pratham cheen-Japan yuddh

pratham cheen-Japan yuddh
Sino Japanese war 1894.jpg
cheen-Japan yuddh ke dauraan ladte Japani sainik
प्रथम चीन-जापान युद्ध, प्रमुख युद्धस्थल और सेना गतिविधियाँ
pratham cheen-Japan yuddh, pramukh yuddhasthal aur sena gatividhiyaaain
tithi 1 agasta1894 – 17 April 1895
sthaan Korea, manchooriya, taaivaan, peela saagar
parinaam Japani saamraajya ki jeet, ching raajavansh ki pratishtha ki ghor haani
yoddha
Qing Dynasty ching raajavansh saaaincha:desh aaainkade Empire of Japan Japani saamraajya
shakti/kshamata
630,000 yoddha
240,000 yoddha
mrutyu evam haani
35,000 ghaayal ya mrut 1,132 mrut,
3,973 ghaayal
11,894 beemaari ke kaaran maut

cheen-Japan yuddh 1894-95 ke dauraan cheen aur Japan ke madhya Korea par prashaasanik tatha sainya niyantran ko lekar lada gaya tha. Japan ki meiji sena ismein vijayi hui thi aur yuddh ke parinaam svaroop Korea, manchooriya tatha taaivaan ka niyantran Japan ke haath mein chala gaya. is yuddh mein haarne ke kaaran cheen ko Japan ke aadhunikeekaran ka laabh samajh mein aaya aur baad mein ching raajavansh ke khilaaf 1911 me kraanti hui.

ise pratham cheen-Japan yuddh ka naam bhi diya jaata hai. 1937-45 ke madhya lade gaye yuddh ko dviteeya cheen-Japan yuddh kaha jaata hai.

anukram

yuddh ke kaaran

Korea mein Japan ka svaarth

Japan ne apne saamraajyavaad ka mukhya lakshya cheen ko banaaya aur sarvapratham Korea mein usane cheen ke saath apni shakti ka prayog kiya. Korea apni bhaugolik sthiti ke kaaran saamaajik aur raajaneetik drushti se Japan ke liye atyant mahatvapoorn tha. isliye Korea praayadveep mein Japan ki bahut roochi thi.

cheen ke manchoo samraaton ne 17veen shataabdi mein Korea par adhikaar kar liya tha aur tabhi se Korea cheen ka adheen pradesh maana jaata tha. yadyapi Korea ka apna pruthak raaja hota tha, kintu Korea ka svatantr raaja cheen ke samraat ko apna adhipti sveekaar karta tha. is tarah Korea ka raajya cheen ke ek sanrakshit raajya ke samaan tha.

Korea praayadveep mein Japan ka paramparaagat svaarth tha lekin, abhi tak Japan ko is svaarth ko poora karne ka mauka naheen mila tha. kintu ab Japan mein sainikvaad ka janm ho chuka tha. at: yeh aavashyak ho gaya ki vah Korea ke sambandh mein ugr neeti ka avalanban kare. is samay Korea Europeeya raajyon ki saamraajyavaadi neeti ke bhainvarajaal mein fains raha tha, aisi sthiti mein Korea cheen ke haath se nikalkar kisi bhi Europeeya desh ke adhikaar mein ja sakta tha. isliye Japan ki chinta badhi aur usane tay kiya ki vah Korea ko uske bhaagya par naheen chhod sakta.

Korea mein Japan ka pravesh

1875 E. mein Japan ka ek jahaaj Korea ke samudratat par pahuaincha. Korea ki sarkaar ne is jahaaj par golaabaari shuroo kar di. is kaaran ugravaadi Japani neta Korea ke virooddh yuddh ghoshit karne ki maaaing karne lage. lekin, us samay Japan ke adhikaariyon ne sanyam se kaam liya. Korea ke virooddh yuddh chhedne ke badle unhonne nishchaya kiya ki Japan ek dootamandal Korea bheje, jo vahaaain ki sarkaar ko Japan ke saath niymaanusaar vyaapaarik sandhi karne ke liye prerit kare. 1876 E. mein yeh dootamandal Korea ki rajdhani pahuaincha aur Korea ne Japan ke liye vyaapaar ke khol diye gaye is prakaar Japan ko kai vyaapaarik visheshadhaadhikaar praapt hue. Japan ko Korea mein raajyakshetraateet adhikaar bhi mila aur usane Korea ki svatantr satta ko maanyata de di. yeh cheeni samprabhuta ko chunauti thi kintu iske falasvaroop Korea mein jaapaaniyon ke pair jam gaye. is prakaar kuchh samay ke liye Korea mein shaanti ho gayi, lekin cheen-Japan ka manamutaav chalta hi raha.

