prakaash-sanshleshan

hari pattiyaaain, prakaash sanshleshan ke liye pradhaan ang hain.

sajeev koshikaaon ke dvaara prakaasheeya urja ko raasaayanik oorja mein parivrtit karne ki kriya ko prakaash sanshleshan (fotosinthesis) kehte hai. prakaash sanshleshan vah kriya hai jismein paudhe apne hare rang vaale ango jaise patti, dvaara soorya ke prakaash ki upasthiti mein vaayu se kaarbanadaaioksaaid tatha bhoomi se jal lekar jatil kaarbanik khaadya padaarthon jaise kaarbohaaidrets ka nirmaan karte hain tatha aakseejan gas (O2) baahar nikaalate hain. prakaash sanshleshan ki prakriya mein soorya ke prakaash ki upasthiti mein paudhon ki hari pattiyon ki konshikaaon ke andar kaarban daaiaaksaaid aur paani ke sanyog se pehle saadhaaran kaarbohaaidret aur baad mein jatil kaabohaaidret ka nirmaan hota hai. is prakriya mein aakseejan evam oorja se bharpoor kaarbohaaidret (sookroj, glookoj, staarch (mand) aadi) ka nirmaan hota hai tatha aakseejan gas baahar niklati hai. jal, kaarbanadaaioksaaid, soorya ka prakaash tatha klorofil (haritlavak) ko prakaash sanshleshan ka avayav kehte hain. ismein se jal tatha kaarbanadaaioksaaid ko prakaash sanshleshan ka kachcha maal kaha jaata hai. prakaash sanshleshan ki prakriya sabse mahatvapoorn jaivaraasaayanik abhikriyaaon mein se ek hai.[1] seedhe ya paroksh roop se duniya ke sabhi sajeev is par aashrit hain. prakaash sanshveshan karne vaale sajeevon ko svaposhi kehte hain.[2]

anukram

raasaayanik sameekaran

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + prakaash + klorofil → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O + klorofil[3]

kaarban daaiaaksaaid + paani + prakaash + klorofilglookoj + okseejan + paani + klorofil
prakaash yahaaain abhikriya mein bhaag naheen leta hai balki is abhikriya ke liye prakaash ki upasthiti aavashyak hai. is raasaayanik kriya mein kaarbanadaaioksaaid ke 6 anuon aur jal ke 12 anuon ke beech raasaayanik kriya hoti hai jiske falasvaroop glookoj ke ek anu, jal ke 6 anu tatha okaseejan ke 6 anu utpann hote hain. is kriya mein mukhya utpaad glookoj hota hai tatha okseejan aur jal up padaarth ke roop mein mukt hote hain. is pratikriya mein utpann jal koshika dvaara avashoshit ho jaata hai aur pun: jaiv-raasaayanik pratikriyaaon mein lag jaata hai. mukt okseejan vaataavaran mein chali jaati hai. is mukt okseejan ka srot jal ke anu hai kaarbanadaaioksaaid ke anu naheen. abhikriya mein soorya ki vikirn oorja ka roopaantaran raasaayanik oorja mein hota hai. jo glookoj ke anuon mein sanchit ho jaati hai. prakaash-sanshleshan mein paudhon dvaara prati varsh lagbhag 100 teraavaat ki saurya oorja ko raasaayanik oorja ke roop mein bhojya padaarth ke anuon mein baaaindh diya jaata hai.[4] is oorja ka parimaan poori maanav sabhyata ke vaarshik oorja kharch se bhi 7 guna adhik hai.[5] yeh oorja yahaaain sthitij oorja ke roop mein sanchit rahati hai. at: prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya ko oorja bandhan ki kriya bhi kehte hain. is prakaar prakaash-sanshleshan karne vaale sajeev lagbhag 10,00,00,00,000 tan kaarban ko prati varsh jaiv-padaarthon mein badal dete hain.[6]

