praudyogiki

20veen sadi ke madhya tak manushya ne takaneek ke prayog se pruthvi ke vaayumandal se baahar niklana seekh liya tha.

praudyogiki, vyaavahaarik aur audyogik kalaaon aur prayukt vijnyaaanon se sambandhit adhyayan ya vigyaan ka samooh hai. kai log takaneeki aur abhiyaantriki shabd ek doosare ke liye prayukt karte hain. jo log praudyogiki ko vyavasaaya roop mein apnaate hai unhe abhiynta kaha jaata hai. aadikaal se maanav takaneek ka prayog karta aa raha hai. aadhunik sabhyata ke vikaas mein takaneeki ka bahut bada yogadaan hai. jo samaaj ya raashtra takaneeki roop se saksham hain ve saamarik roop se bhi sabal hote hain aur der-saber aarthik roop se bhi sabal ban jaate hain.

aise mein koi aashcharya naheen hona chaahiye ki abhiyaantriki ka aarambh sainik abhiyaantriki se hi hua. iske baad sadakein, ghar, kile, pul aadi ke nirmaan sambandhi aavashyakataaon aur samasyaaon ko hal karne ke liye civil abhiyaantriki ka praadurbhaav hua. audyogik kraanti ke saath-saath yaantrik takaneeki aayi. iske baad vaidyut abhiyaantriki, raasaayanik praudyogiki tatha anya praudyogikeeyaan aayeen.

anukram

praudyogiki ka prabhaav

samaaj

1) praudyogiki vyaapaar ke maadhyam se logon tak pahuainchata hai : aadmi ko vyaapaar se nai khojon ki ummeed hai. samaaj raashtra ki aarthik samruddhi laabh ke liye vyaapaar par nirbhar karta hai. 2) upabhoktaaon ki uchch ummeed : jab praudyogiki badhta hai tab upabhoktaaon ki ummeed bhi utpaadon ki vividhta, achhi gunavatta aur suraksha ki tarah badh jaati hai. 3) pranaali jatilta : praudyogiki jatilta ka kaaran hai. aadhunik takaneek behtar hai aur teji se kaam karte hain. lekin agar ve bigaad jaate hai to unhein marammat karne ke liye visheshagyon ki sevaaon ki jaroorat hai. 4) saamaajik parivartan ek aavishkaar ek nae rojagaar ke avsar khol sakta hai. is ke kaaran shramikon ke liye avakaash ke samay badh jaati hai.

arthavyavastha

1) badhti utpaadakata : praudyogiki, utpaadan ko badhaane mein madad karta hai. 2) anusandhaan aur vikaas par kharch karne ki jaroorat : anusandhaan aur vikaas ke liye dhan ka aavantan karte samay, samay ek mahatvapoorn kaarak hai. 3) jaub adhik bauddhik ho jaate hain : naukriyaan adhik bauddhik aur unnat ho gaye hai. naukariyon ke liye ab shikshit ya kushal shramikon ki sevaaon ki aavashyakta hai. 4) utpaadon aur sangathanon ke beech pratiyogita : ek nae utpaad ki shurooaat ek aur sangathan ki giraavat ka kaaran hai. 5) bahuraashtreeya company ki sthaapana : bahuraashtreeya companiyon ki shurooaat sabse achha udaaharan hai.

shiksha

1) ek kamre kakshaaon ki giraavat : shiksha prakriya vishaal hota ja raha hai. 2) keindreekrut drushtikon se paari : shiksha ke kshetr mein shaktiyon ka samaan vitran. 3) E larning : Internet ka upayog karke seekhane ki pranaali shuroo ki gayi hai.

vaataavaran

1) paaristhitik santulan : praudyogiki se paryaavaran par sakaaraatmak aur nakaaraatmak prabhaav padta hai. 2) pradooshan : vaayu pradooshan, jal pradooshan aur dhvani pradooshan aadhunik takaneek ka upayog karne ke kaaran badh gaya hai. 3) nae rogon : praudyogiki ke kaaran nae rog fail jaate hai. 4) praakrutik sansaadhanon ki kami : takaneeki kraanti ke kaaran praakrutik sansaadhanon durlabh hote ja rahe hain. 5) paridrushya ke vinaash aur vaaildalaaif : vanyajeev prajaatiyon ke vilupt hona paryaavaran ke liye khatra hai.

kaarkhaana star

1) sangathanaatmak sanrachana : udaaharan:line of command, sapan of kantrol aadi. 2) jokhim ka dar : udaaharan:takaneek mein parivartan ka dar 3) parivartan ke liye pratirodh : karmachaariyon praudyogiki ke kshetr mein parivartan ka virodh karte hain. 4) kul gunavatta prabandhan : udaaharan:dosh ke bina utpaadan 5) lacheela vinirmaan pranaaliyon: udaaharan:assembly line industry

sandarbh