein apni saahityik va saamaajik chintaaon ko lekhon ya nibandhon ke maadh‍aayam se abhiv‍aayak‍aat kiya. amrutaraaya dvaara sanpaadit 'premachand : vividh prasang' (teen bhaag) vaas‍aatav mein premachand ke lekhon ka hi sankalan hai. premachand ke lekh prakaashan sans‍aathaan se 'kuchh vichaar' sheershak se bhi chhape hain. premachand ke mashahoor lekhon mein nim‍aan lekh shumaar hote hain- saahit‍aaya ka uddesh‍aaya, puraana jamaana naya jamaana, s‍aavaraaj ke faayde, kahaani kala (1,2,3), kaumi bhaasha ke vishay mein kuchh vichaar, hindi-urdoo ki ekta, mahaajani sabh‍aayata, upan‍aayaas, jeevan mein saahit‍aaya ka s‍aathaan aadi.

anuvaad

premachand ek safal anuvaadak bhi the. un‍aahonne doosari bhaashaaon ke jin lekhakon ko padha aur jinse prabhaavit hue, unki krutiyon ka anuvaad bhi kiya. 'taulas‍aatauya ki kahaaniyaan' (1923), gaal‍aasavardi ke teen naatakon ka 'hadataal' (1930), 'chaandi ki dibiya' (1931) aur 'n‍aayaaya' (1931) naam se anuvaad kiya. unke dvaara ratananaath sarashaar ke urdoo upan‍aayaas 'fasaan-A-aajaad' ka hindi anuvaad 'aajaad katha' bahut mashahoor hua.

samaalochana

premachand urdoo ka sanskaar lekar hindi mein aae the aur hindi ke mahaan lekhak bane. hindi ko apna khaas muhaavara aur khulaapan diya. kahaani aur upanyaas dono mein yugaantarakaari parivartan kiye. unhone saahitya mein saamayikta prabal aagrah sthaapit kiya. aam aadmi ko unhonne apni rachanaaon ka vishay banaaya aur usaki samasyaaon par khulkar kalam chalaate hue unhein saahitya ke naayakon ke pad par aaseen kiya. premachand se pehle hindi saahitya raaja-raani ke kisson, rahasya-romaanch mein ulajha hua tha. premachand ne saahitya ko sachchaai ke dharaatal par utaara. unhonne jeevan aur kaalakhand ki sachchaai ko panne par utaara. ve saanpradaayikta, bhrashtaachaar, jameendaari, karjakhori, gareebi, upaniveshavaad par aajeevan likhte rahe. premachand ki jyaadaatar rachanaaen unki hi gareebi aur dainyata ki kahaani kehti hai. ye bhi galat naheen hai ki ve aam bhaarateeya ke rachanaakaar the. unki rachanaaon mein ve naayak hue, jise bhaarateeya samaaj achhoot aur ghrunit samjha tha. unhonne saral, sahaj aur aam bol-chaal ki bhaasha ka upayog kiya aur apne pragatisheel vichaaron ko drudhta se tark dete hue samaaj ke saamane prastut kiya. 1936 mein pragatisheel lekhak sangh ke pehle sammelan ki adhyakshata karte hue unhonne kaha ki lekhak svabhaav se pragatisheel hota hai aur jo aisa naheen hai vah lekhak naheen hai. premachand hindi saahitya ke yug pravartak hain. unhonne hindi kahaani mein aadarshonmukh yathaarthavaad ki ek nai paranpari shuroo ki.

premachand ke jeevan sambandhi vivaad

itne mahaan rachanaakaar hone ke baavajood premachand ka jeevan aaropon se muk‍aat naheen hai. premachand ke adh‍aayeta kamalakishor goyanaka ne apni pus‍aatak 'premachand : adh‍aayayan ki nai dishaaen' mein premachand ke jeevan par kuchh aarop lagaakar unke saahit‍aaya ka mahat‍aav kam karne ki koshish ki. premachand par lage mukh‍aaya aarop hain- premachand ne apni pehli pat‍aani ko bina vajah chhoda aur doosare vivaah ke baad bhi unke an‍aaya kisi mahila se sambandh rahe (jaisa ki shivraani devi ne 'premachand ghar mein' mein uddhrut kiya hai), premachand ne 'jaagaran vivaad' mein vinodashankar v‍aayaas ke saath dhokha kiya, premachand ne apni press ke varish‍aath karmachaari pravaaseelaal varma ke saath dhokhaadhadi ki, premachand ki press mein majadooron ne hadtaal ki, premachand ne apni beti ke beemaar hone par jhaad-foonk ka sahaara liya aadi. kamalakishor goyanaka dvaara lagaae gaye ye aarop premachand ke jeevan ka ek paksh jaroor hamaare saamane laate hain jismein unki insaani kamjoriyon jaahir hoti hain lekin unke v‍aayaapak saahit‍aaya ke mool‍aayaankan par in aaropon ka koi asar naheen pad paaya hai.

