prakaash ka veg

prakaash ka veg (Velocity of light) (ise praaya: c se niroopit kiya jaata hai) ek bhautik niytaank hai. nirvaat mein iska maan theek-theek 299,792,458 meter prati sekend hai [1][2] jise praaya: 3 lakh kimi/se. kah diya jaata hai. vastut: sabhi vidyutachumbakeeya tarangon (jaise radio tarangein, gaama kirne, prakaash aadi) ka veg itna hi hota hai. chaahe prekshak ka 'frem of rifreins' kuchh bhi ho ya prakaash-utsarjak srot kisi bhi veg se kidhr bhi gati kar raha ho, har prekshak ko prakaash ka yahi veg milega. koi bhi vastu prakaash ke veg se adhik veg par gati naheen kar sakta.

prakaash ke veg ka theek-thaak maan nikaalna ek atyant mahatvapoorn kaarya hai, kyonki yeh chunbakeeya evam vidyuteeya ghatnaaon ka ek abhinn ang hai. jitne bhi oorja ke sanchaar ke kaarya hain, unamein iska upayog hota hai.

21 October 1983, se prakaash ke veg ka maan meter sahit anya maapakon ko 'kailibret' karne ke liye kiya ja raha hai. iska maan nirvaat ke vidyut niytaank tatha chumbakeeya niytaank (paramiyebiliti) (paramitiviti) se sambandhit hai jo nimnavat hai:

anukram

itihaas

aaj ke lagbhag 300 varsh pehle yeh galat dhaarana thi ki prakaash ka veg anant hota hai, arthaat use ek sthaan se doosare sthaan pahuainchane mein kuchh bhi samay naheen lagta. sarvapratham September, san 1676 mein romar ne is galat dhaarana ko door kar yeh bataaya ki prakaash ka veg bahut adhik hone ke baavajood 'parimit' hota hai. bruhaspati ke upagrahon ke grahanon ke antar kaal mein pruthvi se sambandhit doori ke badalne se honevaale parivartan ka adhyayan kar, romar ne prakaash ko pruthvi ki kaksha ke vyaas ko paar karne mein laganevaale kaal ko nikaala. pruthvi ki kaksha ke vyaas ko maaloom kar, usane prakaashaveg ka maan maaloom kiya, jo 2,14,300 kilometer prati second ke baraabar gyaat hua. un dinon ki vigyaan ki pragati ko dekhte hue yeh atyant prashansaapoorn kaarya tha.

parichay

ekavarni tarang ke veg ko kalaaveg (Phase velocity) kehte hain. yathaarth mein shvet prakaash ekavarni na hokar kai prakaar ki tarangon se banta hai. yeh jhund jis veg se chalta hai, use samooh veg (Group velocity) kehte hain. prakaash ke veg naapane ki pratyaksh vidhiyaaain saadhaaranataya samoohaveg hi naapati hain.

prakaash ki teevrata ka uske veg par prabhaav
1904 E. mein daaut ne teevrata ko 1: 3,00,000 ke anupaat mein badhaakar bataaya ki vibhinn prakaashon ke veg mein parivartan 6 mimi. prati second se bhi kam hota hai. yeh naganya hai.
tarangadairdhya ka prabhaav
nirvaat mein bhinn bhinn tarangadairdhyo ke liye prabhaav gyaat naheen hua hai. 1925 E.. mein roja ne sarvapratham iske prati vishvaas bataaya, kintu arvaacheen prayogon ne is vishvaas ko niraadhaar bataaya hai.
saamarthyavaan chunbakeeya kshetr ka prabhaav
1940 E. mein baanvel evam faar ne 20,000 gaaus chunbakeeya kshetr mein se prakaashakirnein bhejkar unke veg mein 34 seinmi. prati seinkand ki vruddhi pai, kintu is fal ki yathaarthata ke baare mein shanka hai.
saamarthyanvaan vidyuteeya kshetr ka prabhaav
san 1952 mein Stark ne 1,000 kiva. prati seinmi. vidyutakshetr se prakaashaveg mein jara si vruddhi pai.

prakaashaveg naapane ki vidhiyaaain

prakaashaveg naapane ki vividh vidhiyon ko nimn mukhya bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai. inmein kuchh pratyaksh vidhiyaaain hain tatha kuchh apratyaksh.

apaarthiv athva jyotish vidhiyaaain
inmein (1) romar ko upagrah grahan vidhi evam (2) braidale ko aperan vidhi mukhya hain.
paarthiv vidhiyaaain
inmein (1) fijo (Fizeau) ki danturachakr vidhi, (2) fooko (Foucault) ki ghoorn darpan vidhi or (3) maaikelasan ki ashtakon darpan vidhi mukhya hain.
vaidyut prakaashik vidhiyaaain
inmein kar sel vidhi aur chaap vaidyut pramukh hain.
vaidyut vidhiyaaain
ye praaya: apratyaksh vidhiyaaain hain.

