pratyakshavaad (vidhik)

vidhik pratyakshavaad (Legal positivism) vidhi evam vidhishaastr ke darshan se sambandhit ek vichaaradhaara (school of thought) hai. iska vikaas adhikaanshat: atthaarahaveen evam unneesaveen shataabdi ke vidhi-chintakon dvaara hua jinmein jeremi beintham (Jeremy Bentham) tatha John ostin (John Austin) ka naam pramukh hai. kintu vidhik pratyakshavaad ke itihaas mein sabse ullekhaneeya naam H L A heart (H.L.A. Hart) ka hai jinki 'the kausept of law' (The Concept of Law) naamak pustak ne is vishay mein gaharaai se vichaar karne ko majaboor kar diya. haal ke varshon mein ronaald dorkin (Ronald Dworkin) ne vidhik pratyakshavaad ke kuchh kendreeya vichaaron par gambheer savaal uthaaye hain.

vidhik pratyakshavaad ko saar roop mein kehna kathin hai kintu praay: maana jaata hai ki vidhik pratyakshavaad ka kendreeya vichaar yeh hai: :"kisi vidhik pranaali mein, koi vichaar (norm) vaidh hai ya naheen, yeh is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki usaka srot kya hai na ki uske gunadosh (merits) kya hain?

parichay

vishleshanaatmak chintan ka praarambh mukhyat: beintham dvaara athaarahaveen shataabdi ke ant mein kiya gaya jiska vikaas aage chalakar aastin ke haathon hua. ise pramaanavaadi vichaaradhaara (Positivist School) bhi kaha jaata hai. saamand ise vyavasthit vidhishaastr (Systematic Jurisprudence) tatha see0ke0 elan aadeshaatmak siddhaant (Imperative Theory) kehte hain. is vichaaradhaara ki sabse badi visheshata yeh hai ki jis prakaar bhautik-vigyaan vishleshan ke bal par aage badhta hai theek usi prakaar yeh kisi cheej ko bina vishleshan ke yathaavat sveekaar naheen kar leti. praakrutik vichaaradhaara ki tarah yeh vidhi ko daiveeya (ishvareeya) ya daiv jaat ya praapt naheen maanati, balki iska udbhav samprabhu raajya se hua maanati hai. yeh vichaaradhaara vidhik niyamon ka vishleshan karti hai. isliye yeh aitihaasik ya samaajashaastreeya vichaaradhaara se bhinn ho jaati hai. yeh vichaaradhaara naagrik vidhi tatha anya vidhiyon ke paarasparik sambandhon ka adhyayan vishleshanaatmak dhang se karna chaahati hai tatha vidhi ko praapt naheen apitu nirmit maanati hai. vidhi ki aitihaasik pragati ka mool kya hai, isse is vichaaradhaara ka koi matlab naheen. jooliys ston ne theek hi kaha hai ''iski pramukh dilchaspi vidhik bhaavaarthon ke vishleshan aur vidhik tark vaakyon ke taarkik ant: sambandhon ke baare mein khojabeen karna hai. saamand ne is vichaaradhaara ke prayojan ko in shabdon mein vyakt kiya hai-

vishleshanaatmak vidhishaastr ka prayojan, vidhi ke praathamik siddhaanton ka, bina unke aitihaasik udbhav aur vikaas ke unke neetishaastreeya (Ethical) ya vaidhata ke sandarbh mein vishleshan karna hai. doosare shabdon mein yeh vartamaan vaastavik vidhi ke dhaaainche ka taarkik aur vaigyaanik dhang se pareekshit karne ke prayaas ka ek dhang hai. iska uddeshya yeh pata lagaana hai ki aadarsh aur naitik tatvon par nirbhar na rahane vaale adhikaarik niyam kya hain?

munaro smith ke anusaar yeh vichaaradhaara raajya ki sachetan muhar vidhi ke liye aavashyak maanati hai. is arth mein vidhi sachetan aur nishchit maanav ichha ki abhivyakti hai. pramaanavaad ek vaigyaanik drushtikon pradaan karta hai jisse anubhav se pare pariklpanaaon ko asveekaar kar aaainkadon dvaara prastut anubhav tak hi seemit raha ja sake. yeh drushtikon diye hue tathyon ke vishleshan tak seemit rahata hai tatha anubhooti ki parightanaaon se door naheen jaata hai. ateet tatha bhavishya ki pariklpanaaon se door rahakar 'vidhi jaisi hai' ke tathyaatmak adhyayan ke kaaran ise pramaanavaadi drushtikon naam diya gaya hai. inglaind mein mukhya roop se prachalit hone tatha aastin se jude hone ke naate ise english ya aasteeniyn school bhi kehte hain. ise vidhi ko samprabhu ka samaadesh maanane aur use maane jaane ki baadhyata ke kaaran aajnyaaatmak siddhaant (Imperative theory of Law) bhi kaha jaata hai. heart ise ''samaadesh, anushaasti evam samprabhu ki triveni'' maanate hain. is vichaaradhaara mein manushya dvaara vidhi ke nirmaanaatmak tatvon par vishesh bal diya jaata hai.

vishleshanaatmak pramaanavaadi vichaaradhaara ki utpatti ke kaaran

athaarahaveen shataabdi ke ant tatha unneesaveen shataabdi ke praarambh hote-hote is vichaaradhaara ka janm nimnalikhit kaaranon se hua.