aitihaasik prushthabhoomi

स्टीफन हेलेस

bahut praacheen kaal se yeh gyaat hai ki paudhe apna poshan jadon dvaara praapt karte hain. 1772 mein Stefan heles ne bataaya ki paudhon ki pattiyaaain vaayu se bhojan grahan karti hain tatha is kriya mein prakaash ki kuchh mahatvapoorn kriya hai. preestale ne 1772 mein pehle bataaya ki is kriya ke dauraan utpann vaayu mein mombatti jalaai jaaye to yeh jalati rahati hai. mombatti jalne ke pashchaat utpann vaayu mein yadi ab ek jeevit chooha rakha jaaye to vah mar jaata hai. usane 1775 mein pun: bataaya ki paudhon dvaara din ke samay mein nikli gas aakseejan hoti hai. iske pashchaat engine house ne 1779 mein bataaya ki hare paudhe soorya ke prakaash mein co2 grahan karte hain tatha aakseejan nikaalate hain. di. saasoor ne 1804 mein bataaya paudhe din aur raat shvasan me to aaksijn hi lete hai par prakaash sanshleshan ke dauran oksijn mukt karte hai. at: oksijn poore din kaam me aati hai par kaarban daai oksaaid se oksijn keval prakaash sanshleshan me hi banti hai. saas ne 1887 mein bataaya ki hare paudhon ke co2 grahan karne tatha o2 nikaalne se paudhon mein staarch ka nirmaan hota hai.

mahatva

hare paudhon mein hone waali prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya paudhon evam anya jeevit praaniyon ke liye ek bahut hi mahatvapoorn kriya hai. is kriya mein paudhe soorya ke prakaasheeya urja ko raasaayanik urja mein parivrtit kar dete hain tatha CO2 paani jaise saadhaaran padaarthon se jatil kaarban yaugik kaarbohaaidrets ban jaate hain. in kaarbohaaidrets dvaara hi manushya evam jeevit praaniyon ko bhojan praapt hota hai. is prakaar paudhe prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya dvaara sampoorn praani jagat ke liye bhojan-vyavastha karte hain. kaarbohaaidrets proteen evam vitaamin aadi ko praapt karne ke liye vibhinn fasalein ugaai jaati hain tatha in sab padaarthon ka nirmaan prakaash sanshleshan dvaara hi hota hai. rabad, plastic, tel, selyooloj evam kai aushadhiyaaain bhi paudhon mein prakaash sanshleshan kriya mein utpann hoti hai. hare vruksh prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya mein kaarban daaioksaaid ko lete hain aur okseejan ko nikaalate hain, is prakaar vaataavaran ko shuddh karte hain. okseejan sabhi jantuon ko saaains lene ke liye ati aavashyak hai. paryaavaran ke sanrakshan ke liye bhi is kriya ka bahut mahatva hai.[7][8] matsya-paalan ke liye bhi prakaash sanshleshan ka bahut mahatva hai. jab prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya dheemi ho jaati hai to jal mein kaarban daai oksaaid ki maatra badh jaati hai. iska 5 see0see0 pratileetar se adhik hona matsya paalan hetu haanikaarak hai.[9] prakaash sanshleshan jaiv indhan banaane mein bhi sahaayak hota hai. iske dvaara paudhe saur oorja dvaara jaiv indhan ka utpaadan bhi karte hain. yeh jaiv indhan vibhinn prakriya se gujrate hue vividh oorja sroton ka utpaadan karta hai. udaaharan ke liye pashuon ko chaara, jiske badle hamein gobar praapt hota hai, krushi avashesh ke dvaara khaana pakaana aadi.[10] manushya ke atirikt anya jeev jantuon mein bhi prakaash-sanshleshan ka bahut mahatva hai. maanav apni tvacha mein prakaash ke dvaara vitaamin di ka sanshleshan karte hain. vitaamin di ek vasa mein ghulanasheel rasaayan hai, iske sanshleshan mein paraabaingani kirnon ka prayog hota hai. kuchh samudri ghonghe apne aahaar ke maadhyam se shaivaal aadi paudhon ko grahan karte hain tatha inmein maujood kloroplaast ka prayog prakaash-sanshleshan ke liye karte hain.[11] prakaash-sanshleshan evam shvasan ki kriyaaen ek doosare ki poorak evam vipreet hoti hain. prakaash-sanshleshan mein kaarbanadaaioksaaid aur jal ke beech raasaayanik kriya ke falasvaroop glookoj ka nirmaan hota hai tatha okseejan mukt hoti hai. shvasan mein iske vipreet glookoj ke okseekaran ke falasvaroop jal tatha kaarbanadaaioksaaid banti hain. prakaash-sanshleshan ek rachanaatmak kriya hai iske falasvaroop sajeev ke shushk bhaar mein vruddhi hoti hai. shvasan ek naasaatmak kriya hai, is kriya ke falasvaroop sajeev ke shushk bhaar mein kami aati hai. prakaash-sanshleshan mein saurya oorja ke prayog se bhojan banta hai, vikirn oorja ka roopaantaran raasaayanik oorja mein hota hai. jabki shvasan mein bhojan ke okseekaran se oorja mukt hoti hai, bhojan mein sanchit raasaayanik oorja ka prayog sajeev apne vibhinn kaaryon mein karta hai. is prakaar ye donon kriyaae apne kachche maal ke liye ek doosare ke ant padaarthon par nirbhar rahate hue ek doosare ki poorak hoti hain.

