prakaashan

prakaashan nirmaan ki vah prakriya hai jiske dbaara saahitya ya soochana ko janta ke samaksh prastut kiya jaata hai. anek baar lekhak swayam hi pustak ka prakaashak bhi hota hai.

prakaashan ka shaabdik arth hai 'prakaash mein laana'. yeh sanskrut ki "prakash" dhaatu se bana hai, jiska arth hai falaana, viksit karna. usi se bana 'prakaashan', jiska shaabdik arth hua failaane ya viksit karne ki kriya. aadhunik sandarbh mein iski paribhaasha yon ki ja sakti hai : likhit vishay ka chunaav, mudran aur vitran. prakaashan ka kaarya aaj ke yug mein mudran aur kaagaj par poornat: nirbhar hai, yadyapi yeh donon hi cheejon se puraana hai.

anukram

itihaas

lakdi ke blaakon se chhapaai karne ka avishkaar naveen shataabdi ke poorvaardhan mein cheen mein hua tha. type se chhapaai ka aarambh bhi vaheen shataabdi ke madhya mein hua tha. lekin ise adhik mahatva naheen diya gaya. yahi socha gaya ki paandulipiyon ki nakal karte samay achhe kaatibon se jo galatiyaaain ho jaati hain, ve mudran mein naheen hongi. Europe mein, type se chhapaai ke kaam ka aarambh 15veen shataabdi ke madhya mein aarambh hua. kintu cheen ki bhaaainti vahaaain bhi mudran ka prayog keval dhaarmik granthon aur shaasakeeya kaagajon ko shuddh chhaapane mein kiya gaya. Asia ya Europe, kaheen bhi soch tak naheen gaya ki mudran ki sahaayata se raajaneetik, bauddhik ya dhaarmik saahitya ka vistrut prasaar kiya ja sakta hai. poorv aur pashchim donon mein sadiyon tak dhaarmik sansthaaeain, sarkaar, vishvavidyaalaya tatha anya shaktishaalini sansthaaeain apne hi vichaaron aur soochanaaon ke prasaar mein mudran ka upayog karti raheen aur unhonne gyaan ke prasaar mein uske upayog ka nirantar virodh kiya. baad mein, aakhirkaar aatmik evam bauddhik vikaas sambandhi athva dhaarmik evam vaigyaanik saahitya ke prakaashan mein mudran ka shat pratishat sahayog milne hi laga.

sabse pehli pustakein

mudran ke aavishkaar se pehle prakaashan ka kaarya kaatib ya prashikshit gulaam kiya karte the. ve charmapatr par kisi paandulipi ki anek pratilipiyaaain likhte rahate the. taalemi vansh ke shaasanakaal mein misr mein, tatha yoonaan aur ganataantrik rom ke pramukh nagaron mein charmapatr taiyaar karanevaali anek udyogashaalaaeain khul gayi theen aur charmapatr par praacheen saahitya, dharm aur kaanoon sambandhi shreshth krutiyon ki pratilipiyaaain taiyaar ki jaati theen. romi saamraajya mein tatha pashchimi deshon ke raaja, Rajkumar, paarlimeint, paadari aadi aksar prakaashan par apna aadhiptya sthaapit kar lete the ya karne ki koshish karte the aur lambe samay ke liye prakaashanakaarya band ho jaata tha. fir bhi ye puraane prayaas aaj ki prakaashan sansthaaon ke hi aadi roop the. unka kaam tha bade paimaane par chhaapane ke liye paandulipiyon ka chunaav karna, unke liye lekhakon ko pustakon ki bikri se pehle agrim paarishramik dena, alag alag paandulipiyon ke sanskaran ka aakaar prakaar tatha moolya nirdhaarit karna aur baajaar taiyaar karna jahaaain, anek prayatn karke pustakon ko laabh sahit becha ja sake. ve atyaadhunik artho mein bhi prakaashak hi the, yadyapi unke utpaadan "pustakein" naheen theen.

aaj pustakon ka parichit roop hai kuchh chhape hue prushth jo ek or sile hote hain. yeh roop kaise prachalit hua, iska bhi ek puraana aur lamba itihaas hai. chauthi shataabdi tak kam se kam uttar romi saamraajya ke jooriyon ko jild se baindhi pustakon ka poora gyaan tha. fir bhi pustakon ka saarvajanik prachalan to iske do teen shataabdiyon baad Ireland mein hua. yahaaain bauddhik evam dhaarmik vichaaradhaara badhi aur iska utkarsh hua "book aaf kels" ke roop mein, jo ek vidvaan ke anusaar "sansaar ki sundaratam pustak" hai.

sabse pehle jildabaindhi kitaabon ko "kodeks" kaha jaata tha. madhya yug mein kodeks hi pustakein maani jaane lageen aur vibhinn isaai maton ke mathon dvaara, jo prakaashan ka kaarya karte the, dharmashaastr par pustakein prakaashit ki jaane lageen. kaanoon, oshadhivijnyaaan, kaavyashaastr tatha anya vishyon ki pustakon ka prakaashan udeeyamaan vishvavidyaalayon dvaara anya vishyon ki pustakon ka prakaashan udeeyamaan vishvavidyaalayon dvaara kiya jaane laga, jinhonne jaldi hi girjon aur prashaasan se prakaashanakaarya chheen liya. jin jin nagaron mein vishvavidyaalaya the, vahaaain puraani kitaabon ki dookaanein khoob fail gain, jaisi aaj ke yug mein bhi hain. antar keval itna tha ki vishvavidyaalayon ne prakaashan ka kaam to apne haath mein liya, kintu faayda uthaana unka uddeshya na tha aur unka prayatn sada yahi rahata tha ki pustakon ki keemat kam se kam rakhi jaaya jisse vidyaarthiyon ko suvidha rahe. yahi kaaran tha ki ve puraani kitaabon ki bikri par jor dete the. isse vishvavidyaalayon ko har saal nae sanskaran bhi naheen prakaashit karne padte the.

charmapatr ke samaan "kodeks" bhi haath se likhe jaate the. mathon ke "lekhan kakshon" mein apne kaam ke prati utsarg ki bhaavana rakhanevaale kaatib din bhar praacheen granthon ke prushth ke prushth nakal kiya karte the. unheen ke kaaran praacheen granthon tatha baaibil ki raksha ho saki. (aag lagan ke bhaya se mathon mein raat ko kaam naheen hota tha.) "kaatib apna kaam khatm kar chukta tha to ek doosra aadmi use mool se milaakar sanshodhit karta tha", dagalas si. mekamarti ne likha hai, "fir un panno ko laal syaahi se likhnevo kaatib ke paas bhej diya jaata tha jo mukhaprushth, sheershak, adhyaaya sankhya tatha doosare naam, tippaniyaaain aadi jod deta tha. yadi pustak mein chitr jaane ko hote the to use chitrakaar ke paas bhej diya jaata tha. uske kaam ki samaapti ke baad pustak jild baindhane ke liye taiyaar ho jaati thi."

aadhunik Europe mein mudran aur prakaashan

gatenabarg press, 15 veen sadi

prakaashan ka praarambh mudranakala ke praarambh se pehle hi ho chuka tha, kintu 15veen shataabdi mein yoaan gatenabarg dvaara varnamaala ke aksharon ke taaipon ke aavishkaar ke baad prakaashan ki badi unnati hui. gatenabarg aksharon ke taaipon ka safal prayog na kar saka. fir bhi uske yugaantarakaari aavishkaar ke baad usaka nagar meinj (Germany) Europe mahaadveep ka nisandigdh prakaashan kendra ban gaya. iske baad pashchimi sansaar mudran aur prakaashan ke vikaas mein Germany hi aguaa raha. san 1500 se pehle Europe mein 30000 pusatakein chhap chuki theen. inmein se do tihaai se adhik ka prakaashan Germany ke vibhinn vidyaakeindron laaipapajig, kolon, baisel, nyooremabarg, augsabarg aur skaasabarg mein hua tha. isse bhi adhik mahatvapoorn baat yeh thi ki inheen nagaron mein prashikshit jarmanon ne hi Italy mein aadhunik mudran aur prakaashan ki shuruaat san 1460 ke aaspaas ki, jahaaain in donon kalaaon ne punarutthaanakaaleen sanskruti aur vyaapaar ke vikaas mein bada yog diya. isi prakaar, Italy mein prashikshit jarman hi 16veen sadi ke ant mein mudran prakaashan udyog ko France mein le gaye.