apaarthiv vidhiyaaain

romar ki upagrah grahan vidhi

yeh ab keval aitihaasik mahatva rakhati hai. jab pruthvi aur bruhaspati ki sthiti A1 aur B1 par rahati hai, tab bruhaspati ke upagrahon ke grahan ke antarakaal ko maaloom kar liya jaata hai. lagbhag chhah maheene pashchaat jab pruthv evam bruhaspati ki sthiti A2 aur B2 par kramash: hoti hai, tab fir se is antarakaal ko maaloom kar liya jaata hai. bruhaspati evam pruthvi ke beech ki doori badh jaane ke kaaran grahan ka yeh antarakaal badal jaata hai. is parivartan ko evam pruthvi ki kaksha ke vyaas ko maaloom kar prakaashaveg maaloom kiya jaata hai.

braidale ki aperan (Aberration) vidhi

pruthvi soorya ke chaaron or praaya: 18.5 meal prati second ke veg se ghoomatal hai. ataev jab ham doorabeen dvaara kisi taare ko dekhna chaahate hain tab use seedhe taare ki or na rakhakar, pruthvi ki disha mein kuchh jhukaana padta hai. yeh prekshit disha yathaarth disha naheen hoti hai. in donon dishaaon ke beech ke kon ko aperan kon kehte hain. is kon ka maan evam pruthvi ka gaman veg maaloom kiya jaata hai.

1725 E. mein braidale ne g-drekonis taare ka adhyayan kar prakaashaveg ka maan 2.99,855l 120 kimi. prati second nikaala. aapekshikta siddhaant ka janm hone mein is vidhi ka kuchh haath hai.

paarthiv vidhiyaaain

feejo ka upakaran
feejo (Fizeau) ki danturachakr vidhi

1849 mein H. L. feejo ne sarvapratham keval paarthiv upakaranon se prakaashaveg ko maaloom kiya. feejo ne prakaashaveg ka maan 3,15,300.500 kimi. prati second nikaala. isi vidhi se kaurnu (Cornu) ne 1875 E. mein prakaashaveg 3,00,400 kimi. prati seinkand evam 1906 E. mein pairaatin ne 2,99,880.84 kimi. prati second nikaala.

fooko ki ghoorn-darpan-vidhi

danturachakr ke sthaan par fooko ne veg se ghoomanevaale darpan ka upayog kiya. 1962 E. mein fooko ne prakaash veg (c) ka maan 2,98,009.500 kimi. prati second nikaala. san 1878-82 ke beech maaikelasan (Michelson) ne isi prayog dvaara veg ka maan 2,99,828 kimi. prati seinkand nikaala tatha Simon nyookam (Simon Newcomb) ne 2,99,778.

maaikelasan ki ashtakon darpan vidhi

san 1926 mein kiya gaya haya prayog apni yathaarthata ke liye prasiddh hai. 22 meal doori par pahaad ki choti par sthit, mount vilsan tatha mount seint aintoniyo ko maaikelasan ne apne prayog ke liye nirdhaarit kiya.

pauje evam peearasan ne 1935 E. mein uparyukt prayog ko nirvaat mein duharaaya. unke upakaran ek meal lambe nal mein sthit the. ashtakon ke sthaan par inhonne 32 talavaale darpan ka upayog kiya. unke prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,774.11 kimi. prati second nikla.

vaidyut-prakaashik vidhiyaaain

kar sel (Kerr cell) vidhi

ghoomanevaale danturachakr jaisa hi kar sel ek vaidyut prakaashik kapaath hai. kar sel mein ek kaaainch ke paatr mein dhaatu ki do samaantar pattiyon ke beech mein naaitrobeinjeen drav bharate hain. iske donon or do nikal (nicol) prijm is sthiti mein rakhate hain ki sel mein se kirnein nikal naheen sakti. kintu yadi pahiyon par vaidyut vibhv lagaaya jaae, to drav mein dvivrtan utpann hoga aur ab nikal mein se prakaash aa sakega. yadi uchch aavruttivaala vaidyut vibhv lagaaya jaaya, to sel prakaash ko adhiktam vibhv par jaane dega aur shoonya vibhv par rok dega. yadi pratyaavarti kshetr ki aavrutti 108 ho to 2' 108 baar prati second prakaash rukega evam ja sakega.

san 1926 E. mein kaarolus (Karolus) evam mitlastait (Mittelstaedt) ne is kar sail ka upayog prakaash ka veg nikaalne mein kiya. donon selon mein vahi pratyaavarti kshetr lagaaya gaya hai. inke prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99778.20 kimi. prati seinkand tha.

