pratham vishvayuddh

pratham vishvayuddh
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tithi 28 July 1914 se 11 November 1918 tak
sthaan yurop, Africa aur madhya poorv (aanshik rup mein cheen aur prashaant dweep samooh)
parinaam gathabandhan sena ki vijay. Germany, rusi, ottomani aur aastriya-haङagari saamraajya ka ant. yurop tatha madhya poorv mein naye deshon ki sthaapana. jarman-upaniveshon mein anya shaktiyon dvaara kabja. league of neshanas ki sthaapana.
ladaai mein sahabhaagi gathabandhan desh ladaai mein sahabhaagi kendreeya shakti (Central Power) desh
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Britain

Flag of France.svg France

Flag of the United States.svg America

Flag of Russia.svg roos

Flag of Italy.svg Italy
tatha anya

Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg aastriya-haङagari

Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany

Ottoman flag.svg otoman

Flag of Bulgaria.svg balgaariya
tatha anya

maare gaye sainikon ki sankhya:
5,525,000
maare gaye sainikon ki sankhya:
4,386,000
ghaayal sainikon ki sankhya
12,831,500
ghaayal sainikon ki sankhya
8,388,000
laapata sainik sankhya
4,121,000
laapata sainik sankhya
3,629,000
kul
22,477,500
kul
16,403,000

1914 se 1918 ke madhya mukhyat: Europe mein vyaapt is mahaayuddh ko pratham vishv yuddh kehte hain. yeh mahaayuddh Europe, Asia va Africa teen mahaadveepon aur jal, thal tatha aakaash mein lada gaya. ismein bhaag lene vaale deshon ki sankhya, iska kshetr (jismein yeh lada gaya) tatha isse hui kshati ke abhootapoorv aankadon ke kaaran hi ise vishvayuddh kehte hain.

pratham vishvayuddh lagbhag 52 maah tak chala aur us samay ki peedhi ke liye yeh jeevan ki drushti badal dene wala anubhav tha. kareeb aadhi duniya hinsa ki chapet mein chali gayi aur is dauraan anumaanat: ek karod logon ki jaan gayi aur isse dogune ghaayal ho gaye. iske alaava beemaariyon aur kuposhan jaisi ghatnaaon se bhi laakhon log mare.

vishv yuddh khatm hote-hote chaar bade saamraajya roos, Germany, ostriya-Hungary (haipsabarg) aur usmaaniya dhah gaye. Europe ki seemaaen fir se nirdhaarit huin aur America nishchit taur par ek 'super power' ban kar ubhara.

anukram

ghatanaaeain

audyogik kraanti ke kaaran sabhi bade desh aise upanivesh chaahate the jahaaain se ve kachcha maal pa sakein tatha masheenon se banaai hui vastueain bech sakein. is uddeshya ki praapti ke liye sainik shakti badhaai gayi aur gupt kootaneetik sandhiyaaain ki gain. isse raashtron mein avishvaas aur vaimanasya badha aur yuddh anivaarya ho gaya. ostriya ke sinhaasan ke uttaraadhikaari aarchadyuk fardineind aur unki patni ka vadh is yuddh ka taatkaalik kaaran tha. yeh ghatna 28 June 1914, ko seraajevo mein hui thi. ek maas pashchaat ostriya ne Serbia ke viruddh yuddh ghoshit kiya. roos, France aur Britain ne Serbia ki sahaayata ki aur Germany ne aastriya ki. August mein Japan, Britain aadi ki or se aur kuchh samay baad tarki, Germany ki or se, yuddh mein shaamil hue.

June 1914 mein, ostriya ke aarkadyook fraanj fardineind ki bosniya rajdhani ki saaraajevo mein ek sarbiyaai raashtravaadi dvaara hatya kar di gayi jiske falasvaroop ostriya -Hungary ne 28 July ko Serbia ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di gayi jismein roos ostriya-Hungary ke saath aa gaya. Germany ne fraans ki or badhne se poorv tatasth Belgium aur lakjmabarg par aakraman kar diya jasake kaaran Britain ne Germany ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di

Germany , ostriya, Hungary aur turk saamraajya (tathaakathit kendreeya shaktiyaaain) dvaara great Britain , France , roos ,Italy aur Japan ke khilaaf (mitr deshon ki shaktiyon) August ke madhya tak laamaband ho gaye aur 1917 ke baad sanyukt raajya America mitr raashtron ki or shaamil ho gaya tha .

yeh mahaayuddh Europe , Asia va Africa teen mahaadveepon aur jal, thal tatha aakaash mein lada gaya. praarambh mein Germany ki jeet hui. 1917 mein Germany ne anek vyaapaari jahaajon ko duboya. isse amareeka Britain ki or se yuddh mein kood pada kintu roosi kraanti ke kaaran roos mahaayuddh se alag ho gaya. 1918 E. mein Britain , France aur amareeka ne Germany aadi raashtron ko paraajit kiya. Germany aur aastriya ki praarthana par 11 November 1918 ko yuddh ki samaapti hui.