munshi ke vishay mein vivaad

premachand ko praay: "munshi premachand" ke naam se jaana jaata hai. premachand ke naam ke saath 'munshi' kab aur kaise jud gaya? is vishay mein adhikaansh log yahi maan lete hain ki praarambh mein premachand adhyaapak rahe. adhyaapakon ko praaya: us samay munshi ji kaha jaata tha. iske atirikt kaayasthon ke naam ke pehle sammaan svaroop 'munshi' shabd lagaane ki parampara rahi hai. sambhavat: premachand ji ke naam ke saath munshi shabd judkar roodh ho gaya. professor shukadev Singh ke anusaar premachand ji ne apne naam ke aage 'munshi' shabd ka prayog swayam kabhi naheen kiya. unka yeh bhi maanana hai ki munshi shabd sammaan soochak hai, jise premachand ke prashansakon ne kabhi laga diya hoga. yeh tathya anumaan par aadhaarit hai. lekin premachand ke naam ke saath munshi visheshan judne ka praamaanik kaaran yeh hai ki 'hans' naamak patra premachand evam 'kanhaiyaalaal munshi' ke sah sanpaadan me niklata tha. jiski kuchh pratiyon par kanhaiyaalaal munshi ka poora naam na chhapakar maatr 'munshi' chhapa rahata tha saath hi premachand ka naam is prakaar chhapa hota tha- (hans ki pratiyon par dekha ja sakta hai).
sampaadak
munshi, premachand
'hans ke sampaadak premachand tatha kanhaiyaalaal munshi the. parantu kaalaantar mein paathakon ne 'munshi' tatha 'premachand' ko ek samajh liya aur 'premachand'- 'munshi premachand' ban gaye. yeh svaabhaavik bhi hai.[22] saamaanya paathak praaya: lekhak ki krutiyon ko padhta hai, naam ki sookshmata ko naheen dekha karta. aaj premachand ka munshi alankaran itna roodh ho gaya hai ki maatr 'munshi' se hi premachand ka bodh ho jaata hai tatha 'munshi' na kehne se premachand ka naam adhoora-adhoora sa lagta hai.[3]

viraasat

premachand ne apni kala ke shikhar par pahuainchane ke liye anek prayog kiye. jis yug mein premachand ne kalam uthaai thi, us samay unke peechhe aisi koi thos viraasat naheen thi aur na hi vichaar aur pragatisheelata ka koi model hi unke saamane tha sivaaya baangla saahitya ke. us samay bankim babu the, sharatachandr the aur iske alaava taulastauya jaise rusi saahityakaar the. lekin hote-hote unhonne godaan jaise kaalajayi upanyaas ki rachana ki jo ki ek aadhunik classic maana jaata hai. unhonne cheejon ko khud gadha aur khud aakaar diya. jab Bhaarat ka svatantrata aandolan chal raha tha tab unhonne katha saahitya dvaara hindi aur urdoo donon bhaashaaon ko jo abhivyakti di usane siyaasi saragarmi ko, josh ko aur aandolan ko sabhi ko ubhaara aur use taaktavar banaaya aur isse unka lekhan bhi taaktavar hota gaya.[23] premachand is arth mein nishchit rup se hindi ke pehle pragatisheel lekhak kahe ja sakte hain. 1936 mein unhonne pragatisheel lekhak sangh ke pehle sammelan ko sabhaapati ke roop mein sambodhan kiya tha. unka yahi bhaashan pragatisheel aandolan ke ghoshana patra ka aadhaar bana.[24] premachand ne hindi mein kahaani ki ek parampara ko janm diya aur ek poori peedhi unke kadamon par aage badhi, 50-60 ke dashak mein renu, naagaarjun auऱ inke baad shreenaath Singh ne graameen parivesh ki kahaaniyaaain likhi hain, vo ek tarah se premachand ki parampara ke taaratamya mein aati hain.[25] premachand ek kraantikaari rachanaakaar the, unhonne na keval deshbhakti balki samaaj mein vyaapt anek kureetiyon ko dekha aur unako kahaani ke maadhyam se pehli baar logon ke samaksh rakha. unhonne us samay ke samaaj ki jo bhi samasyaaeain theen un sabhi ko chitrit karne ki shuruaat kar di thi. usamein dalit bhi aate hain, naari bhi aati hain. ye sabhi vishay aage chalakar hindi saahitya ke bade vimarsh bane.[26] premachand hindi cinema ke sabse adhik lokapriya saahityakaaron mein se hain. satyajit rai ne unki do kahaaniyon par yaadagaar filmein banaain. 1977 mein shataranj ke khilaadi aur 1981 mein sadgati. unke dehaant ke do varshon baad ke subramanyam ne 1938 mein sevaasadan upanyaas par film banaai jismein subbaalakshmi ne mukhya bhoomika nibhaai thi. 1977 mein mrunaal sen ne premachand ki kahaani kafn par aadhaarit oka oori katha[27] naam se ek telugu film banaai jisko sarvashreshth telugu film ka raashtreeya puraskaar bhi mila. 1963 mein godaan aur 1966 mein gaban upanyaas par lokapriya filmein bani. 1980 mein unke upanyaas par bana TV dhaaraavaahik nirmala bhi bahut lokapriya hua tha.[28]