kriya vidhi : vibhinn mat

prakaash sanshleshan, jal ko todakar O2 nikaalata hai evam CO2 ko sharkara (sugar) ke roop mein badal deta hai.

prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya keval hare paudhon se hoti hai aur sameekaran atyant saadhaaran hai. fir bhi yeh ek vivaadagrast prashn hai ki kis prakaar CO2 evam paani jaise saral padaarth, kaarbohaaidrets jaise jatil padaarthon ka nirmaan karte hain. samay-samay par vibhinn paadap kaaryiki visheshagyon ne is kriya ko samajhne ke liye vibhinn mat prakat kiye hain. inmein baiyar, vilsatetar tatha staal tatha aaranon ke mat pramukh hain. baiyar, vilsatetar tatha staal ke maton ka keval aitihaasik mahatva hai. inko baad ke pareekshanon mein sahi naheen paaya gaya. 1967 mein aaranon ne bataaya ki kloroplaast mein paayi jaane waali proteen fairodoksin prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya mein mukhya kaarya karti hai. aadhunik yug mein sabhi vaigyaaniko dvaara yeh maanya hai ki prakaash sanshleshan mein svatantr aakseejan paani se aati hai. aadhunik samay mein anek prayogon ke aadhaar par yeh siddh ho chuka hai ki prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya nimn do charanon mein sampann hoti hai. pehle charan mein prakaash prakriya athva hil prakriya athva fotokemikl prakriya. aur doosare charan mein andheri prakriya athva blekamain prakriya ya prakaashaheen prakriya. prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya mein donon prakriyaayein ek doosare ke pashchaat hoti hai. prakaash prakriya andheri prakriya ki upeksha adhik teji se hoti hai.

prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya paudhe ke sabhi kloroplaast yukt koshikaaon mein hoti hai. arthaat paudhe ke samast hare bhaagon mein hoti hai. yeh kriya visheshat: pattiyon ke meesofil ootak mein hoti hai kyonki pattiyon ke meesofil utak ki perenkaaima koshikaaon mein anya koshikaaon ki upeksha kloroplaast ki maatra adhik hoti hai.

prakaash prakriya, hil prakriya athva fotokemikl prakriya

klopoplaast mein hone waali prakaash abhikriya

prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya mein jo prakriya prakaash ki upasthiti mein hoti hai use prakaash kriya ke antargat adhyayan kiya jaata hai. is kriya ko hil aadi anya vaigyaaniko dvaara adhyayan kiya gaya. prakaash prakriyaaon ke samay andheri prakriyaayein seemaabaddh kaarak ka kaarya karti hain. prakaash prakriyaayein do charanon mein hoti hain, fotolaaisis evam haaidrojan ka sthaapan. fotolaaisis ki prakriya mein prakaash klorofil ke anu dvaara foton ke roop mein avashoshit ki jaati hai. jab klorofil ka anu ek kvaantam prakaash shoshit kar leta hai uske pashchaat klorofil ka doosra anu tab tak prakaash shoshit naheen karta hai jab tak ki pehli oorja prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya mein prayog naheen ho jaati hai. klorofil dvaara is prakaar shoshit prakaash ka foton uchch oorja star par ek ilektraan nikaalati hai tatha yeh shakti faasfet ke teesare baaaind par sthit hokar uchch oorja vaale edinosaain traaifaasfet ke roop mein prakat hote hain. is prakaar kloropil prakaash ki upasthiti mein ATP utpann karte hain tatha is prakriya ko fosforaaileshan kehte hain. is prakaar soorya ke prakaash ki oorja ATP arthaat raasaayanik oorja mein parivrtit ho jaata hai. is prakaar klorofil anu mein nirmit ATP klorofil anu se pruthak hokar CO2 ko sharkara mein anaakseekrut hone aadi anek raasaayanik kriyaaon mein sahaayak hai. klorofil is ATP ko svatantr karne par fir akriya ho jaata hai. vaan neel Frank, vishnik ke anusaar paani jab is kriyaasheel klorofil ke sampark mein aate hain tab paani anaakseekrut H tatha tej aakseekaarak OH mein vichhedit ho jaata hai.