yuddh ka aarambh

1891 E. mein roos ne France se karj lekar paintees sau meal lambi traans saaiberiyn railway banaane ka nishchaya kiya. iske liye vah dakshin Korea mein adda banaana chaahata tha. isse Japan ke kaan khade ho gaye. isi beech Korea mein 1894 E. mein ek vidroh ho gaya. tongahaak dal ke netrutv mein hua yeh vidroh mukhyat: videshiyon ke khilaaf hua tha. shaahi fauj ise dabaane mein asamarth rahi. ataev, usane cheen se madad maaaingi. cheen ki sarkaar ne cheeni sainikon ka ek dasta bhej diya, kintu 1885 E. ke samjhaute ke anusaar Japan ko iski soochana pehle na dekar baad mein di. Japan ne virodh kiya ki itni badi sankhya mein cheen ke sainikon ka Korea mein pahuainchana sandhi ki shartaan ke virooddh tha. badle mein Japani shaasakon ne bhi cheen ko vidhivt soochit kar saat hajaar sainik Korea bhej diye. cheen aur Japan ki senaaon ke Korea mein ghusne ke pehle hi Korea ki sarkaar ne balave ko daba diya. kintu Korea ki bhoomi par do videshi senaaeain dati raheen. aisa prateet hua ki donon ke madhya kisi bhi kshan yuddh chhid jaaega.

August 1894 E. mein ek cheeni jahaaj cheeni sainikon sahit Korea ki or ja raha tha. Japan ne maarg mein hi use pakad liya aur, chooainki ukt jahaaj ne aatmasamarpan naheen kiya, at: us par aakraman kar diya gaya, falasvaroop pratyek cheeni yaatri samudra mein dubo diya gaya. is ghatna se kshubdh hokar cheen ne 1 August, 1894 ko Japan ke virooddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di aur is prakaar pratham cheen-Japan yuddh aarambh ho gaya.

yuddh ki ghatanaayein evam parinaam

pratham cheen-Japan yuddh mein Japani nausena ki reedh : maatsushima

yeh yuddh lagbhag nau maheenon tak chala jismein jaapaaniyon ki vijay hui. Japan ki sainik taiyaariyaaain bahut hi shreshth theen. Japan ki dedh lakh sena ko shreshth prashikshan diya gaya tha. Japani sainikon ko yathaasanbhav vetan milta tha aur unke general anubhavi aur atyant yogya the. unhein gola-baarood aur anya rasad ki vastueain yathaasamaya tatha aavashyakataanusaar milti theen. Japani nausena mein paryaapt sankhya mein yaatri jahaaj the, jo sena athva yuddh saamagri ek rakshanetr se doosare mein sheeghrata se pahuainchaaya karte the.

iske vipreet, cheen ki sena ekdam bekaar thi. uske paas na shastr the aur na uske sainik prashikshit the tatha sainikon ko niyamit vetan bhi naheen milta tha. uske senaapati bhi ayogya the. iske atirikt cheen ka shaasan prabandh bhi dooshit aur bhrasht tha.

aisi sthiti mein cheen ki paraajaya avashyambhaavi thi. vastut:, yuddh ke praarambh aur ant tak kabhi aur cheen ko koi safalta praapt naheen hui. sitmbar ke ant tak cheeni sena ko Korea se bhaagna pada aur yaaloo nadi ki muthabhed mein cheeni bede ki bheeshan paraajaya hui. Japan ki ek sena ne manchooriya par aur doosari ne liyaaotung praayadveep par aakraman kiya. kingachaaoo aur taankin ka patan ho gaya aur November mein port aarthar par bhi Japan ne adhikaar kar liya. 1895 E. ke praarambh mein Japan ki senaaeain shaantung ja pahuainchi jo Korea ke doosare chhor par sthit tha. February ke madhya tak beihaaivei ka bhi patan ho gaya. uttar mein kai cheeni raksha chaukiyon par Japan ne adhikaar kar liya. iske uparaant Japan ki senaaeain cheen ki rajdhani ki or badhne lageen. is sthiti mein cheen ki sarkaar ne Japan ke saath sandhi kar lena hi uchit samjha.

shimonoski ki sandhi

17 apairal, 1895 E. ko cheen aur Japan ke beech yuddh samaapt karne ke liye ek sandhi ho gayi, jiski pramukh shartein agralikhit theen -

  • (1) Korea ko svatantr raajya ke roop mein sveekaar kiya gaya aur yeh nishchaya hua ki us par cheen ka kisi bhi tarah ka prabhutv na rahe.
  • (2) cheen ne Japan ko faaramosa, peskaadors aur liyaaotung praayadveep de diye.
  • (3) cheen ne Japan ko 200,000,000 tail (cheeni sikka) harjaana dena sveekaar kiya. jab tak yeh rakam cheen naheen chuka deta tab tak Japan vehaaivei ke bandargaah par kabja rakh sakta tha.
  • (4) cheen ne Japan se ek vyaapaarik sandhi ki jismein usane Japani udyog aur vyaapaar ke liye chungaking, soocho, haangacho, ke bandargaah khol diye aur use ve sab sahooliytein Dean jo Europeeya deshon ko praapt theen.

inhein bhi dekhein