ladaaiyaaain

is mahaayuddh ke antargat anek ladaaiyaaain hui. inmein se tenenabarg (26 se 31 August 1914), maarnan (5 se 10 September 1914), sari bair (Sari Bair) tatha soovala khaadi (6 se 10 August 1915), vardoon (21 fravari 1916 se 20 August 1917), aamiain (8 se 11 August 1918), ev vittorio beneto (23 se 29 October 1918) ityaadi ki ladaaiyon ko apekshaakrut adhik mahatva diya gaya hai. yahaaain keval do ka hi sankshipt vruttaant diya gaya hai.

samay ke saath pratham vishvayuddh mein paksh-vipaksh mein desh judte gaye.
gahra hara - mitr raashtra
halka hara - mitr raashtron ke upanivesh
gahra naarangi - kendreeya shaktiyaaain
halka naarangi - kendreeya shaktiyon ke upanivesh
bhoora - nishpaksh desh

Germany dvaara kiye gaye 1916 ke aakramanon ka pradhaan lakshya bardoon tha. mahaadveep sthit mitr raashtron ki senaaon ka vightan karne ke liye France par aakraman karne ki yojanaanusaar Germany ki or s 21 fravari 1916 E. ko bardoon yuddhamaala ka shreeganesh hua. nau jarman diveejn ne ek saath maujel (Moselle) nadi ke daahine kinaare par aakraman kiya tatha pratham evam dviteeya yuddh morchon par adhikaar kiya. French sena ka oj general petain (Petain) ki adhyakshata mein is chunauti ka saamana karne ke liye badha. jarman sena 26 fravari ko bardoon ki seema se keval paaainch meal door rah gayi. kuchh dinon tak ghor sangraam hua. 15 March tak jarman aakraman shithil padne laga tatha France ko apni vyooharachana tatha rasad aadi ki suchaaru vyavastha ka avsar mil gaya. myooj ke pashchimi kinaare par bhi bheeshan yuddh chhida jo lagbhag April tak chalta raha. May ke ant mein Germany ne nadi ke donon or aakraman kiya tatha bheeshan yuddh ke uparaant 7 June ko vaaks (Vaux) ka kila lene mein safalta praapt ki. Germany ab apni safalta ke shikhar par tha. French sainik Mart home (Mert Homme) ke dakshini dhaaloo sthaleeya morchon par date hue the. sangharsh chalta raha. british sena ne saum (Somme) par aakraman kar bardoon ko chhutakaara dilaaya. Germany ka antim aakraman 3 September ko hua tha. general mainagin (Mangin) ke netrutv mein France ne pratyaakraman kiya tatha adhikaansh khoe hue sthal vijit kar liye. 20 August 1917 ke bardoon ke antim yuddh ke uparaant Germany ke haathp mein keval byoomaant (Beaumont) rah gaya. yuddhon ne frainch sena ko shithil kar diya tha, jab ki aahat jarmanon ki sankhya lagbhag teen lakh thi aur usaka josh feeka pad gaya tha.

aamiain (Amiens) ke yuddhakshetr mein mukhyat: morchaabandi arthaat khaaiyon ki ladaaiyaaain huin. 21 March se lagbhag 20 April tak jarman apne morchein se badhkar angreji sena ko lagbhag 25 meal dhakel aamiain ke nikat le aae. unka uddeshya vahaaain se niklanevaali us railway line par adhikaar karna tha, jo kaile bandargaah se peris jaati hai aur jisse angreji sena aur saamaan France ki sahaayata ke liye pahuainchaaya jaata tha.

lagbhag 20 April se 18 July tak jarman aamiain ke nikat ruke rahe. doosari or mitr deshon ne apni shakti bahut badhaakar sangathit kar li, tatha unki senaaeain jo isse poorv apne apne raashtreeya senaapatiyon ke nirdeshan mein ladti theen, ek pradhaan senaapati, maarshal faush ke adheen kar di gain.

July, 1918 ke uparaant general faush ke nirdeshan mein mitr deshon ki senaaon ne jarmanon ko kai sthaanon mein paraast kiya.

jarman pradhaan senaapati loodenadaarf ne us sthaan par achaanak aakraman kiya jahaaain angreji tatha fraanseesi senaaon ka sangam tha. yeh aakraman 21 March ko praat: 4.. baje, jab kohare ke kaaran sena ki gatividhi ka pata naheen chal sakta tha, 4000 topon ki golaabaari se aarambh hua. 4 April ko jarman sena kaile-peris railway se keval do meal door thi. 11-12 April ko angreji senaapatiyon ne sainikon se lad marne ka anurodh kiya.

tatpashchaat ek saptaah se adhik samay tak jarmanon ne aamiain ke nikat ladaai jaari rakhi, par ve kaile-pairis rel line par adhikaar na kar sake. unka angrejon ko fraanseesiyon se pruthak karne ka prayaas asafal raha.

