pratyabhijnyaa darshan

anukram

naamakaran aur itihaas

Kashmir ka advait shaiv darshan teen mukhya naamon se prakhyaat hai -

pratyabhijnyaa darshan - ise 'pratyabhijnyaa darshan' isaliye kehte hain ki yeh maanata advait hi hai. vah apne svaroop ko bhool kar desh-praan-bu taadaatmya sthaapit kar leta hai. apne sachche svaroop ki (pehchaan) se vah parichhinn, krutrim ahan (aapa) se advaitalaabh karta hai.

spandashaastr - iska 'spandashaastr' isaliye naam pada ki yeh saar ki saare vishv ka udbhav Shiv ki shakti se hi hua hai, spandaroopa hai.

trik pratyabhijnyaa - isko trikdarshan isaliye kehte hain ki isi ka mukhyataya pratipaadan kiya gaya hai:

(1) nar, (2) Shiv,

kaheen-kaheen

(1) pashu, (2) paash aur (3) pati, is prakaar vastuain maani gayi hain. mukhyaarth ek hi hai.

yeh darshan advaitaparak hai. durvaasa aur tryanbak iske aadi prachaarak maane jaate hain. ise 'traiyanbak darshan' bhi kehte hain. iske mool pravartak, jinhonne iske siddhaanton ko lipibddh kiya, aachaarya vasugupt (kaal lagbhag 800 E. shati) the. kshemaraaj ne 'shivsootr' mein kaha hai ki Bhagwan shreekanth ne vasugupt ko svapn mein aadesh diya mahaadevagiri ke ek shilaakhand par shivsootr utankit hain, prachaar karo. jis shila par ye shivsootr uddankit mile the Kashmir mein log shivpal (shivshila) kehte hain. is ki sankhya 77 hai. ye hi is darshan ke mool aadhaar hain. "spandakaarika" mein shivsootron ke siddhaanton ka pratipaadan kiya do shishya hue hue (1) kallat aur (2) somaanand. "spandaasarvasv" likha aur somaanand ne "shivdrushti" aur 'paraatarti' likhi. somaanand ke putr aur shishya utpalaachaarya (90 darshan ke prakhyaat aachaarya maane jaate hain. inhonne 'ishvarapratyaki' ka pranayan kiya jo is darshan ka praanabhoot granth hai. prasiddh hua ki is darshan ka naam hi pratyabhijnyaa pad gaya ne "siddhitrayi" aur "shivstotraavali" granth likhe. Shiv paraabhakti ka apoorv granth hai.

utpal ke shishya abhinvagupt aur lakshmanagupt ke gupt (950-1000 E.) hue. abhinvagupt atyant pratibhaashaali the. kaavya, naatya, sangeet, darshan, tantr, mantra aur yog inmein paarangat the. dhvanyaalok par jo "lochan" teeka hai vah is marmajnyaata ka prachur pramaan hai. bharat ke naataya shaastr par inka bhaarati" bhaashya inke naatya aur sangeet ke gyaan ka pramaan "pratyabhijnyaaavimrshini" inke darshan ke agaadh paanditya ka "maalineevijyavaartik" inke aagam ke gambhir gyaan ka "paramaarthasaar" bhi inke darshan aur saadhana ke paanditya udaaharan hai. 12 bhaagon mein likhit inka "tantraalok" darshan aur yog ka vruhat kosh hai. "tantrasaar" mein tantraalok "tantrasaar" mein tantralok ka nichod hai.

kshemaraaj (975-1025 E.) inke bahut hi suyogya shishya the. kshemaraaj ke nimnalikhit granth prasiddh hain : shivsootravimrshini, svachhand tantr, vijnyaaanabhairav aur netratantr par udyot teeka, pratyabhijnyaaahrudaya spandasandoh, spandanirnaya, paraapraaveshika, tatvasandoh aur shivstotraavali par "stavachintaamani" teeka.

inke anantar pratyabhijnyaaadarshan par nimnalikhit aur granth likhe gaye. utpal vaishnav ki "spandapradeepika" bhaaskar aur varadaraaj ka "shivsootravaartik", raamakanth ki "spandakaarikaavivrutti", yogaraaj ki "paramaarthavivruti" aur jayarath ki tantraalok ki "vivek" teeka.

