pratyaahaar

patanjali ke ashtaang yog ke sandarbh mein pratyaahaar ka alag arth hai. yahaaain pratyaahaar ko paanineeya vyaakaran ke sandarbh mein diya gaya hai.


pratyaahaar ka arth hota hai – 'sankshipt kathan'. vyaakaran mein pratyaahaar vibhinn varn-samooh ko abheepsit roop se sankshep mein grahan karne ki ek paddhati hai. jaise, 'an' se a i u aur 'ach' se samagr svar varn— a, i, u, ri, lru, O aur au, ityaadi. ashtaadhyaayi ke pratham adhyaaya ke pratham paad ke 71vein sootr 'aadirntyen saheta'(1-1-71) sootr dvaara pratyaahaar banaane ki vidhi ka paanini ne nirdesh kiya hai.

aadirntyen saheta (1-1-71): (aadi:) aadi varn (antyen ita) antim it varn (sah) ke saath milkar pratyaahaar banaata hai jo aadi varn evam itsanyajnyaak antim varn ke poorv aae hue varnon ka samashti roop mein (collectively) bodh karaata hai.

udaaharan: ach = pratham pratyaahaar sootr 'aiun' ke aadi varn 'a' ko chaturth sootr 'aiauch' ke antim varn 'ch' se yog karaane par ach pratyaahaar banta hai. yeh ach pratyaahaar apne aadi akshar 'a' se lekar itsanjnyaak ch ke poorv aane vaale au paryant sabhi aksharon ka bodh karaata hai. at:,
ach = a i u ri ॡ A ai O au.

isi tarah hal pratyaahaar ki siddhi 5vein sootr hayavarat ke aadi akshar 'h' ko antim 14vein sootr hal ke antim akshar l ke saath milaane (anubandh) se hoti hai. falat:,

hal = h ya va r, l, nya m ङ n na, jh bh, gh dh dh, j b g d the, kh f chh th th ch t t, k p, sh sh s, h

uparyukt sabhi 14 sootron mein antim varn ki it sanjnyaa paanini ne ki hai. it - in dhaatu se gamanaarth me nishpann pad hai. it sanjnyaak varnon ka kaarya anubandh banaakar ant me nikal jaana hai. at:, it sanjnyaa hone se in antim varnon ka upayog pratyaahaar banaane ke liye keval anubandh (Bonding) hetu kiya jaata hai, lekin vyaakaraneeya prakriya me inki ganana nahi ki jaati hai arthaat inka prayog nahi hota hai. kin varnon ki it sanjnyaa hoti hai, iska nirdesh paanini ne nimnalikhit sootron dvaara kiya hai:

1. upadesheऽjanunaasik it (1.3.2): upadesh me anunaasik ach (svar varn) it hote hain. (upadesh – sootrapaath (maaheshvar sootr sahit), dhaatupaath, ganapaath, unaadipaath, pratyaya, aagam, aadesh ityaadi dhaatusootraganonaadi vaakyaliङagaanushaasanam. aadesho aagamashch upadeshaa: prakeertita .) anunaasik – mukhanaasikaavachanoऽnunaasik:. arthaat jin varnon ka uchchaaran mukh evam naasika dono ki sahaayata se kiya jaae. ashtaadhyaayi me paanini ne jin varnon ki anunaasikta ka nirdesh kiya hai vahi anunaasik maane jaatein hain.)
2. halantyam (1.3.3): upadesh me (antyam) antim (hal) hal = vyanyajan varn it hote hain. lekin vibhkti me antim takaar (t), sakaar (s) tatha makaar (m) ka lop nahi hota hai – na vibhktau tusmaa: (1.3.4)

it sanjnyaa ka vidhaan karne vaale anya sootr hain:
3. aadirnyaitudav: (1.3.5)
4. sh: pratyayasya (1.3.6)
5. lashakvataddhite (1.3.7)
6. chutoo (1.3.8)

it sanjnyaa hone se in varnon ka lop – tasya lop: (1-2-9) sootr se hota hai. lop ka arth hai – adarshan – adarshanan lop:. falat:, it sanjnyaa vaale varn vidyamaan rahate hue bhi dikhaai nahi padte. at:, inki ganana bhi nahi ki jaati hai.

pratyaahaar ki mahatta evam upayog

paanini ko jab bhi akshar-samooh vishesh ki aavashyakta hoti hai, ve sabhi aksharon ko pruthak – pruthak kehne ki bajaae upayukt pratyaahaar ka prayog karte hain jisme un aksharon ka samaavesh hota hai.
udaaharan: paanini ek vishisht sanjnyaa (Technical device) 'gun' ki paribhaasha dete hain:

adeङ gun: arthaat adeङ ko gun kehte hain. yahaaain,
adeङ = at + eङ (vyanyajan sandhi). is udaaharan me eङ ek pratyaahaar hai.
maaheshvar sootr – eoङ ke aadyakshar 'A' evam antim akshar ङ ke anubandh se yeh pratyaahaar bana hai. (aadirntyen saheta)
eङ = A O ङ
eङ ke antim akshar ङ ki it sanjnyaa hoti hai (halantyam). it sanjnyaa hone se usaka lop ho jaata hai (tasya lop:). falat:,
eङ = A, O.
at:, a (at), A tatha O ko gun kehte hain. (adeङ gun:)

udaaharan: iko yanachi : yadi ach pare ho to ik ke sthaan par yan hota hai.

ach = a, i, u, ri, ॡ, A, O, ai, au.
ik = i, u, ri, ॡ.
yan = ya, va, r, l.

yadi paanini uparyukt pratyaahaaron ka prayog nahi karte to unhe kehna padta:
yadi, i, u, ri, ॡ ke baad a, i, u, ri, ॡ, A, O, ai, au rahein to i, u, ri tatha ॡ ke sthaan par kramash: ya, va, r, l, hota hai.
is kathan ko paanini ne atyant sankshipt roop me maatr 'iko yanachi' in do padon se vyakt kar diya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein