prataapanaaraayan mishr

prataapanaaraayan mishr (September, 1856 - July, 1894) bhaarateinndu mandal ke pramukh lekhak, kavi aur patrakaar the. vah bhaarateindu nirmit evam prerit hindi lekhakon ki sena ke mahaarathi, unke aadarsho ke anugaami aur aadhunik hindi bhaasha tatha saahitya ke nirmaanakram mein unke sahayogi the. bhaarateindu par unki ananya shraddha thi, vah apne ko unka shishya kehte tatha devata ki bhaaainti unka smaran karte the. bhaarateindu jaisi rachanaashaili, vishyavastu aur bhaashaagat visheshataaon ke kaaran mishr ji "pratibhaarateindu" athva "dviteeyachandr" kahe jaane lage the.

anukram

jeevani

mishr ji unnaav jile ke antargat baije gaaainv nivaasi, kaatyaayan gotreeya, kaanyakubj braahman pan॰ sankataadeen ke putr the. bade hone par vah pita ke saath Kanpur mein rahane lage aur aksharaaranbh ke pashchaat unase hi jyotish padhne lage. kintu udhar ruchi na hone se pita ne unhein aaingareji madarase mein bharati kara diya. tab se kai schoolon ka chakkar lagaane par bhi vah pita ki laalasa ke vipreet padhaai likhaai se virt hi rahe aur pita ki mrutyu ke pashchaat 18-19 varsh ki avastha mein unhonne schooli shiksha se apna pind chhuda liya.

is prakaar mishr ji ki shiksha adhoori hi rah gayi. kintu unhonne pratibha aur svaadhyaaya ke bal se apni yogyata paryaapt badha li thi. vah hindi, urdoo aur baingala to achhi jaante hi the, faarasi, aaingareji aur sanskrut mein bhi unki achhi gati thi.

mishr ji chhaatraavastha se hi "kavivchanasudha" ke gadya-padya-maya lekhon ka niyamit paath karte the jisse hindi ke prati unka anuraag utpann hua. laavanau gaayakon ki toli mein aashu rachana karne tatha lalit ji ki raamaleela me abhinay karte hue unase kaavyarachana ki shiksha grahan karne se vah swayam maulik rachana ka abhyaas karne lage. isi beech vah bhaarateindu ke sampark mein aae. unka aasheervaad tatha protsaahan paakar vah hindi gadya tatha padya rachana karne lage. 1882 ke aaspaas "premapushpaavali" prakaashit hua aur bhaarateindu ji ne usaki prashansa ki to unka utsaah bahut badh gaya.

15 March 1883 ko, theek holi ke din, apne kai mitron ke sahayog se mishr ji ne "braahman" naamak maasik patra nikaala. yeh apne roop rang mein hi naheen, vishay aur bhaashaashaili ki drushti se bhi bhaarateindu yug ka vilkshan patra tha. sajeevata, saadagi baaainkapan aur fakkadpan ke kaaran bhaarateindukaaleen saahityakaaron mein jo sthaan mishr ji ka tha, vahi tatkaaleen hindi patrakaarita mein is patra ka tha kintu yeh kabhi niyat samay par naheen niklata tha. do-teen baar to iske band hone tak ki naubat aa gayi thi. iska kaaran mishr ji ka vyaadhimandir shareer or arthaabhaav tha. kintu raamadeen Singh aadi ki sahaayata se yeh yen-ken prakaaren sampaadak ke jeevanakaal tak niklata raha. unki mrutyu ke baad bhi raamadeen Singh ke sanpaadakatv mein kai varsho tak nikla, parantu pehle jaisa aakarshan ve usamein na la sake.

1889 mein mishr ji 25 roo. maasik par "hindosthaan" ke sahaayak sampaadak hokar kaalaakaaainkar aae. un dinon pan॰ madanamohan maalaveeya uske sampaadak the. yahaaain baalamukund gupt ne mir ji se hindi seekhee1 maalaveeya ji ke hatne par mishr ji apni svachhand pravrutti ke kaaran vahaaain na tik sake. kaalaakaaainkar se lautane ke baad vah praaya: rugn rahane lage. fir bhi samaajik, raajaneetik, dhaarmik kaaryo mein poorvavat ruchi lete aur "braahman" ke liye lekh aadi prastut karte rahe. 1891 mein unhonne Kanpur mein "rasik samaaj" ki sthaapana ki. Congress ke kaaryakramon ke atirikt bhaaratadharmamandal, dharmasabha, gorakshini sabha aur anya sabha samitiyon ke sakriya kaaryakarta aur sahaayak bane rahe. Kanpur ki kai naatya sabhaaon aur gorakshini samitiyon ki sthaapana unheen ke prayatnon se hui thi.