klorofil + prakaash → sakriya klorofil
H2O + sakriya klorofil → H+ + OH-
is fotolaaisis prakriya mein O2 paani se svatantr ho jaati hai tatha haaidrojan bhi haaidrojan graahak par chali jaati hai.
2H2O + 2A → 2AH2 + O2
is prakaar paudhon ki prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriyaayon se nikli samast aakseejan jal se praapt hoti hain. hil, rooben ne iska samarthan kiya tatha O18 ka prayog karke isko siddh kiya. paani se aakseejan nikalne ko kloreella naamak shaivaal mein CO2 ki anupasthiti mein dikhaaya gaya. iska arth hua ki CO2 ki anupasthiti mein aakseejan ka utpaadan ho sakta hai, parantu ismein haaidrojan graahak hona chaahiye. aisa dekha gaya hai ki paudhon mein enaedeepi (NADP) do NADPH2 banaata hai.
2H2O+2NADP=2NADPH2+O2

fosforeeleshan

aaranan ke mataanusaar prakaash kriya mukhya roop se (edinosaain traai fosfet) nirmaan se sambandhit hai. NADPH2/NADP ke avakaran se banta hai. NADP ko TPN bhi kehte hain. ATP ek prakaash oorja anu hai jo ADP mein ek faasfet group ke judnein se banta hai tatha is kriya ko fosforeeleshan kehte hain. ADP ke fosforeeleshan mein prakaash oorja ki aavashyakta hoti hai at: ise photo-fosforeeleshan bhi kehte hain. yeh bhi ek jatil kriya hai tatha aaranan ke anusaar prakaash prakriya do prakramon mein hoti hai. ayugm photo-fosforeeleshan tatha yugm photo-fosforeeleshan
ayugm photo-fosforeeleshan mein paani ke apaghatan ke kaaran ilektron nirntar praapt hote hai tatha photo-fosforeeleshan ki kriya par klorofil mein prakaash oorja se ATP ka nirmaan hota rahata hai. is prakaar klorofil 'a' ke sakriya hone par feredoksin ilektraan graahi ka kaarya karti hai jise enaedeepi naamak coenzyme ko deta hai jismein enaedi paani dvaara mukt ki gayi haaidrojan ko pakad kar NADPH2 mein parivrtit ho jaata hai.

24H2O → 24OH + 24H
12NADP + 24H → 12NADPH2
24OH → 12H2O + 6O2

is prakaar paani mein vightan mein hue mukt ilektraun klorofil 'b' ko uttejit kar uchch oorja star par pahooainch jaate hain tatha ye ilektraun fir kas prakaar klorofil 'a' ko praapt hote hain, poorn roop se gyaat naheen hai lekin aisa vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki plaastokavinon naamak ilektron graahi in ilektronon ko pakad leta hai jo saaitokrom dvaara pun: klorofil 'a' mein pahuainch jaate hain. ismein saath-saath ATP ka bhi nirmaan hota hai.
yugm photo-fosforeeleshan ki kriya mein soorya ke prakaash se klorofil 'a' sakriya hokar ilektraun ko baahar ki or fainkata hai jo klorofil mein upasthit faireedaakseen dvaara pakad liye jaate hain. yahi ilektron mukt hokar plaastokveenon naamak ilektron graahi dvaara pakad liya jaata hai. is kriya ke madhya mein ADP, ATP mein parivrtit ho jaata hai tatha ilektron pun: mukt hokar saaitokrom vikr se hokar klorofil 'a' mein vaapis pahuainch jaata hai. is kriya mein bhi ADP, ATP mein parivrtit ho jaata hai. is kriya mein baahari ilektron prayog naheen hota tatha klorofil se ilektron nikalkar pun: vaheen vaapis aa jaata hai. is prakaar ayugm va yugm prakriyaaon dvaara paani vightit ho jaata hai jisse okseejan gas svatantr ho jaati hai tatha haaidrojan, haaidrojan graahi enaedeepi dvaara pakad li jaati hai tatha saath hi saath oorja bhi vargeekrut ho jaati hai jiska prayog raasaayanik prakriya ya aprakaasheeya pratikriya mein hota hai.
okseejan tatha prakaash-sanshleshan