param tatv : is darshan ki drushti advaya ya advait hai. param tatv dvaitarahit ya advaya hai. use parameshvar, paramashiv, chitparaasanvit, anuttar ityaadi shabdon se abhihit kiya gaya hai.

chit vah hai jo apne ko sab aavaranon se dhakakar bhi sada anaavrut bana rahata hai, sab parivrtanon ke bheetar bhi sada parivrtanarahit bana rahata hai. usamein pramaata prameya, vedak vedya ka dvait bhaav naheen rahata, kyonki uske atirikt doosra kuchh hai hi naheen.

iska svaroop prakaashavimrshamaya hai. shaankar vedaant bhi chit ko advait maanata hai, kintu shaankar vedaant mein chit keval prakaashasvaroop hai, pratyabhijnyaa darshan mein vah prakaashavimrshamaya hai. mani bhi prakaasharoop hai. keval prakaasharoop kah dene se paramatatv ka niroopan naheen ho sakta. trik ya pratyabhijnyaa darshan ka kehna hai ki param tatv vah prakaash hai jise apne prakaash ka vimarsh bhi hai. "vimarsh" paaribhaashik shabd hai. iska arth hai chit ki aatmachetana, prakaash ka aatmajnyaaan, prakaash ka yeh gyaan ki "main hooain". mani bhi svayanprakaash hai, kintu use apne prakaash ka gyaan nahi hai. paramatatv ko keval svayanprakaash kah dene se kaam naheen chalega. pratyabhijnyaa darshan ka kehna hai ki aisa prakaash jise apna gyaan hai vimrshamaya hai. vimarsh chetna ki chetna hai. kshemaraaj ne vimarsh ko "akrutrimmaaham iti visfuranam" (paraapraaveshika, pru.2) svaabhaavik ahan roopi sfuran kaha hai. krutrim ahan hru "asvaabhaavik main" ka gyaan vedyasaapeksh hai. vimarsh svaabhaavik ahan ka gyaan poorn hai, vah "poornaheenata" hai, kyonki samast vishv usi mein hai. usase vyatirikt kuchh hai hi naheen. kshemaraaj ne kaha hai "yadi nirvimrsh: syaat aneeshvaro jadashch prasajyate (paraapraaveshika, pr. 2) arthaat yadi param tatv prakaash maatr hota aur vimrshamaya na hota to vah nireeshvar aur jad ho jaata. chit apne ko chitshakti ke roop mein dekhta hai. chit ka apne ko is roop mein dekhne ko hi vimarsh kehte hain. isi vimarsh ko is shaastr ne paraashakti, paraavaak, svaatantrya, aishvarya, kartrutv, sfurata, saar, hrudaya, spand ityaadi naamon se abhihit kiya hai. jab ham kehte hain ki paramatatv prakaash vimrshamaya hai to usaka arth yeh hua ki vah chinmaatr naheen hai, paraashakti bhi hai.

yeh paramatatv vishvotteern bhi hai aur vishvamaya bhi hai. vishv Shiv ki hi shakti ki abhivyakti hai. pralayaavastha mein yeh bhakti Shiv mein sanhrut rahati hai, srushti aur sthiti mein yeh shakti vishvaakaar mein vyakt rahati hai. vishv paramashiv se abhinn hai, yeh Shiv ka sfuranamaatr hai. parameshvar ya paramashiv bina kisi upaadaan ke, bina kisi aadhaar ke, apne svaatantrya se, apni svechha se, apni hi bhitti ya aadhaar mein vishv ka unmolan karta hai. chitrakaar koi chitr kisi aadhaar par, toolika aur rang ki sahaayata se banaata hai, kintu is jagat chitr ka chitrakaar, aadhaar, toolika, rang sab kuchh Shiv hi hai.

parameshvar hi moolatatv hai. yeh darshan "ishvaraadvayavaad" iseeliye kahalaata hai ki parameshvar ke atirikt aur kuchh hai hi naheen. ajnyaaan ya maaya usase bhinn kuchh naheen hai. yeh usi ka svechhaaparigruheet roop hai. vah apne svaatantrya se, apni ichha se apne ko dhak bhi leta hai. aur apni ichha se hi apne ko prakat bhi karta hai.

shaankar vedaant ya brahmavaad bhi advaitavaadi hai, kintu brahmavaad aur ishvaraadvayavaad mein paryaapt antar hai.