mishr ji jitne parihaasapriya aur jindaadil vyakti the utane hi aniyamit, aniyantrit, laaparavaah aur kaahil the. rog ke kaaran unka shareer yuvaavastha mein hi jarjar ho gaya tha. to bhi svaasthyaraksha ke niyamon ka vah sada ullanghan karte rahe. isse unka svaasthya dinon din girta gaya. 1892 ke ant mein vah gambhir roop se beemaar pade aur lagaataar dedh varsho tak beemaar hi rahe. ant mein 38 varsh ki avastha mein 6 July 1894 ko das baje raat mein bhaarateindumandal ke is nakshatr ka avsaan ho gaya.

hindi gadya saahitya ke suprasiddh saahityakaar prataapanaaraayan mishr ka janm 1856 i0 mein uttar pradesh ke baij (unnaav) mein hua. ve bhaaratendu yug ke pramukh saahityakaar the. unke pita sainkatha prasaad ek prasiddh jyotishi the aur apne putr ko bhi jyotishi banaana chaahate the, kintu mishr ji ko jyotish ki shiksha ruchikr naheen lagi, pita ne angreji padhne ke liye school bheja kintu vahaaain bhi unka man naheen rama. laachaar hokar unke pita ji ne unki shiksha ka prabandh ghar par hi kiya. dheere-dheere unhonne hindi sanskrut ke atirikt urdoo, faarasi, bangala aadi bhaashaaon ki bhi yogyata praapt kar li thi. mishr ji ko laavaniyon ke prati bada lagaav tha. laavani vaalon ki sangeet se unhein kavita karne ka shauk laga. baad mein ve nibandh bhi likhne lage aur saahitya seva mein poori tarah jut gaye. mishr ji ne 'braahman' naamak maasik patra nikaala aur usaka sanpaadan kiya. mishr ji bade manamauji jeev the. ve aadhunik sabhyata aur shishtata ki kam paravaah karte the. kabhi laavani vaalon mein sammilit ho jaate the to kabhi mele-tamaashon mein band ikke par baithe jaate dikhaai dete the. saada jeevan unke jeevan ka mahatvapoorn siddhaant tha.

inki mrutyu 1894 i0 mein hui.

rachanaaeain

prataapanaaraayan mishr bhaarateindu ke vichaaron aur aadarshon ke mahaan prachaarak aur vyaakhyaata the. vah prem ko paramadharm maanate the. hindi, hindu, hidustaan unka prasiddh naara tha. samaajasudhaar ko drushti mein rakhakar unhonne saikadon lekh likhe hain. baalakrushn bhatt ki tarah vah aadhunik hindi nibandhon ko parampara ko pusht kar hindi saahitya ke sabhi angon ki poornata ke liye rachanaarat rahe. ek safal vyangyakaar aur haasyapoorn gadya-padya-rachanaakaar ke roop mein hindi saahitya mein unka vishisht sthaan hai. mishr ji ki mukhya krutiyaaain nimnaankit hain :

(k) naatak: bhaaratadurdasha, gosakat, kalikautuk, kaliprabhaav, hathi hammeer, juaari khuaari. saangeet shaakuntal (anuvaad).

(kh) maulik gadya krutiyaaain : charitaashtak, panchaamrut, suchaal shiksha, bodhodaya, shaiv sarvasv.

(g) anoodit gadya krutiyaaain: neetirtnaavali, kathaamaala, senavansh ka itihaas, soobe Bengal ka bhoogol, varnaparichya, shishuvijnyaaan, raajasinh, idira, raadhaaraani, yugalaanguleeya.

(gh) kavita : premapushpaavali, man ki lahar, braidala svaagat, dangal khand, Kanpur mahaatmya, shrrungaaravilaas, lokoktishtak, deevo barahaman (urdoo).

prataap peeyoosh, nibndh navaneet, kali kautuk, hathi hameer, Bhaarat durdasha, gau sankat, juaari khuaari, man ki lahar, prataap lahari, kaavya kaanan. Bhaarat durdasha, go sankat, kali-pravaah, hathi hameer aadi mishr ji ke naatak hain. kali, kautuk, juaari, buaari unke roopak hain. sangeet shakuntala laavani ke dhang par gaane yogya khadi boli mein padya-baddh naatak hai. nibandh naveenatam main unke nibandhon ka sangrah hain aur kaavya-kaanan mein aalochanaaeain hain.