1. athaarahaveen shataabdi praakrutik vidhi vichaarakon ki thi jismein vidhik darshan par neeti, vivek tatha nyaaya ke siddhaant haavi the. yeh 'vidhi jaisi honi chaahiye' ka yug tha. parantu yeh bahut samay tak sangat naheen raha. beintham ne swayam ko is prakaar ki vichaaradhaara se alag kar liya tatha vyaakhyaatmak vidhishaastr (Expository Jurisprudence) arthaat 'vidhi jo hai' par bal diya. taatparya hai ki vishleshanaatmak vichaaradhaara ka janm praakrutik vidhi vichaaradhaara ke virodh svaroop hua.

2. unneesaveen shataabdi ke praarambh mein bhautik vigyaan mein hui pragati ka prabhaav nishchit roop se vidhik vigyaan ke siddhaanton par bhi pada. vidhi ke adhyayan ke liye saakshya, tark, pareekshan tatha diye gaye tathyon ke vishleshan ke tareekon ko apnaaya gaya. vidhi ke adhyayan ke liye vaigyaanik, kramabaddh anubhavajanya ya anubhav saapeksh paddhati apanaayi gayi.

3. aisa prateet hota hai ki vishleshanavaadi vichaaradhaara ke dvaara inglaind mein saamanton tatha Pope aadi par samprabhu shaasak ki shreshthata siddh ki gayi. is vichaaradhaara ke saath hi vidhi ke kshetr mein aadhyaatmik dakhalandaaji kam ho gayi.

vidhik pramaanavaad ka vibhinn arthon mein prayog

vidhik pramaanavaad ko raajya samprabhu ke roop mein tatha vidhi ko samprabhu ke samaadesh ke roop mein aur vidhi ke anupaalan mein anushaasti ke tatv ki vyaakhya ke kaaran vidhi ka aajnyaaatmak (Imperative) siddhaant bhi kaha gaya hai. vidhik pramaanavaad ka prayog vibhinn arthon mein kiya gaya hai. aadhunik vishleshanaatmak pramaanavaadi vichaarak pro॰aecha0ela0e0 heart ne swayam iska prayog paaainch arthon mein sveekaar kiya hai.

  • 1. vidhiyaaain maanavapraaniyon ka samaadesh hain.
  • 2. vidhi aur naitikta ya ''vidhi jo hai'' aur ''vidhi jo honi chaahiye'' mein koi aavashyak sambandh naheen hai.
  • 3. vidhik sankalpanaaon ka vishleshan ya unke arthon ka adhyayan ek mahatvapoorn adhyayan hone ke kaaran ise aitihaasik aur saamaajik khojabeen aur naitik saamaajik uddeshyon, kaaryo aadi ke sandarbh mein vidhi ke aalochanaatmak moolyaankan se alag kiya jaana chaahiye.
  • 4. vidhik vyaakhya ek band taarkik vyavastha (Closed logical system) hai jismein poorvanirdhaarit vidhik niyamon ke keval taarkik maadhyam se hi sahi nirnaya liye ja sakte hain.
  • 5. naitik nirnaya tathyon ke kathan ki tarah yuktiprak, daleel, saakshya aur saboot ke dvaara saabit naheen kiye ja sakte hain. heart ne in paaainch arthon mein kiye gaye prayog ki vaastavik prushthabhoomi mein vyaakhya karte hue yeh spasht kiya hai ki bentham aur ostin (1) se lekar (3) tak diye gaye siddhaanton ko maanate hain parantu (4) aur (5) vaale siddhaanton ko naheen. isi tarah kelsan ne (2), (3) aur (5) mein vyakt siddhaanton ko maana hai parantu (1) aur (4) mein diye gaye siddhaanton ko naheen. heart ke anusaar (4) mein varnit siddhaant ko bentham, ostin aur kelsan mein se kisi ne naheen maana hai. fir bhi yeh siddhaant pratyakshat: bina paryaapt kaaranon ke vishleshanaatmak vidhishaastriyon ke saath aksar jod diya jaata hai.