brahmavaad brahm ko nirgun, nirvikaar chaitanya maatr maanata hai. uske anusaar brahm mein kartrutv naheen hai, kintu ishvaraadvayavaad ke anusaar paramashiv mein svaatantrya ya kartrutv hai jiske dvaara vah sada srushti, sthiti, sanhaar, anugrah aur vilay in panchakrutyon ko karta rahata hai.

paramashiv aur vishv ka sambandh

is darshan ke anusaar sanvit ya param Shiv ka vishv se sambandh darpanabinbavat hai. jaise svachh darpan mein nagar, vruksh ityaadi padaarth pratibinbit hone par usase abhinn hote hue bhi usase bhinn dikhlaai deta hai. iseeliye is darshan ki drushti "aabhaasavaad" kahi jaati hai. darpan ke udaaharan mein ek baat dhyaan mein rakhani chaahiye. lok mein binb se hi pratibinb hota hain, kintu is darshan mein parameshvar mein vishv pratibinb hota rahata hai. is darshan ki drushti ko svaatantryavaad bhi kehte hai.

paramashiv ki shaktiyaaain

param Shiv ki anant shaktiyaaain hain, kintu mukhyat: paaainch shaktiyaaain hain hru chit, aanand, ichha, gyaan, kriya. chit ka svabhaav aatmaprakaashan hai. svaatantrya ko aanand shakti kehte hain. vastut: chit aur aanand paramashiv ke svaroop hi hain. apne ko sarvatha svatantr aur ichhaasanpann maanana ichhaashakti hai. isi se srushti ka sankalp hota hai. vedya ki or unmukhata ko jnyaaanashakti kehte hain. iska doosra naam aamarsh hai. sab aakaar dhaaran karne ki yogyata ko kriya shakti kehte hain.

chhattees tatv

is darshan mein 36 tatv maane gaye hain. inko teen mukhya bhaagon dvaara samajh sakte hain -

(1) shivtatv, (2) vidyaatatv aur (3) aatmatv.

shivtatv

shivtatv mein shivtatv aur (2) shaktittv ka antarbhaav hai. paramashiv prakaashavimrshamaya hai. isi prakaasharoop ko Shiv aur vimrsharoop ko shaktittv kehte hain. jaisa praarambh mein kaha ja chuka hai, poorn akrutrim ahan (main) ki sfoorti ko vimarsh kehte hain. yahi sfoorti vishv ki srushti, sthiti aur sanhaar ke roop mein prakat hoti hai. bina vimarsh ya shakti ke Shiv ko apne prakaash ka gyaan naheen hota. Shiv hi jab ant:sthit arthatatv ko baahar karne ke liye unmukh hota hai, shakti kahalaata hai.

vidyaatatv

vidyaatatv mein teen tatvon ka antarbhaav hai :

(3) sadaashiv, (4) ishvar aur (5) sadvidya.

sadaashiv shakti ke dvaara Shiv ki chetna ahan aur idan mein vibhkt ho jaati hai. parantu pehle ahamansh sfut rahata hai aur idamansh asfut rahata hai. ahanta se aachhaadit asfut idamansh ki avastha ko sadvidya ya shuddhavidyaatatv kehte hain. ismein kriya ka praadhaanya rahata hai. Shiv ka paraamarsh hai "ahan". sadaashiv tatv ka paraamarsh hai "ahamidm". ishvaratatv ka paraamarsh hai "idamahan". shuddhavidyaatatv ka paraamarsh hai "ahan idan ch".

yahaaain tak "ahan" aur "id" mein abhed rahata hai.

aatm tatv

aatm tatv mein 31 tatvon ka antarbhaav hai:

(6) maaya, (7) kala, (8) vidya, (9) raag, (10) kaal, (11) niyti, (12) purush, (13) prakruti, (14) buddhi (15) ahankaar, (16) man, (17-21) shrotr; tvak, chakshu, jihvi, ghraan (panchajnyaaaneindriya) (17-31) shabd, sparsh, roop, ras, gandh (panch tanmaatraaeain), (32-36) aakaash, vaayu, tej (agni), aap (jal), bhoomi (panchabhoot).