  • paudhon mein shvasan ki kriya din-raat har samay hote rahati hai. shvasan ki kriya mein paudhe anya sajeevon ki hi tarah okaseejan ka prayog karke kaarbanadaaioksaaid utpann karte hain parantu din ke samay shvasan ke saath-saath prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya bhi hoti rahati hai. paudhe din ke samay okseejan mukt karte hain kyonki prakaash-sanshleshan mein utpann okseejan gas ka parimaan shvasan mein kharch hone waali okseejan se adhik hoti hai.
  • prakaash-sanshleshan mein mukt hone waali okseejan gas prakaasheeya abhikriya mein utpann hoti hai. yeh kaarvan ke svaangeekaran mein utpann naheen hoti hai at: okseejan ka strot jal hai kaarbanadaaioksaaid naheen.

andheri prakriya, blekamain prakriya ya prakaashaheen prakriya

kelvin chakr ya andheri prakriya ko darshaata chitr

is prakriya ke liye prakaash ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai. is prakriya mein praay: kaarbanadaaioksaaid ka avakaran hota hai. is prakriya mein patti ke stometa dvaara grahan ki gayi kaarbanadaaioksaaid, paani se nikli haaidrojan (prakaash prakriya ke antargat) prakaash ki oorja (jo klorofil dvaara prakaash kriya mein praapt ki gayi hai) ke kaaran milkar ek sthaayi dravya banaata hai.

CO2 + 2AH2 → CH2O + 2A + H2O

CH2O, yeh ek kaarbohaaidrets ki ikaai anu hai. kelvin va bainasan ne radio aaisotopik takaneek ka prayog kar bataaya ki prakaash-sanshleshan ki prakriya mein pehla sthaai yaugik ek 3 kaarban wala 3-fosfogliserik aml (peejeee) banta hai. klorolla evam sindesamas naamak shaivaalon mein radio ektiv C14O2 ki upasthiti mein kuchh samay ke liye prakaash-sanshleshan karaaya gaya tatha inmein bhi pehla sthaai dravya fosfogliserik aml bana. yeh fosfogliserik aml baad mein glookoj banaata hai. is prakaar kelvin tatha uske sahakarmiyon ke kaaryon se yeh siddh ho gaya ki prakaash-sanshleshan prakriya mein CO2 glookoj mein parivrtit ho jaati hai. unhonne is prayog mein kaarban ke samasthaanik (C14) ka prayog kiya. klorofil mein raaibuloj-1,5 visfaasfet upasthit rahata hai. ab vaayumandaleeya CO2 patti ke stometa dvaara pravesh kar andar pahuainchati hai tatha turant hi (4/10000000 sekend mein) raaibuloj-1,5 visfaasfet ke saath milkar ek asthaai yaugik ka nirmaan kati hai. is prakaar bana asthaai yaugik jo 5-kaarban sugar hai sheegra hi faasfoglaaiserik esid (PGA) ke 2 anuon mein toot jaata hai. ab yahaan par NADPH2 dvaara haaidrojan mukt kiye jaane par peejeee ko peejeeeel (phosphoglyceric aldehyde) mein parivrtit kar deta hai. is kriya mein oorja ATP se praapt hoti hai. is prakaar CO2 se kaarbohaaidrets nirmaan ho jaate hain.