aindarasan (Anderson) ne san 1936-41 mein uparyukt prayog mein sudhaar kar ise 3,000 baar duharaaya. inke anusaar prakaashaveg ka ausat maan 2,99776l 4 kimi. prati second nikla. vargastraind ne bhi (1949-51) isi vidhi ka upayog kar prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,793.13 kimi. prati second nikaala.

chaap vaidyut dolak vidhi

yadi kvaartj ko do niklon ke beech mein rakhakar usapar pratyaavarti vidyut kshetr lagaaya jaae, to vah bhi kar sail jaisa kaarya karta hai. yeh baat kar aur graant ne san 1927 mein bataai. san 1938 mein maik kinle ne iska upayog kar prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,780.70 kimi. prati second nikaala.

luvig bargamain ne 1937 E. mein bataaya ki yadi kvaartj par uchch aavruttivaale pratyaavarti kshetr ko lagaaya jaae, to usamein bhi uchch aavruttivaale pratyaavarti kshetr ko lagaaya jaae, to usamein bhi uchch aavruttivaale dolan utpann ho jaate hain. unamein baraabar doori par nispand tal ban jaate hain unamein baraabar doori par nispand tal ban jaate hain aur kvaartj pattika greting ban jaati hai. jab kshetr uchch hota hai tab greting banti hai aur kshetr shoonya hone par vah nasht ho jaati hai.

kvaartj ke uparyukt gun ka upayog haaustan ne 1941 evam 1950 E. mein prakaashaveg nikaalne ke kaam mein kiya. haaustan ne prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,775.9 kimi. prati second nikaala.

vaidyut vidhiyaaain

(1) vidyuchchunbakeeya tatha sthirvidyut maatrakon ke anupaat dvaara : san 1873 mein Maxwell ne prakaash ko vidyuchchunbakeeth tarang bataaya aur uske veg ko vidyuchchunbakeeya evam sthir vidyut maatrakon ke anupaat ke baraabar. vidyut sambandhi vibhinn parimaanon ko donon prakaar ke maatrakon mein aasaani se naapa ja sakta hai.

(2) sthaavar tarangon ka taaron par banaana : vidyuchchunbakeeya tarangon ki sthaavar tarangein do samaantar taaron par banaai jaati hain. nispand talon ke beech ki doori gyaat kar tarangadairdhya maaloom kiya jaata hai. fir aavruttikaal maaloom kar veg maaloom ho jaata hai. is vidhi se blondet tatha lechar ne prakaashaveg ka maan nikaala.

(3) kaiviti rejonetar (Cavity Resonator) : iski madad se 1947 E. mein akaashaveg ka maan 2,99,792 kimi. prati second nikla. isen ne vidhi ko sudhaar kar is maan ko 2,99,792.5 bataaya. hansen aur bol ne 1950 E. mein bahut hi yathaarth roop se is maan ko 2,99,789.6 kimi. prati second nikaala.

(4) sookshm dairdhya vyatikrani : san 1950 mein froom ne redaar tarangon ki sahaayata se prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,792.6l 0.7 kimi. prati second nikaala aur fir san 1954 mein is maan ko badalkar 2,99,793.7 bataaya.

obau aur shauran vyavastha ka upayog doori naapane ke liye kiya gaya. 1947 E. mein jon ne tatha 1949 aur 1954 E. mein alaaksan ne is vidhi dvaara prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,794.2 kimi. prati second nikaala.

(5) ghoornan spectrum : iski sahaayata se aarvaacheen kaal mein, arthaat san 1955 mein, plaayar, blain va konar ne milkar prakaashaveg ka maan 2,99,789.8 kimi. prati seinkand nikaala.

is prakaar in sab vidhiyon se nikaale hue prakaashaveg ke maanon ka adhyayan kar ham kah sakte hain ki sabse yathaarth prakaashaveg maan 2,99,793.0 kimi. prati second hai.

taatparyateeka mein prakaash ka veg

vaachaspati mishr dvaara rachit taatparyateeka mein prakaash ke veg, aur uske dvait svabhaav ka ullekh hai.

saayanaachaarya ne prakaash ke veg ka ullekh kuchh is prakaar kiya hai-

yojanaanaan sahasre dve dve shate dve ch yojane .
eken nimishaardhen kramamaan namoऽstu te .
arthaat aadhe nimesh mein 2202 yojan ka maargakraman karne vaale prakaash tumhein namaskaar hai . ismein nimesh aur yojan ko sekend tatha kimi mein badalne par prakaash ka veg 299,938.5 km / s aata hai jo vartamaan mein maape gaye prakaash ke veg (299792458 mi/sekend) ke bahut sameep hai.[1]

sandarbh

  1. Light or Coincidence? by Subhash Kak, PhD

inhein bhi dekhein

  • dhvani ka veg

baahari kadiyaaain