isi samay pustakon ke baajaar ka bhi vikaas hua. san 1501 mein aalje mainoojio ne chhote aakaar ki pustakon ka shreeganesh kiya. in pustakon ne kramash: vishaalaakar, keemati "kodeks" ka sthaan le liya, theek usi tarah jaise kodeks ne lapet jaanevaale "vaulyoomain" ka sthaan le liya tha. baad ke darshakon mein taaipon par bada dhyaan diya gaya, visheshakar France mein aur aaj bhi prayoge kiye jaanevaale anek taaipon ke naam unke aavishkaaron par hain. us yug ke mashahoor taaipagraafar klaud gairaamand aur raarbat grainjan the. inka ek pramukh khareedadaar kristofe plaantin bada prasiddh mudrak tha jo baad mein prakaashak ban gaya. 1514 mein France mein janma plaantin 1548 mein dhaarmik dand se bachane ke liye peris se bhaagakar Belgium ke aintavarp nagar mein chala gaya. baad mein church aur vishvavidyaalaya donon ne use maaf kar diya aur vah speni saamraajya ke liye dhaarmik pustakon ko prakaashit karanevaala ekamaatr prakaashak ho gaya. fir to vah tatkaaleen pramukh prakaashan kendra laaiden vishvavidyaalaya ka mudrak niyukt ho gaya.

shuroo shuroo mein kuchh mudrak church aur raajaaon ke prati vafaadaar the lekin 15veen sadi ke ant aur 16veen sadi ke praarambh mein prakaashan vyavasaaya ka upayog protesteint aur redikl sanpradaayon ko punargathit karne mein kiya jaane laga. parimaanat: is prakaar nae prakaashan vyavasaaya ka virodh, visheshakar Germany mein, kiya jaane laga aur prakaashakon tatha mudrakon ne apni suraksha ke liye alag alag Corporation aur gild (sangathan) bana liye. anek deshon mein yeh 19veen sadi tak bane rahe. nyooremabarg aur ogsabarg mein to 16veen sadi mein mudran-prakaashan-vyavasaayon ko band hi karva diya gaya ya log chhipe chhipe hi prakaashan karne lage. jahaaain aisa naheen hua vahaaain doosare tareekon se niyantran rakha jaane laga. san 1474 mein France mein nae svatantr mudrakon aur unki mudrit pustakon ko isi adhiniyam ke antargat rakha jaane laga, jiske antargat ab tak puraani pustakon ke prakaashan par ekaadhikaar peris vishvavidyaalaya ne kar rakha tha. yeh mudrakon ke liye ek naya sammaan tha, fir bhi sarkaari kaaryo mein ruchi na rakhanevaale prakaashakon ke liye to ek bhaar hi tha.

sarkaari adhiniymon aur sangh ke pratibandhon ne milkar shataabdiyon tak mudran-prakaashan-vyavasaaya ki pragati ko roke rakha. ek parinaam to iska yeh hua ki anek mudrak aur prakaashak ingalaind chale gaye. anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki 1476 aur 1536 ke beech ingalaind mein lagbhag do tihaai mudrak, jildasaaj aur kaagaji videshi the. san 1534 mein steshanaron ke sangh ne ingalaind ke pustak prakaashan par apna adhikaar jama liya aur san 1710 mein mahaaraani ain ke shaasanakaal mein pehla kaapeeraait aikt paas hua. is beech prakaashakon ko bahut pareshaan kiya gaya, vah bhi keval ingalaind mein naheen balki amareeka mein bhi. isi dauraan, jab prakaashakon ko bade sangharsh ke baad mili thodi si aajaadi ko bhi khatm karne ke liye nae pratibandh lagaae jaane lage, John miltan ne 1644 mein apni "eriyopaigitika" ki rachana ki.

France mein to lagbhag poora niyantran tha, jo 1793 ke kaapeeraait kaanoon ke baad hi samaapt ho saka aur mudran-prakaashan-vyavasaaya sabhi prakaar ke niyamon se svatantr ho saka. kintu yeh svatantrata asthaayi thi jo nepoliyn ke pratham saamraajya ki sthaapana ke saath samaapt ho gayi. dubaara yeh aajaadi 1870 mein prajaatantr ki sthaapana ke baad hi mil saki. France ke pratibandhon ka Holland aur Belgium ke prakaashan vyavasaaya par bada shubh prabhaav 17veen aur 18veen sadi mein pada. moliye, bvaayalau, vaalteyar, roosi tatha anya fraanseesi lekhakon ki rachanaaeain vahaaain chhaapakar chhipe roop se France ke baajaaron mein bheji jaati raheen.