varnya-vishay

mishr ji ke nibandhon mein vishay ki paryaapt vividhta hai. Dave-prem, samaaj-sudhaar evam saadhaaran manoranjan aadi mishr ji ke nibandhon ke mukhya vishay the. unhonne 'braahman' maasik patra mein har prakaar ke vishay par nibandh likhe. jaise - ghoore ka lata vinai, kanaatan ka daul baaaindhe, samajhdaar ki maut hai, baat manoyog, bruddh, bhaun aadi.

mishr ji hindi hindu, Hindustan ke kattar samarthak the, at: unki rachanaaon mein inke prati vishesh moh prakat hua.

bhaasha

khadi boli ke roop mein prachalit janabhaasha ka prayog mishr ji ne apne saahitya mein kiya. prachalit muhaavaron, kahaavaton tatha videshi shabdon ka prayog inki rachanaaon mein hua hai. bhaasha ki drushti se mishr ji ne bhaarateindu ki anusaran kiya aur jan saadhaaran ki bhaasha ko apnaaya. bhaarateindu ji ke samaan hi mishr ji bhaasha ki krutimta se door hain. vah svaabhaavik hain. panditaaoopan aur poorveepan adhik hai. usamein graameen shabdon ka prayog svachhandata poorvak hua. sanskrut arabi, faarasi, urdoo, angreji, aadi ke prachalit shabdon ko bhi grahan kiya gaya hai. bhaasha vishay ke anukool hai. gambhir vishyon par likhte samay aur gambhir ho gayi hai. kahaavaton aur muhaavaron ke prayog mein mishr ji bade khushal the. muhaavaron ka jitna sundar prayog unhonne kiya hai vaisa bahut kam lekhakon ne kiya hai. kaheen kaheen to unhonne muhaavaron ki jhadi-si laga di hai.

shaili

mishr ji ki shaili mein varnanaatmak, vichaaraatmak tatha haasya vinod shailiyon ka safal prayog kiya gaya hai. inki shaili ko do pramukh prakaaron mein baaainta ja sakta hai.

  • vichaaraatmak shaili- saahityik aur vichaaraatmak nibandhon mein mishr ji ne is shaili ko apnaaya hai. kaheen-kaheen is shaili mein haasya aur vyangya ka put milta hai.

is shaili ki bhaasha sanyat aur gambhir hai. 'manoyog' sheershak nibandh ka ek ansh dekhiye- isi se logon ne kaha hai ki man shareer roopi nagar ka raaja hai. aur svabhaav usaka chanchal hai. yadi svachh rahe to bahudha kutsit hi maarg mein dhaavamaan rahata hai.

  • vyangyaatmak shaili - is shaili mein mishr ji ne apne haasya aur vyangya poorn nibandh likhe hain. yeh shaili mishr ji ki pratinidhi shaili hai. jo sarvatha unke anukool hai. ve haasya aur vinod priya vyakti the. at: pratyek vishay ka pratipaadan haasya aur vinod poorn dhang se karte the. haasya aur vinod ke saath-saath is shaili mein vyangya ke darshan hote hain. vishay ke anusaar vyangya kaheen-kaheen bada teekha aur maarmik ho gaya hai. is shaili mein bhaasha saral, saras aur pravaahamayi hai. usamein urdoo, faarasi, angreji aur graameen shabdon ka prayog hua hai. lokoktiyaaain aur muhaavaron ke kaaran yeh shaili adhik prabhaavapoorn ho gayi hai. ek udaaharan dekhiye-

do ek vaar dhokha kha ke dhokhebaajon ki hikmat seekh lo aur kuchh apni or se jhapaki-fundani jod kar usi ki jooti usi ka sar kar dikhaao to bade bhaari anubhav shaali varachan 'guru' gud hi raha aur chela shakkar ho gaya. 'ka jeevit udaaharan kahalaaoge.'

samaalochana

mishr ji bhaarateindu mandal ke pramukh lekhakon mein se the. unhonne hindi saahitya ki vividh roopon mein seva ki. ve kavi hone ke vyatirikt uchchakoti ke maulik nibandh lekhak aur naatakakaar the. hindi gadya ke vikaas mein mishr ji ka bada yogadaan raha hai. aachaarya shukl ji ne pan॰ baalakrushn bhatt ke saath mishr ji ko bhi mahatva dete hue apne hindi-saahitya ke itihaas mein likha hai- 'pan. prataap Narayan mishr aur pan॰ baalakrushn bhatt ne hindi gadya saahitya mein vahi kaam kiya jo angreji gadya saahitya mein edeesan aur steel ne kiya

baahari kadiyaaain