20 April se lagbhag teen maheene tak jarman mitr deshon ko anya kshetron mein paraast karne ka prayatn karte rahe aur safal bhi hue. kintu is safalta se laabh uthaane ka avsar unhein naheen mila. mitr deshon ne is bheeshan sthiti mein apni shakti badhaane ke prabandh kar liye the.

25 March ko jenaral faush is kshetr mein mitr deshon ki senaaon ke senaapati niyukt hue. Britain ki paarlameint ne April mein sainik seva ki umr badhaakar 50 varsh kar di aur 3,55,000 sainik April maas ke bheetar hi France bhej diye. amareeka se bhi sainik France pahunchane lage the aur dheere dheere unki sankhya 6,00,000 pahunch gayi. nae astron tatha anya aavishkaaron ke kaaran mitr deshon ki vaayusena prabal ho gayi. visheshakar unke taik bahut kaaryaksham ho gaye.

15 July ko jarmanon ne apna antim aakraman maarn nadi par peris ki or badhne ke prayaas mein kiya. fraanseesi sena ne ise rokar teen din baad jarmanon par usi kshetr mein shaktishaali aakraman kar 30,000 sainik bandi kiye. fir 8 August ko aamiain ke nikat general Hague ki adhyakshata mein british tatha fraanseesi sena ne praat: saadhe chaar baje kohare ki aad mein jarmanon par achaanak aakraman kiya. is ladaai mein chaar minute topon se gole chalaane ke baad, saikadon tank sena ke aage bhej diye gaye, jinke kaaran jarman sena mein halachal mach gayi. aamiain ke poorv aabr evam saum nadiyon ke beech 14 meal ke morache par aakraman hua aur us ladaai mein jarmanon ki itni kshati hui ki soodenadorf ne is din ka naamakaran jarman sena ke liye kaala din kiya.

varsaaya ki sandhi mein Germany par kadi shartein laadi gain. iska bura parinaam dviteeya vishvayuddh ke roop mein prakat hua aur raashtrasangh ki sthaapana ke pramukh uddeshya ki poorti na ho saki.

pratham vishvayuddh aur Bhaarat

jab yeh yuddh aaram‍aabh hua tha us samay Bhaarat aupaniveshik shaasan ke adheen tha. yeh bhaarateeya sipaahi sam‍aapoorn vish‍aav mein alag-alag ladaaiyon mein lade. Bhaarat ne yuddh ke prayaason mein janashakti aur saamagri donon roop se bharpoor yogadaan kiya. Bhaarat ke sipaahi France aur Belgium , edeen , arab , poorvi Africa , gaali poli , misr ,mesopeaataamiya , filis‍aateen , parsiya aur saalonika mein balki poore vish‍aav mein vibhin‍aan ladaai ke maidaanon mein bade sam‍aamaan ke saath lade. gadhvaal raaifals rejimen ke do sipaahiyo ko sanyukt raajya ka uchchatam padak Victoria kraus bhi mila tha.

yuddh aarambh hone ke pehle jarmanon ne poori koshish ki thi ki Bhaarat mein Britain ke viruddh aandolan shuroo kiya ja sake. bahut se logon ka vichaar tha ki yadi Britain yuddh mein lag gaya to Bhaarat ke kraantikaari is avsar ka laabh uthaakar desh se angrejon ko ukhaad feinkane mein mein safal ho jaaenge. kintu iske ulta bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke netaaon ka mat tha svatantrata ki praapti ke liye is samay Britain ki sahaayata ki jaani chaahiye. aur jab 4 August ko yuddh aarambh hua to Britain Bhaarat ke netaaon ko apne paksh mein kar liya. riyaasaton ke raajaaon ne is yuddh mein dil kholkar Britain ki aarthik aur sainik sahaayata ki.

kul 8 lakh bhaarateeya sainik is yuddh mein lade jismein kul 47746 sainik maare gaye aur 65000 jakhmi hue. is yuddh ke kaaran Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha lagbhag divaaliya ho gayi thi. Bhaarat ke bade netaaon dvaara is yuddh mein Britain ko samarthan ne british chintakon ko bhi chaunka diya tha. Bhaarat ke netaaon ko aasha thi ki yuddh mein Britain ke samarthan se khush hokar angrej Bhaarat ko inaam ke roop mein svatantrata de deinge ya kam se kam svashaasan ka adhikaar deinge kintu aisa kuchh bhi naheen hua. ulate angrejon ne jaliyaaainvaala baag narasanhaar jaise ghinaune krutya se Bhaarat ke muainh par tamaacha maara.

yeh bhi dekhein