ati hamesha buri hoti hai. bade se bade kintu dheelepan se laagoo kiye gaye ninyatranon aur sarkaari ekaadhikaar ka kada saamana hua. maujooda vaataavaran mein 16veen aur 20veen shataabdiyon ke beech Europe mein shiksha aur pustakein padhne ke vyasan ka bada vikaas hua. falat: lekhan aur prakaashan ka prasaar hua. san 1710 ke angreji kaapeeraait kaanoon ne lekhakon aur prakaashakon ko ekaadhikaari mudrakon se svatantr kar diya aur unhein adhikaar diya ki ve achhi se achhi sharton par saahityik kruti ke prakaashan ki vyavastha kar sakein. isi kaanoon mein yeh vyavastha bhi ki gayi ki nishchit avadhi ke baad saahityik kruti par sampoorn janta ka adhikaar ho jaaega. yahi aadhunik prakaashan vyavasaaya ki dhuri hai. isi se lekhakon ki apni kruti par adhikaar ki raksha hoti hai aur prakaashak un adhikaaron ko praapt kar sakta hai. kaapeeraait ki nishchit avadhi mahaaraani ain ke shaasanakaal mein 14 saal thi aur lekhak use aur 14 varshon ke liye badhva sakta tha, amareeka mein yahi avadhi isi shataabdi mein 28 saal thi aur 28 agale varshon ke liye badhvaane ka adhikaar lekhak ko tha. adhikaansh deshon mein yeh avadhi lekhak ke jeevanakaal ke baad 20 se 50 varsh tak hai.

18veen sadi ke baad kaapeeraait ke vikaas ka spasht arth hai peshe ke roop mein lekhan vyavasaaya aur vyavasaaya ke roop mein prakaashan ka vikaas. kaanoon unki suraksha karke donon ko badhaava deta hai. lekin iska arth kuchh aur bhi hai. yeh janasaadhaaran ki badhti hui jnyaaanapipaasa aur adhyayanapriyta ka prateek bhi hai.

samakaaleen prakaashan ki or

saahityik krutiyon ka baajaar badhta ja raha tha. mudrak iska saamana karne mein safal na the. unhein pustakavikretaaon se dhan ki maaaing karni padti thi. dheere dheere 18veen sadi mein pustakavikreta hi prakaashak ban baithe. us samay tak janta mein, vishesh roop se ingalaind mein, pustakaprem bahut badh gaya tha. lokapriya pustakon (baaibil, teekaaon, paathya pustakon, kosh aadi) ki bikri bahut badh gayi thi. is nai maaaing ko poora karne ke liye gashti pustakaalayon ki sthaapana 1720 mein hui. nae lekhakon ke paathakon ki sankhya badhne lagi aur unhonne apne "sanrakshakon" (petranon) se alag hona shu degree kar diya. 18veen sadi k kaanstebil aur laangamains jaise pustakavikreta pustak vyavasaaya ke kendra ban gaye. kuchh hi dashakon baad, amareeka mein haarpar, skribnar, datan aur lintil brown ka aavirbhaav hua.

is tarah pustak vikretaaon ke utkarsh se samakaaleen prakaashan ka aarambh hua aur lagbhag saath saath ingalaind mein upanyaas aur upanyaasakaaron ke utkarsh se prakaashan vyavasaaya foola fala. donon hi utkarshon ka arth tha madhyavarg ka udaya, isi kaaran ingalaind aur amareeka donon jagah prakaashan ka khoob vikaas hua. Europe mahaadveep mein vikaas dheere dheere hua aur ameeri gareebi ke vishaal antar ke kaaran pustakon ki khareedadaar madhyavargeeya janta badh na saki.

pustak vikraya aur prakaashan ka sambandh ingalaind mein adhik dinon tak raha. amareeka mein nae lekhakon ka vikaas kuchh itni teji se hua ki svatantr prakaashan sansthaaon ka hi nirmaan ho gaya, jo na to vikraya ka kaam karti theen aur na mudran ka. is parivartan ke falasvaroop nae mudrak, jildasaaj aur vikreta banehru pehle donon prakaashak ke anubandh par kitaabein taiyaar karne ka kaam karte the aur teesara unhein bechne ka.

20 sadi ke teesare dashak mein ingalaind, amareeka, Germany aur France mein aur nae nae prakaashakon ka aavirbhaav hua. ve keval kathaasaahitya, jeevanasaahitya, itihaas, sansmaran, saamaanya manovijnyaaan aadi vishyon ki pustakon ka prakaashan karne lage. unhein vyaapaari prakaashak ka naam diya gaya. anek puraane or kai nae prakaashan sansthaanon mein baaibil, dhaarmik pustakon, school aur kaalej ki paathya pustakon, daaktari pustakon ke vibhaag bane rahe, jinpar prakaashan udyog ki aadhaarashila rakhi hui hai. lekin sabse naya prachalan tha vyaapaari prakaashak banane ka. visheshajnyaata ka yug aarambh ho gaya, vishesh roop se amareeka mein, jahaaain udyog puraani paranparaaon se itni buri tarah aachhaadit na tha aur nae prayogon ke liye gujaaish thi.