(6) maaya - yeh ahan aur idan ko pruthak kar deti hai. yaheen se bhed-buddhi praarambh hoti hai. ahamansh purush ho jaata hai aur idamansh prakruti. maaya ki paaainch upaadhiyaaain haihru kala, vidya, raag, kaal aur niyti. inhein "kanchuk" (aavaran) kehte hain, kyonki ye purush ke svaroop ko dhak dete hai. inke dvaara purush ki shaktiyaaain sankuchit ya parimit ho jaati hain. inheen ke kaaran jeev parimit pramaata kahalaata hai. shaankar vedaant aur trikdarshan ki maaya ek naheen hai. vedaant mein maaya aagantuk ke roop mein hai jisse ishvarachaitanya upahit ho jaata hai. is darshan mein maaya Shiv ki svaatantryashakti ka hi vijrunbhan maatr hai jiske dvaara vah apne vaibhav ko abhivyakt karta hai.

(7) kala sarvakartrutv ko sankuchit karke anityatv prasthaapit karta hai.

(8) vidya sarvajnyaatv ko sankuchit kar kinchijjnyaatv laati hai.

(9) raag nityatruptitv ko sankuchit kar anuraag laata hai.

(10) kaal nityatv ko sankuchit karke anityatv prasthaapit karta hai.

(11) niyti svaatantrya ko sankuchit karke kaarya-kaaran-sambandh prasthaapit karti hai.

(12) inheen kanchukon se aavrut jeev purush kahalaata hai.

(13) prakruti mahatatatv se lekar pruthveetatv tak ka mool kaaran hai. 14 se 36 tatv bilkul saankhya ki tarah hain.

bandh aanav mal ke kaaran jeev bandhan mein padta hai. svaatantrya ki haani aur svaatantrya ke ajnyaaan ko aanav mal kehte hain. maaya ke sansarg se usamein maayeeya mal bhi aa jaata hai. yahi shareer bhuvanaadi bhinnata ka kaaran hota hai. fal ke liye kiye hue dharmaadharm karm aur usaki vaasana se utpann hue mal ko kaarm mal kehte hain. inheen teen malon ke kaaran jeev bandhan mein padta hai.

moksh

ajnyaaanagranthi ke bhed aur svashakti ki abhivyaktata ko hi "moksh" kehte hain. dehaadikon mein aatmaabhimaan roopi moh ki granthi hai. iska bhed kar apne vaastavik svaroop ki pratyabhijnyaa (pehchaan) hi moksh hai. is darshan ka lakshya kaivalya naheen hai, chidaanand ya shivtv hai. yeh akrutrim poornaarhata ka udaya hone par hi praapt ho sakta hai. jab chitt ya vyashti chetna chit ya samashti chetna mein parint ho jaati hai us poornaarhata ka udaya hota hai jo Shiv ki chetna hai, jismein saara jagat chinmaya ya shivroop ho jaane se aanand roop ho jaata hai. kaivalya vichaar ya shivroop ho jaane se aanand roop ho jaata hai. kaivalya vichaar ya vivek se praapt hota hai. ismein gyaan hai kintu kartrutv naheen, chit chitshakti naheen. shivtv mein chit shakti ke saath vartamaan rahata hai. ismein gyaan aur kartrutv donon rahate hain. vastut: is darshan mein gyaan aur kriya mein sarvatha bhed naheen hai. kriya gyaan ka hi ek roop hai.

shaankar vedaant mein gyaan hi moksh ka saadhan maana gaya hai. pratyabhijnyaa ya trikdarshan shushk jnyaaanamaarg naheen hai. ismein gyaan aur bhakti ka madhur saamanjasya hai. is darshan ke anusaar gyaan hone par paran ke prati svaabhaavik bhakti udit hoti hai jise jnyaaanottara ya paraabhakti kehte hain. yeh bhakti saadhanaroopa naheen, kintu saadhyaroopa hai. vaastavik chidaanand vahi hai jismein jeevaatma aur paramaatma ka madhur milan hota hai, jismein saamarasya ka anubhav hota hai.

kintu chindaanand laabh vaakyajnyaaan ya tark dvaara naheen ho sakta. yeh Shiv ke anugrah se hi siddh ho sakta hai. isi anugrah ko shaktipaat kehte hain. anugrah se hi guru milta hai. guru se deeksha praapt kar jeev saadhana ke dvaara moksh praapt karta hai.

upaaya

mal ka kshaya karke anugrah praapt kar moksh ka adhikaari banane ke saadhan ko "upaaya" kehte hain.

baahari kadiyaaain