C3 va C4 paudhe

C4 paudhon mein kaarban ka sthireekaran

prakaash-sanshleshan ki andheri prakriya mein jin paudhon mein pehla sthaai yaugik faasfoglisrik aml banta hai unhein C3 paudha kehte hain. faasfoglisrik aml ek 3 kaarban wala yogik hai isliye in paudhon ka aisa naamakaran hai. jin paudhon mein pehla sthaai yaugik 4 kaarban wala yaugik banta hai unako C4 paudha kehte hain. saadhaaranat: 4 kaarban wala yaugik oksailoesitik aml (oee) banta hai. pehle aisa vishvaas kiya jaata tha ki prakaash-sanshleshan mein kaarbanadaaioksaaid ke sthireekaran ya yaugikeekaran ke samay keval C3 ya kelvin chakr hi hota tha arthaat pehla sthaai yaugik faasfoglisrik aml hi banta hai. lekin 1966 mein haich evam slaik ne bataaya ki kaarbanadaaioksaaid ke sthireekaran ka ek doosra path bhi hai. unhonne ganna, makka, amerenthas aadi paudhon mein adhyayan kar bataaya ki fosfoinol paairoovik aml jo ki 3 kaarban vishishth yaugik hai kaarbanadaaioksaaid se sanyukt hokar 4 kaarban vishishth yaugik oksailoesitik aml banaata hai. is kriya mein fosfoinol paairoovet kaarboksilej injaaim utprerak ka kaarya karta hai.

avayav, unke srot aur kaarya

क्लोरोफिल, प्रकाश-संश्लेषण का एक अवयव

prakaash-sanshneshan ki kriya mein chaar mukhya avayav hain, jal, kaarbanadaaioksaaid, prakaash evam parn harim. in chaaron ki upasthiti is kriya ke liye ati aavashyak hai. inmein se jal evam kaarbanadaaioksaaid ko prakaash-sanshleshan ka kachcha maal kehte hain kyonki inke rachanaatmak avayavon dvaara hi prakaash-sanshleshan ke mukhya utpaad kaarbohaaidret ki rachana hoti hai. in avayavo ko paudha apne aas-paas ke vaataavaran se grahan karta hai.

kaarbanadaaioksaaid prakaash-sanshleshan ka ek mukhya avayav tatha kachcha padaarth hai. vaayumandal mein kaarbanadaaioksaaid gas shvasan, dahan, kinvan, vightan aadi kriyaaon ke dvaara mukt hoti hai. vaayu mein iski maatra 0.03 % se 0.04 % hoti hai. sthaleeya paudhe ise seedhe hi vaayu se grahan kar lete hain. in paudhon ki pattiyon mein chhote chhidr hote hain jinhe parnarandhr kehte hain. kaarbanadaaioksaaid inheen parnarandhron se paudhe ki pattiyon mein pravesh karti hai. jalamagn paudhe jal mein ghuli kaarbanadaaioksaaid ko apni shaareerik satah se visran dvaara grahan karte hain. jal mein kaarbanadaaioksaaid ka srot jaleeya jantu hain, jinke shvasan mein yeh gas utpann hoti hai. jal ke bheetar chattaanon mein upasthit kaarbonet tatha baaikaarbonet ke vightan se bhi kaarbanadaaioksaaid utpann hoti hai jisko jaleeya paudhe prakaash-sanshleshan mein grahan karte hain. prakaash-sanshleshan mein glookoj (C6H12O6) naamak kaarbohaaidret ka nirmaan hota hai. ismein kaarban (C) tatha okseejan (C) tatv ke parmaanu kaarbanadaaioksaaid (CO2) se hi praapt hote hain.

klorofil klorofil ek proteenayukt jatil raasaayanik yaugik hai. yeh prakaash-sanshleshan ka mukhya varnak hai. klorofil A tatha klorofil bi do prakaar ka hota hai. yeh sabhi svaposhi hare paudhon ke kloroplaast mein paaya jaata hai. klorofil ke anu soorya ke prakaasheeya oorja ko avashoshit kar use raasaayanik oorja mein roopaantarit karte hain. soorya ke prakaasheeya oorja ko avashoshit karke klorofil ka anu uttejit ho jaate hain. ye sakriya anu jal ke anuon ko H+ tatha OH- aayan mein vightit kar dete hain. is prakaar klorofil ke anu prakaash-sanshleshan ki jaiv-rasaayanik kriya ko praarambh karte hain.