visheshajnyaata ka yug

prakaashan vyavasaaya badhta gaya. prakaashit pustakon ki sankhya badhti gayi. ek udaaharan lein. ingalaind mein 18veen sadi ke poorvaardh mein ek varsh mein prakaashit pustakon ki sankhya 93 thi. 20veen sadi ke pehle 25 saalon mein prati varsh ausat 600 kitaabein prakaashit hui. isi vruddhi se maaloom hota hai ki visheshajnyaata ka yug kyon aaya.

vyaapaari prakaashakon mein hi sajild pustakon ke punarmudrakon, kaagaji aavaranavaali pustakon ke punarmudrakon, keval verstan ya jaasoosi kahaaniyon ke ya vaigyaanik kathaasaahitya ke prakaashakon tatha anya baajaaron ke liye anya vishesh prakaar ki pustakein chhaapanevaale prakaashakon ka aavirbhaav hua. pustak vikrataaon ko sahaayata dene ke liye pustak club bane. daak se pustakon ko bechanevaali khaas sansthaaeain hain. ye nae saadhan kitne mahatvapoorn the, yeh nimn aaainkadon se jaana ja sakta hai. sajild pustakon ke prakaashak jin pustakon ko 3000 se 10000 tak chhaapate the, unheen ke punarmudran saste sanskaranon mein 100000 se 200000 tak hote hain. spasht hai ki madhyavarg hi 20veen sadi ke madhya tak pustakon ka sabse bada khareedadaar ho gaya tha. ingalaind mein penguin aur pailikn ne sanpaadan ka star ooaincha rakha aur amareeka mein sasti pustakon ke prakaashakon ne maulik pustakein bhi chhaapana shu degree kiya.

prakaashan ki visheshajnyaata ke kaaran prakaashan ke liye paandulipiyon ki vyavastha karne ke liye do nae vyavasaayon ka janm hua. ek tha paandulipi skaaut. vah prakaashak se anubandh karke kaam karta hai aur use futakar bhaav par 1 ya 2 pratishat commission milta hai. doosra hai litreri agent. vah lekhakon ke saath kaam karta hai aur lekhak se prakaashak ke sambandh ki poori jimmedaari usapar hoti hai. use paarishramik ke roop mein lekhak ki raayalti ka 10 prati shat milta hai. is agency ki pravrutti ka agala prabhaav yeh pada ki prakaashak ab keval prabandhak bhar rah gaya aur usane sanpaadan ka kaam bhi doosaron ko saunp diya. isse lekhakon, visheshat: kathaakaaron, ka baajaar bhi badha. 20veen sadi mein patrapatrikaaon mein dhaaraavaahik prakaashan ke adhikaaron ke saath film ke adhikaar, naatyaantar ke adhikaar, radio, television adhikaar, saar sankshep adhikaar tatha anya anek adhikaar bhi shaamil ho gaye. in adhikaaron ki bikri se paisa to lekhak ko khoob mil sakta hai, lekin vah swayam is vyaapaar ko pakka karne ke ayogya hai.

vikraya ke liye bhi 20veen sadi mein nai agencyon ne janm liya. ek theen vigyaapan ejeinsiyaaain. kuchh to apne dvaara vijnyaaapit doosari cheejon ke saath saath kitaabon ko bhi shaamil kar leteen. kuchh keval pustakon ka vigyaapan karti theen. prakaashak vigyaapan mein laagat ka 8-10 prati shat tak kharch karne ke liye bhi badi hoshiyaari or anubhav ki jaroor thi, jo prakaashakon ke paas naheen thi. yahi kaaran tha pustak vyavasaaya mein vigyaapan agency vyavasaaya ke aagaman ka.

yeh to hai ki jyaadaatar pustakein vyaapaarik pustakein hi hoti hain, fir bhi anya prakaar ki pustakon ka prakaashan bhi jaari hai. masalan, vishvavidyaalayon dvaara prakaashit pustakein, vigyaan ki pustakein aadi.

mudran ki kala mein parishkaar ka prabhaav bhi prakaashan vyavasaaya par pada. laainotaaip, silindrikl press, rautari press tatha unke saath ki masheenon ka prabhaav padna hi chaahiye tha. inmein se adhikaansh ka aavirbhaav 20vi sadi ke praarambh mein hi hua tha. unamein lagaataar vikaas se pustakon ki maaaing ko poora karne mein aasaani hi hui.

20veen sadi mein cinema, radio, television aur motarakaar, sachitr patra, patrikaaeain tatha manoranjan aur jnyaaanavardhan ke anya saadhan janta ke mastishk ko adhik ghere hue hain. sabne pustakon se loha liya hai lekin pustak prakaashan ka avirl vikaas ruk naheen saka hai.