premachand sambandhi nae adh‍aayayan

hindi saahit‍aaya va aalochna mein premachand ko pratishthit karne ka shreya Dr raamavilaas sharma ko diya jaata hai. un‍aahonne premachand par do pramukh kitaabein likheen- 'premachand' aur 'premachand aur unka yug'. premachand ke patron ko sahejane ka kaam amrutaraaya aur madanagopaal ne kiya. premachand par hue nae adh‍aayayanon mein kamalakishor goyanaka aur dau॰ dharmaveer ka naam ul‍aalekhaneeya hai. kamalakishor goyanaka ne premachand ke jeevan ke kamjor pakshon ko ujaagar karne ke saath-saath 'premachand ka apraap‍aaya saahit‍aaya' (do bhaag) va 'premachand vish‍aavakosh' (do bhaag) ka sanpaadan bhi kiya hai. dau॰ dharmaveer ne dalit drushti se premachand saahit‍aaya ka moolayaankan karte hue 'premachand : saamant ka munshi' va 'premachand ki neeli aankhein' naam se pus‍aatakein likhi hain.

puraskaar va sammaan

sansthaan mein bhittilekh

premachand ki smruti mein bhaarateeya daakataar vibhaag ki or se 31 July 1980 ko unki janmashati ke avsar par 30 paise moolya ka ek daak ticket jaari kiya gaya.[29] Gorakhpur ke jis school mein ve shikshak the, vahaaain premachand saahitya sansthaan ki sthaapana ki gayi hai. iske baraamade mein ek bhittilekh hai jiska chitr daahini or diya gaya hai. yahaaain unase sambandhit vastuon ka ek sangrahaalaya bhi hai. jahaaain unki ek vakshapratima bhi hai.[30] premachand ki 125veen saalagirh par sarkaar ki or se ghoshana ki gayi ki Varanasi se lage is gaaainv mein premachand ke naam par ek smaarak tatha shodh evam adhyayan sansthaan banaaya jaaega.[31] premachand ki patni shivraani devi ne premachand ghar mein naam se unki jeevani likhi aur unke vyaktitv ke us hisse ko ujaagar kiya hai, jisse log anbhigya the. yeh pustak 1944 mein pehli baar prakaashit hui thi, lekin saahitya ke kshetr mein iske mahatva ka andaaja isi baat se lagaaya ja sakta hai ki ise dubaara 2005 mein sanshodhit karke prakaashit ki gayi, is kaam ko unke hi naati prabodh Kumar ne anjaam diya. iska angreji[32] va hasan manjr ka kiya hua urdoo[33] anuvaad bhi prakaashit hua. unke hi bete amrut rai ne kalam ka sipaahi naam se pita ki jeevani likhi hai. unki sabhi pustakon ke angreji va urdoo roopaantar to hue hi hain, cheeni, roosi aadi anek videshi bhaashaaon mein unki kahaaniyaaain lokapriya hui hain.[34]