prakaash soorya ka prakaash prakaash-sanshleshan ke liye aavashyak hai. balb aadi ke teevr krutrim prakaash mein bhi prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya hoti hai. laal rang ke prakaash mein yeh kriya sabse adhik hoti hai. laal ke baad baigani rang ke prakaash mein yeh kriya sabse adhik hoti hai. ye donon rang klorofil dvaara sarvaadhik adhik maatra mein avashoshit kiye jaate hain. hare rang ko klorofil poori tarah paraavartit kar dete hain at: har rang ke prakaash mein prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya poori tarah rook jaati hai.

jal jal prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya ka kachcha maal hai. sthaleeya paudhe ise mitti se jad ke moolaromon dvaara avashoshit karte hain. jaleeya paudhe apne jal ke sampark vaale bhaagon ki baahya satah se jal ka avashoshan karte hain. orkid jaise upararohi paudhe apne vaayaveeya moolon dvaara vaayumandaleeya jalavaashp ko grahan karte hain. prakaash-sanshleshan ke prakaasheeya abhikriya mein jal ke prakaasheeya vightan se okseejan utpann hota hai. yahi okseejan upapadaarth ke roop mein vaataavaran mein mukt hota hai. adheri abhikriya mein banane waali glookoj ke anuon mein haaidrojan tatv ke anu jal se hi praapt hote hain. prakaash-sanshleshan ke samay jal apratyaksh roop se bhi kai kaarya karta hai. yeh jeevadravya ki kriyaasheelata tatha inajaaim ki sakriyta ko banaae rakhata hai.

prabhaavit karne vaale kaarak

prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya anek kaarakon dvaara prabhaavit hoti hai. iske kuchh kaarak baahya hote hain tatha kuchh aantarik. iske atirikt kuchh seemaabaddh kaarak bhi hote hain. baahya kaaran ve hote hai jo prakruti aur paryaavaran mein sthit hote hue prakaash sanshleshan ko prabhaavit karte hain jaise prakaash, chooainki soorya ke prakaash se paudha is kriya ke liye oorja praapt karta hai tatha andhere se yeh kriya sambhav hi naheen hai. kaarbanadaai oksaaid, kyon ki aisa dekha gaya hai ki yadi anya sabhi kaarak paudhe ko uchchatam maatra mein praapt hon tatha vaayumandal mein CO2 ki maatra dheere-dheere badhaai jaaye to prakaash-sanshleshan ki dar bhi badh jaati hai. taapamaan, kyo ki dekha gaya hai ki paudhon mein prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya ke liye ek nishchit taapakram ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hai tatha jal, paani fotokemikl prakriyaaon ke atyant aavashyak hai aur yeh is kriya ke samay anek raasaayanik parivrtanon mein sahayog karta hai. aantarik kaaran ve hote hain jo pattiyon mein sthit hote hue prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya ko prabhaavit karte hain jaise- parn harim ya klorofil jiske dvaara prakaash oorja raasaayanik oorja mein parivrtit hoti hai. praras ya protoplaajm jismein paae jaane vaale vikr prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya ko prabhaavit karte hain. bhojya padaarth ka jamaav, kyon ki prakaash-sanshleshan ki kriya mein bana bhojan yadi sthaaneeya koshikaaon mein ekatrit hota rahe to prakaash-sanshleshan ki dar dheemi ho jaati hai. pattiyon ki aantarik sanrachana kyon ki prakaash-sanshleshan ki dar pattiyon mein upasthit stometa ya randhron ki sankhya tatha unke band evam khulne ke samay par nirbhar karti hai. pattiyon ki aayu, kyon ki nai pattiyon mein puraani pattiyon ki apaksha prakaash-sanshleshan ki dar adhik hoti hai. iske atirikt prakaash sanshleshan ko in sabhi vastuon ki alag-alag gati bhi prabhaavit karti hai. jab prakaash sanshleshan ki ek kriya vibhinn kaarakon dvaara niyntrit hoti hai tab prakaash sanshleshan ki gati sabse mand kaarak dvaara niyantrit hoti hai. prakaash, kaarbanadaaioksaaid, jal, klorofil ityaadi mein se jo bhi uchit parimaan se kam parimaan mein hota hai, vah poori kriya ki gati ko niyntrit rakhata hai. yeh kaarak samay vishesh ke liye seemaabaddh kaarak kaha jaata hai.

sandarbh

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