sandarbh

  1. "aaj ke din janme the "godaan" ke lekhak munshi premachand". patrika samaachaar samooh. 31 July 2014. http://www.patrika.com/news/munsi-premchand-was-born-on-this-day/1020850. abhigman tithi: 31 July 2014.
  2. "apni krutiyon ki rooparekha" (peeechapi). jaagaran Yahoo. http://in.jagran.yahoo.com/sahitya/article/index.php?page=article&category=5&articleid=943. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  3. a aa "premachand munshi kaise bane" (echateeem). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/snibandh/2005/premchand.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  4. "Premchand's Novels" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). vishvabuk. http://www.vishvbook.com/premchands-novels.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  5. "gaban" (peeechapi). bhaarateeya saahitya sangrah. http://pustak.org/bs/home.php?bookid=635. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  6. raamavilaas sharma, premachand aur unka yug, Rajkamal prakaashan, nai dil‍aali, 1995, prush‍aath 15
  7. baahari, dau॰ haradev (1986). saahitya kosh, bhaag-2,. Varanasi: jnyaaanamandal limited. pa॰ 356.
  8. "LITERATURE BY MUNSHIPREMCHAND" (angreji mein) (echateeem). hindi books. http://www.hindibooks.8m.com/LitByMunshiPremchand.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  9. "PREMCHAND AND COMPOSITE CULTURE" (angreji mein) (peeechapi). center faar stadi of society end sekyularijm. http://www.csss-isla.com/archive/archive.php?article=2005/aug1_15.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  10. "PREM CHAND WRITER" (angreji mein) (peeechapi). Indian post.com. http://www.indianpost.com/viewstamp.php/Paper/Watermarked%20paper/PREM%20CHAND%20WRITER. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  11. baahari, dau॰ haradev (1986). saahitya kosh, bhaag-2,. Varanasi: jnyaaanamandal limited. pa॰ 357.
  12. "premachand sanchayan" (peeechapi). bhaarateeya saahitya sangrah. http://pustak.org/bs/home.php?bookid=551. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  13. "saut". vikisrot. http://wikisource.org/wiki/saut. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  14. "kafn". vikisrot. http://wikisource.org/wiki/kafn. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  15. Singh, dau॰aabachchan (1972). pratinidhi kahaaniyaaain. Varanasi: anuraag prakaashan, vishaalaakshi, chauk. pa॰ 9.
  16. "'premachand ki viraasat asli viraasat hai'" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/entertainment/story/2005/07/050729_premchand_narang.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  17. yeh upan‍aayaas urdoo saap‍aataahik 'aavaaje khal‍aak' mein 8 ak‍aatoobar 1903 se 1 fravari 1905 tak dhaaraavaahik roop se prakaashit hua. ismein lekhak ka naam chhapa tha- munshi dhanapataraaya urf navaabaraaya ilaahaabaadi. baad mein s‍aavayan premachand ne iska hin‍aadi tarjuma 'devas‍aathaan rahas‍aaya' naam se kiya, jo unke putr amrutaraaya dvaara unke aaranbhik upan‍aayaason ke sankalan 'mangalaachaaran' mein sankalit hai.
  18. "Premchand in Bombay" (angreji mein) (teeeksati). saraaya. http://mail.sarai.net/pipermail/filmstudies/2003-July.txt. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  19. "Mazdoor (1934)" (angreji mein). I.M.di.bi.. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0156780/. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  20. a aa Dr kamal kishor goyanaka (sampaadak)- "premachand kahaani rachanaavali", 6 bhaagon mein, saahitya academy, nai Delhi, bhoomika (bhaag-1)
  21. hindi ka gadya saahit‍aaya - dau॰ raamachandr tivaari, vish‍aavavidyaalaya prakaashan, Varanasi, 2006, prush‍aath sankh‍aaya- 518
  22. premachand munshi kaise bane- dau॰ jagadeesh vyom, siteejan power, maasik hindi samaachaar patrika, December 2011, prush‍aath sankh‍aaya- 09
  23. "'premachand ki viraasat asli viraasat hai'" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/entertainment/story/2005/07/050729_premchand_narang.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  24. "'hindi ke pehle pragatisheel lekhak the premachand'" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/entertainment/story/2005/07/050729_premchand_namvar.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  25. "'svasth saahitya kisi ki nakl naheen karta'" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/entertainment/story/2005/07/050729_premchand_nirmal.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  26. "rachana drushti ki praasangikta -mannoo bhandaari" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/entertainment/story/2005/07/050729_premchand_mannu.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  27. "Oka Oori Katha" (angreji mein). mrunaalasen.org. http://mrinalsen.org/oka_oori_katha.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  28. "Films based on Premchands work" (angreji mein). shvoong. http://www.shvoong.com/humanities/1715445-films-based-premchand-s-work/. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  29. "PREM CHAND WRITER" (angreji mein) (peeechapi). Indian post. http://www.indianpost.com/viewstamp.php/Paper/Watermarked%20paper/PREM%20CHAND%20WRITER. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  30. "premachand ka doosra ghar Gorakhpur" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/specials/1456_premchand_gpur/page5.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  31. "lamahi mein shodh sansthaan banega" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/entertainment/story/2005/07/050731_premchand_lamahi.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  32. "premachand ghar mein" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). mshel.com. http://www.mshel.com/bookm19.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  33. "premachand ghar mein" (angreji mein) (echateeem). DAWN. http://www.dawn.com/weekly/books/archive/040829/books15.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  34. "the great storeej of munshi premachand" (angreji mein) (eesapi). indiyaaklab.com. http://www.indiaclub.com/Shop/SearchResults.asp?ProdStock=22899. abhigman tithi: 2008.

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